THE CLINTON CURSE: SLAYING THE DRAGON OF DEBT

The Clinton Curse: Slaying the Dragon of Debt.

1997 Balanced Budget and Taxpayer Relief Act

SUMMARY:

The Balanced Budget Act of 1997 (a spending bill) and the Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997 (a tax bill) legislated the elimination of the annual budget deficit by 2002. Both bills were passed by Congress by large bipartisan majorities and signed into law by President Clinton prior to the August 1997 congressional recess.

DESCRIPTION:

Following difficult and highly partisan budget negotiations in 1993 (for the FY 1994 budget) and 1995 (for the FY 1996 budget), the negotiations in 1997 for the FY 1998 were marked largely by bipartisanship, even as the legislators and the President sought to produce the first balanced federal budget since 1969.

The Clinton Curse. A Balanced Budget vs Foreign Debt. Slaying the Dragon of Debt.

In my analysis, President Clinton did not create a Balanced Budget in 1997 for the first time since 1969. In fact, President Clinton violated the preachings of the Bible about Fiscal Policy. This Nation failed to receive the Blessings promised by LORD God. President Clinton foolishly chose to disobey God’s Commandments and invited the Curses promised by LORD God.

The Clinton Curse: Slaying the Dragon of Debt.
The Clinton Curse: Slaying the Dragon of Debt.

President Bill Clinton invoked the Curses promised by the LORD God for acts of disobedience of God in the formulation of the Fiscal Policy of the Nation.

The Clinton Curse: Slaying of the Dragon of Debt.

The United States has nothing to fall back in its fight to Slay the Dragon of Debt. The United States needs the promise of Prosperity to Slay the Dragon of Debt. I ask the US Congress to Repeal PRWORA, the Slavery Act of 1996 to correct the transgressions of President Bill Clinton’s Fiscal Policy.

Rudra Narasimham Rebbapragada

Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment

December 06. The Death of the 13th Amendment to the US Constitution. President Bill Clinton’s “A New Beginning” imposed the Death Sentence on the rights granted by the 13th Amendment.

U.S. deficit to eclipse $1 trillion in 2020, CBO says, as fiscal imbalance continues to widen

The Clinton Curse: Slaying of the Dragon of Debt. The U.S. Capitol seen through window reflections Jan. 27, 2020. (Patrick Semansky/AP)
 

By Jeff Stein 

Jan. 28, 2020 at 3:23 p.m. EST

The U.S. government’s budget deficit is projected to reach $1.02 trillion in 2020, according to a report released Tuesday by the nonpartisan Congressional Budget Office, as the federal government continues to spend much more than it collects in tax revenue.

A combination of the 2017 tax cuts and a surge in new spending has pushed the deficit wider. This year would mark the first time since 2012 that the deficit breached $1 trillion, a threshold that has alarmed some budget experts because deficits typically contract — not expand — during periods of sustained economic growth.

Overall, the CBO projected that the federal government will spend $4.6 trillion in the fiscal year that ends Sept. 30 and bring in $3.6 trillion in tax revenue.

And some of the costliest government programs are projected to experience expansions in the next decade. Spending for Medicare, which provides health care for older Americans, will rise from $835 billion in 2020 to $1.7 trillion by 2030, while annual federal spending on Social Security will grow from roughly $1.1 trillion to $1.9 trillion over that span.

The CBO’s estimates assume that Congress will allow tax cuts for individuals passed in Republicans’ 2017 tax law to expire in 2025. GOP lawmakers in Congress will at least try to extend most if not all of these provisions.

This year’s deficit would be an increase from 2019, when the government deficit grew to $984 billion. The deficit in 2016, President Barack Obama’s last full year in office, was $585 billion. CBO now projects that the deficit will be at least $1 trillion each year in perpetuity unless policymakers make changes.

The CBO also projected the economy would grow by 2.2 percent in 2020, which represents a healthy clip but falls short of the 3 percent target set by the Trump administration. The projections were contained in the CBO’s annual budget and economic outlook.

With rising annual deficits, the total debt held by the government is also projected to grow dramatically, from about $18 trillion in 2020 to $31 trillion in 2030, according to the CBO’s projections. The U.S. government must pay interest on this debt to keep borrowing money.

“The U.S. economy is doing well, with low unemployment and rising wages that have drawn people off the sidelines and back into the labor force,” Phillip L. Swagel, the CBO’s director, said in a statement. “But our projections also suggest that over the long-term, changes in fiscal policy must be made to address the budget situation.”

The deficit outlook appears slightly worse than it did just a year ago. In 2019, bipartisan majorities in Congress approved new spending bills that added more than $500 billion to the deficit over the next decade. The most expensive new policies were the permanent repeal of taxes created under Obama’s Affordable Care Act, including one on expensive health plans.

These actions would have done more to drive up the deficit had they not been mitigated by lower-than-expected interest rates, which allow the government to borrow money more cheaply than the CBO had originally anticipated.

The CBO projection also appears to cast doubt on recent statements by President Trump and other administration officials that the 2017 Republican tax cut is creating enough revenue through new economic growth that it will offset all near-term losses. White House officials have defended the $1.5 trillion tax legislation, which slashed tax rates for businesses and many households.

Tax revenue has risen slowly since the tax cuts were passed, but many forecasters say the cuts led to a sizable drop-off in projected revenue collections. Combined with an increase in spending, the deficit has ballooned, forcing the Treasury Department to borrow more money to cover the balance.

Trump, asked about the rising deficit following the tax cuts, told CNBC last year: “We’ve taken in more revenue substantially than we did when the taxes were high. Nobody can even believe it.”AD

Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin also expressed confidence the tax cut would not add to the nation’s debt, saying: “We’ve tracked the numbers, and we’re right on track.”

Trump has told aides he will look for big spending cuts in his second term, a position echoed by Mnuchin, who said government spending must be slowed down. Trump aides have also previewed a potential second round of tax cuts.

The CBO report shows that tax collections are weaker than they would be without the 2017 Republican tax law, which permanently locked in lower rates for many corporations while creating temporary reductions for households. Tax revenue remained roughly flat the first year the law was in effect, despite economic growth of nearly 3 percent. It rose slightly in 2019 but not enough to compensate for flatlining the year before.AD

Asked about Mnuchin’s remarks on Tuesday, Swagel pointed to CBO’s April 2018 analysis finding the GOP tax law would increase the deficit by $1.9 trillion over 10 years. That number accounts for the impact of faster economic growth due to the tax law. Swagel served as a Treasury official in George W. Bush’s administration and worked at the American Enterprise Institute, a conservative think-tank.

In January 2017, before the tax law, the CBO projected corporate tax revenue would represent 1.8 percent of gross domestic product. Now, they are expected to represent only 1.1 percent of GDP.

Many Republicans in recent years have abandoned the calls to slash spending in part because Trump has supported big increases in the budget. During the Obama administration, many Republicans insisted on spending cuts as a way to shrink the deficit. About half of the current deficit can be attributed to spending increases and tax cuts put in place by Congress since 2015, according to the nonpartisan Committee for a Responsible Federal Budget.AD

“This is an important warning light,” Marc Goldwein, a budget expert with the group, said of the CBO’s report. “We know deficits as a share of GDP have never been this high when the economy is this strong.”

Other economic experts played down the danger posed by the rising deficit. They noted the country is still extremely unlikely to default because of the supremacy of the U.S. dollar among international creditors, and that inflation — one of the potential hazards of high deficits — remains low by historical standards.

“There is simply no threat of inflation on the horizon,” said Robert C. Hockett, a professor at Cornell University who has advised Sens. Bernie Sanders (I-Vt.) and Elizabeth Warren (D-Mass.) on economic policy matters.

Still, Hockett castigated the Trump administration for not putting the higher deficits to better use. Republicans have said the tax cuts have juiced economic growth and boosted wages for U.S. workers, while Democrats have characterized them as a giveaway to the rich.

“Trump is wasting these deficits. It’s fine to engage in deficit spending, but Trump has used them to give tax cuts to billionaires, which does nothing to increase the well-being of the vast majority of Americans or improve the nation’s productivity,” Hockett said.

Headshot of Jeff Stein
Jeff Stein is a policy reporter for The Washington Post. He was a crime reporter for the Syracuse Post-Standard and, in 2014, founded the local news nonprofit the Ithaca Voice in Upstate New York. He was also a reporter for Vox
THE CLINTON CURSE: SLAYING THE DRAGON OF DEBT.

PEOPLE’S LIBERATION ARMY IN TIBET. HOW TO DISPATCH PLA SOLDIERS FROM LAKE MANASAROVAR TO SHANGHAI BEACH, THE BUDDHIST PARADISE ON THE SEA?

I describe ‘The Great Tibet Problem’ as its military occupation by People’s Liberation Army (PLA). The problem of occupation can be resolved by dispatching the PLA soldiers in Tibet to Shanghai Beach, the Buddhist Paradise on the Sea. Shanghai, on China’s central coast, is the country’s biggest and most-populous city and a global financial hub with world’s busiest seaport. Shanghai or its nickname “Mo Dou” is often translated as “Demon City”, “Sin City”, and “Magic City.”

Lake Manasarovar is among the world’s highest freshwater lakes. At an elevation of 4,583 meters, the lake covers 412 square kilometers. With the northern part broader than the southern end, the deepest point of the lake is over 70 meters. The lake is purer than a sapphire and one can see through dozens of meters into the lake. The lake is located in the Burang County, 20 km southeast of the Mount Kailash

Covering more than 400 square kilometers of waters, Lake Manasarovar is the world’s highest freshwater lake which is revered a sacred place in four religions: Bön, Buddhism, Hinduism and Jainism. With 4587 meters above sea level and the average water depth of 46 meters. In the Buddhist scriptures, only a lake is called “mother of the World Rivers”, and that refers to Lake Manasarovar. It means “invincible lake” in the Tibetan words. According to legend, Lake Manasarovar is the lake in which a great Tibetan monk saw the letters “Aha”, ” Kha”, ” Mha”. These three initials helped the search team to locate the current the 14th Dalai Lama of Tibet. The three initials stand for the province, the district, and the monastery in which the current Dalai Lama was born, i.e. Ahamdho, Khumbum, and Taktser respectively.

In Tibetan language, Manasarovar means “invincible lake”. In “Regions In Great Tang”, wrote by monk Xuanzang, Lake Manasarovar was regarded as the sacred Yaochi Lake of Nirvana. In the 11th century Buddhism won in the competition against the local Bon Religion and changed the lake’s name from “Machui Co” into “Manasarovar”, which means the “Invincible Lake”, in the hope of winning more believers in Tibet. In Tibetan Buddhism, it is believed that bathing with the water of Manasarovar will drive off avaricious desires, troubled thoughts and past sins; drinking the water will keep healthy and away from disease; while circling the lake will bring boundless beneficence to the pilgrims. Thus all the pilgrims to Tibet will come to Manasarovar and regard circling and drinking from the lake as their greatest fortune. Throughout the year, numerous pilgrims and visitors are attracted to the holy Mt. Kailash and the Lake Manasarovar. It is also 1 of 3 Holy Lakes in Tibet (the other 2 are Namtso Lake and Yamdrok Tso Lake).
The Indian poet Kalidasa once wrote that the waters of Lake Manasarovar are “like pearls” and that to drink them erases the “sins of a hundred lifetimes.” How to dispatch the PLA soldiers from Lake Manasarovar to Shanghai beach, the Buddhist Paradise on the Sea?
Lake Manasarovar, or Mapam Yumtso (Victorious Lake) in Tibetan, is the most venerated of Tibet’s many lakes and one of its most beautiful. How to dispatch the PLA soldiers from Lake Manasarovar to Shanghai beach, the Buddhist Paradise on the Sea?
Lake Manasarovar, meaning “Invincible Jasper Lake” in Tibetan, is located in Burang County, Ngari, Tibet and 30 kilometers (10 miles) southeast of Mount Kailash. With an altitude of 4,588 meters (15,049 feet), it is one of the highest freshwater lakes in the world. How to dispatch the PLA soldiers from Lake Manasarovar to Shanghai beach, the Buddhist Paradise on the Sea?
Soldiers patrol the border in snow in Tibet with the temperature dropping to minus thirty degrees Celsius on January 14, 2020. The sentry post, located near the Lake Manasarovar in Ngari prefecture has an average altitude of over 4,800 meters above sea level. (Photo: China News Service/ Liu Xiaodong/ Dang Hongbo) How to dispatch the PLA soldiers from Lake Manasarovar to Shanghai beach, the Buddhist Paradise on the Sea?
Soldiers patrol the border in snow in Tibet with the temperature dropping to minus thirty degrees Celsius on January 14, 2020. The sentry post, located near the Lake Manasarovar in Ngari prefecture has an average altitude of over 4,800 meters above sea level. (Photo: China News Service/ Liu Xiaodong/ Dang Hongbo) How to dispatch the PLA soldiers from Lake Manasarovar to Shanghai beach, the Buddhist Paradise on the Sea?
Soldiers patrol the border in snow in Tibet with the temperature dropping to minus thirty degrees Celsius on January 14, 2020. The sentry post, located near the Lake Manasarovar in Ngari prefecture has an average altitude of over 4,800 meters above sea level. (Photo: China News Service/ Liu Xiaodong/ Dang Hongbo) How to dispatch the PLA soldiers from Lake Manasarovar to Shanghai beach, the Buddhist Paradise on the Sea?
Soldiers patrol the border in snow in Tibet with the temperature dropping to minus thirty degrees Celsius on January 14, 2020. The sentry post, located near the Lake Manasarovar in Ngari prefecture has an average altitude of over 4,800 meters above sea level. (Photo: China News Service/ Liu Xiaodong/ Dang Hongbo) How to dispatch the PLA soldiers from Lake Manasarovar to Shanghai beach, the Buddhist Paradise on the Sea?
Soldiers patrol the border in snow in Tibet with the temperature dropping to minus thirty degrees Celsius on January 14, 2020. The sentry post, located near the Lake Manasarovar in Ngari prefecture has an average altitude of over 4,800 meters above sea level. (Photo: China News Service/ Liu Xiaodong/ Dang Hongbo) How to dispatch the PLA soldiers from Lake Manasarovar to Shanghai beach, the Buddhist Paradise on the Sea?
How to dispatch the PLA soldiers from Lake Manasarovar to Shanghai beach, the Buddhist Paradise on the Sea?
How to dispatch the PLA soldiers from Lake Manasarovar to Shanghai Beach, the Buddhist Paradise on the Sea?
How to dispatch the PLA soldiers from Lake Manasarovar to Shanghai Beach, the Buddhist Paradise on the Sea?
How to dispatch the PLA soldiers from Lake Manasarovar to Shanghai beach, the Buddhist Paradise on the Sea? Zhoushan is a well known beach and a tourist city.
It is more famous as a “Buddhist Paradise on the Sea.”
It offers some of the most beautiful scenery in Shanghai. Its blue water, golden sand, sparkling stones, islands and mountain peaks gives you a feeling of paradise.

In my analysis, Babylon mentioned in the New Testament Book Revelation, Chapters 17 and 18 is the code name for the Evil Empire represented by Beijing. The word “EVIL” means Calamity, Catastrophe, Disaster, Doom, or Apocalypse. A natural event will bring the sudden, unexpected downfall of the Evil Empire in one day forcing the retreat of all the military personnel from Occupied Tibet.

Revelation 18 is the eighteenth chapter of the Book of Revelation or the Apocalypse of John in the New Testament of the Bible. This chapter describes the Fall of Babylon the Great. In my view, Babylon is the code name for the Evil Empire represented by Beijing. How to dispatch the PLA soldiers from Lake Manasarovar to Shanghai beach, the Buddhist Paradise on the Sea? A natural calamity may force their retreat.

TIBET PROBLEM IS ON THE BACK BURNER WHILE TIBET IS WARMING UP UNDER OCCUPATION

TIBET PROBLEM IS ON THE BACK BURNER WHILE TIBET IS WARMING UP. UNDER OCCUPATION.

The great problem of Tibet is on the Back Burner while Tibet is warming up due to progress and development contributed by Tibet’s Occupation and Subjugation by a Colonialist Power.

Rudra Narasimham Rebbapragada

Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment

Tibet average temperature up 0.4 degrees Celsius every decade

The “roof of the world” has become warmer and wetter over the past 39 years, according to the climate center in Tibet.

Data from the Climate Bulletin of Tibet in 2019, released Thursday, shows that during the 1981-2019 period, the region’s annual average temperature rose 0.4 degrees Celsius every 10 years, while the annual precipitation was up 11.1 mm on average in a decade.

The average temperature of Tibet in 2019 was 5.2 degrees Celsius, 0.5 degrees higher than in normal years. The average precipitation was 468.4 mm last year, close to normal years’ 460.2 mm.

Ma Pengfei, an official with the climate center, said that in the context of global warming, the warming effect is more significant in the high-altitude Qinghai-Tibet Plateau than in other regions.

Coaches carrying herdsmen from Shuanghu County of Nagqu City run on a road while heading for relocation destinations in Tibet, Dec. 23, 2019. Tibet has built or renovated a total of 43,400 km of rural roads over the past five years, according to local authorities. The regional government has invested 95.7 billion yuan (around 13.7 billion U.S. dollars) over the period in paving modern roads to 2,276 villages, according to the regional transport department. (Xinhua/Chogo)

Photo taken on June 4, 2019 shows a road leading to the rural area in Qamdo City, Tibet. Tibet has built or renovated a total of 43,400 km of rural roads over the past five years, according to local authorities. The regional government has invested 95.7 billion yuan (around 13.7 billion U.S. dollars) over the period in paving modern roads to 2,276 villages, according to the regional transport department. (Xinhua/Jigme Dorje)

Aerial photo taken on Aug. 3, 2019 shows a road along the Pangong Tso lake in Ngari, Tibet. Tibet has built or renovated a total of 43,400 km of rural roads over the past five years, according to local authorities. The regional government has invested 95.7 billion yuan (around 13.7 billion U.S. dollars) over the period in paving modern roads to 2,276 villages, according to the regional transport department. (Xinhua/Jigme Dorje)

Aerial photo taken on Oct. 27, 2019 shows a long-span bridge on the Sichuan-Tibet Highway in Tangmai, Tibet. Tibet has built or renovated a total of 43,400 km of rural roads over the past five years, according to local authorities. The regional government has invested 95.7 billion yuan (around 13.7 billion U.S. dollars) over the period in paving modern roads to 2,276 villages, according to the regional transport department. (Xinhua/Sun Fei)

Tibet is warming up under Occupation. Electricians work on power transmission facilities in Nakarze county, Lhokha city in Tibet, Aug 27, 2019. [Photo/sipaphoto/com]
TIBET CONSCIOUSNESS – TIBET PROBLEM ON THE BACK BURNER SINCE 1850s WHILE TIBET IS WARMING UP UNDER OCCUPATION.


RELOCATION AND REHOUSING OF TIBETAN HERDERS.THE TIBETAN RESETTLEMENT PROGRAMS OF OCCUPIED TIBET

Photo taken on Dec. 23, 2019 in the south bank of the Yarlung Zangbo River, shows new houses built for herders migrating from Shuanghu County, Nagchu City, Tibet. A total of 2,900 residents from three villages of Shuanghu County, have recently left their hometown with an average altitude of 5,000 meters above sea level and travelled nearly 1,000 kilometers to resettle in Konggar County, which, at a relatively low altitude, is located to the south bank of the Yarlung Zangbo River in southern Tibet. (Xinhua/Chogo)

Tibetans who practically enjoyed full independence in their living styles are getting regrouped using mass relocation and rehousing programs making the Tibetan herders to live in resettlement camps in occupied Tibet.

Since 2006, the Chinese government has implemented large-scale programs to “rehouse”—through renovation of existing houses or construction of new ones—a majority of the rural population of the Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) under a policy called “Comfortable Housing.” In parallel, the government has accelerated the relocation and sedentarization of nomadic herders in the eastern part of the Tibetan plateau, mostly in Qinghai province, and laid the ground for similar policies in other parts of the plateau. Both policies are a component of the government’s effort to “Build a New Socialist Countryside” in Tibetan areas, which the government says is designed to rapidly increase the living standards of rural Tibetans and boost the local economy.

There are host of common issues associated with the New Socialist Villages policy. These common issues include:

  • The involuntary character of many relocation and rehousing programs;
  • The absence of genuine prior consultation with affected communities;
  • The lack of meaningful avenues for challenging or seeking remedies for wrongful eviction orders;
  • Inadequate and opaque compensation mechanisms;
  • Problems with the quality of houses in which communities are resettled or rehoused;
  • Increased financial burdens and indebtedness resulting from relocation and/or reconstruction of housing; and
  • The loss of tangible and intangible assets and dissolution of communities.
An 80-year-old herder (C) migrated from Shuanghu County, Nagchu City,Tibet, stands in front of her new home with relatives on Dec. 23, 2019. A total of 2,900 residents from three villages of Shuanghu County, have recently left their hometown with an average altitude of 5,000 meters above sea level and travelled nearly 1,000 kilometers to resettle in Konggar County, which, at a relatively low altitude, is located to the south bank of the Yarlung Zangbo River in southern Tibet. (Xinhua/Chogo)
Photo taken on Dec. 23, 2019 shows a fleet of buses carrying herders migrating from Shuanghu County, Nagchu City, Tibet. A total of 2,900 residents from three villages of Shuanghu County, have recently left their hometown with an average altitude of 5,000 meters above sea level and travelled nearly 1,000 kilometers to resettle in Konggar County, which, at a relatively low altitude, is located to the south bank of the Yarlung Zangbo River in southern Tibet. (Xinhua/Chogo)
Photo taken on Dec. 23, 2019 shows a fleet of trucks carrying belongings of herders migrating from Shuanghu County, Nagchu City, Tibet. A total of 2,900 residents from three villages of Shuanghu County, have recently left their hometown with an average altitude of 5,000 meters above sea level and travelled nearly 1,000 kilometers to resettle in Konggar County, which, at a relatively low altitude, is located to the south bank of the Yarlung Zangbo River in southern Tibet. (Xinhua/Chogo)
Photo taken on Dec. 23, 2019 shows herders of Shuanghu County, Nagchu City, Tibet, on their migration trip. A total of 2,900 residents from three villages of Shuanghu County, have recently left their hometown with an average altitude of 5,000 meters above sea level and travelled nearly 1,000 kilometers to resettle in Konggar County, which, at a relatively low altitude, is located to the south bank of the Yarlung Zangbo River in southern Tibet. (Xinhua/Chogo)
Photo taken on Dec. 23, 2019, shows a 7-month-old baby from Shuanghu County, Nagchu City,Tibet, on the migration trip. A total of 2,900 residents from three villages of Shuanghu County, have recently left their hometown with an average altitude of 5,000 meters above sea level and travelled nearly 1,000 kilometers to resettle in Konggar County, which, at a relatively low altitude, is located to the south bank of the Yarlung Zangbo River in southern Tibet. (Xinhua/Chogo)
Photo taken on Dec. 23, 2019 shows a fleet of trucks carrying belongings of herders migrating from Shuanghu County, Nagchu City, Tibet. A total of 2,900 residents from three villages of Shuanghu County, have recently left their hometown with an average altitude of 5,000 meters above sea level and travelled nearly 1,000 kilometers to resettle in Konggar County, which, at a relatively low altitude, is located to the south bank of the Yarlung Zangbo River in southern Tibet. (Xinhua/Chogo)
Photo taken on Dec. 23, 2019 shows a fleet of buses carrying herders migrating from Shuanghu County, Nagchu City, Tibet. A total of 2,900 residents from three villages of Shuanghu County, have recently left their hometown with an average altitude of 5,000 meters above sea level and travelled nearly 1,000 kilometers to resettle in Konggar County, which, at a relatively low altitude, is located to the south bank of the Yarlung Zangbo River in southern Tibet. (Xinhua/Chogo)
Photo taken on Dec. 23, 2019 shows a fleet of buses carrying herders migrating from Shuanghu County, Nagchu City, Tibet. A total of 2,900 residents from three villages of Shuanghu County, have recently left their hometown with an average altitude of 5,000 meters above sea level and travelled nearly 1,000 kilometers to resettle in Konggar County, which, at a relatively low altitude, is located to the south bank of the Yarlung Zangbo River in southern Tibet. (Xinhua/Chogo)


The report by Human Rights Watch describes the Chinese government’s relocation of Tibetans as “forcible”, not because they have evidence that officials are using physical force to remove residents from their old homes, but because they are offering them no alternatives. Under international law, the term “forced eviction” does not require the physical removal of residents from their homes. It also applies to evictions that lack meaningful consultation and compensation, or in which no alternatives to relocation have been presented. Chinese government relocation and rehousing policies and practices effectively compel communities to follow government orders or—in the case of nomadic communities—to move into fixed settlements through policies that are presented as having the force of law.

The Resettlement Programs of Occupied Tibet.

A HYPOTHETICAL CATACLYSMIC EVENT TO RESTORE TIBET EQUILIBRIUM

Tibet Equilibrium – Balance of Power – Future of Red China’s Evil Power. Consequences for Evil actions. Beijing is Doomed by the Prophecy of Isaiah.

Tibetans enjoyed a sense of peace, harmony, and tranquility or of equilibrium for several centuries as a gift from Mother Nature. The geographical isolation, the inhospitable terrain, and climate protected Tibetans from attacks by hostile, foreign forces. However, about 70 years ago, the natural defenses of Tibet utterly failed to resist the onslaught of Communist China’s military expansionism.

TIBET EQUILIBRIUM – BALANCE OF POWER IN OCCUPIED TIBET. THE GREAT TIBET PROBLEM WILL EXIST UNTIL BALANCE OF POWER IS RESTORED IN OCCUPIED TIBET.

I characterize myself as an advocate of a Doomsday Event, a natural cataclysmic event that will restore the balance of power in the Land of Tibet without the need for the application of man’s physical power to counteract against the physical power of China.

Arrogant nation, pride and might of Evil Red Empire

In my analysis, a cataclysmic event will affect mainland China and as a consequence, China would cease its military occupation of Tibet fully restoring Tibet equilibrium which prevails as a natural event entirely shaped by Natural Factors, Natural Conditions, and Natural Mechanisms.

Cataclysmic events are strong stressors that occur suddenly and typically affect many people at the same time. For example plane crashes or tornadoes. Personal stressors include life events such as personal failure, the death of a parent or the loss of one’s job.

Something that’s cataclysmic is violently destructive. The word often refers to natural disasters, like a cataclysmic earthquake, but cataclysmic can describe other events

Cataclysm is derived from the Greek κατά kata, “down, against” and κλύζω klyzō, “wash over, surge.” It may refer to: Deluge (mythology); a hypothetical Doomsday event; any catastrophic geological phenomenon.

THE FUTURE OF RED CHINA’S EXPANSIONISM – BEIJING DOOMED.

I am reproducing an article describing 17 Cataclysmic Events that Changed the Earth forever.

17 Cataclysmic Events That Changed the Earth Forever

By Michael B. Sauter and Thomas C. Frohlich November 15, 2019, 1:37 pm Print Email Share

Since the Earth was formed roughly 4.5 billion years ago, it has gone through dozens of major cataclysmic events, including the eruption of supervolcanoes, impacts by comets and asteroids, major tectonic shifts, exposure to cosmic radiation, and more. Most of these took place long before homo sapiens ever walked the Earth.

Some of these events were so violent that they directly ushered in new geologic periods. These were often accompanied by ice ages, mass extinction events, or conversely warming and ecological flourishing. These periods left lasting, major changes to the planet’s species, continental structure, and atmospheric composition. 

For those concerned about the looming threat of global climate change, these events, many of which are now millions of years old, bear grim relevance to today. 

The major extinction events that occurred since life began on Earth, in the majority of cases, share a few attributes, including major changes in CO2 levels and other gases like methane and sulfur dioxide in the atmosphere and an increase in ocean acidification, which can result from higher CO2 levels. 

Since the Industrial Revolution, both carbon concentration in the atmosphere and ocean acidification is increasing at far faster levels than can be explained by cyclical changes. Ocean acidity has increased by 30%, and CO2 levels have roughly doubled compared to preindustrial levels, and the result is the endangerment of tens of thousands of species.

Currently, the planet’s flora and fauna are dying at a much faster rate than is normal in nature. Scientists have warned we could be in the midst of a sixth major extinction event, which unlike previous extinction events is caused by human activity and could worsen if human-related greenhouse gas emissions continue unchecked. 

To compile a list of the largest geological forces in Earth’s history, 24/7 Wall St. reviewed publications in scientific journals focusing on cataclysmic events in Earth’s history that resulted in sudden, abrupt, and massive environmental impacts. For each event where the date of occurrence can only be estimated, we list the rough number of years it is believed to have occurred before today, and for events where the exact year of the occurrence is known, the year is written out with A.D. notation. 

A cataclysmic event is one that changes a situation or society in a very significant manner, especially in an unpleasant way.

1. Collision with Theia
> Era: 4.5 billion years ago

1. Collision with Theia
> Era: 4.5 billion years ago

According to the prevailing theory on the Moon’s origin, roughly 4.5 billion years ago, the relatively young Earth — just 100 million years old at that point — collided with a Mars-sized planet-like object called Theia. The head-on collision ejected tons of molten material into the Earth’s atmosphere, which for a time after is believed to have been made up of plasma-metal vapor. The debris eventually congealed and formed Earth’s moon.

2. The Great Oxidation Event
> Era: 2.5 billion years ago

2. The Great Oxidation Event
> Era: 2.5 billion years ago

It is believed that between 2.5 billion and 2.3 billion years ago, life on Earth was largely confined to the oceans. Around that time, a massive bloom of an algae-like bacteria called cyanobacteria appeared, saturating the Earth in oxygen. Because most bacteria at the time did not metabolize oxygen, many bacteria species died out. The abundance of oxygen, in a chemical reaction, helped reduce the levels of methane in the atmosphere, cooling the Earth down significantly.

3. Vredefort impact
> Era: 2 billion years ago

Source: Júlio Reis / NASA / Wikimedia Commons

3. Vredefort impact
> Era: 2 billion years ago

Approximately 2 billion years ago, an asteroid somewhere between 3 miles and 6 miles in diameter struck the Earth in what is now South Africa at an estimated 12 miles per second. The resulting crater is 118 miles in diameter and was originally a magma lake formed from the energy of the collision. An impact of this size would certainly have caused major changes in the composition of the Earth’s atmosphere.

4. Sudbury Basin impact
> Era: 1.8 billion years ago

Source: NASA World Wind / Wikimedia Commons

4. Sudbury Basin impact
> Era: 1.8 billion years ago

The Sudbury Basin in Ontario, Canada, is one of the three largest impact craters on Earth, measuring 18 miles by 37 miles. Unlike some other major impacts, scientists believe the basin was formed by a comet rather than an asteroid. The impact was so intense that it formed a hole in the crust of the Earth, which subsequently filled with magma.

5. Acraman impact
> Era: 580 million years ago

Source: NASA World Wind / Wikimedia Commons

5. Acraman impact
> Era: 580 million years ago

Roughly 56 miles in diameter, the Acraman crater in South Australia is one of the largest on Earth. Approximately 580 million years ago, an asteroid with an estimated diameter of 2.9 miles hit the site. The effects of the impact on the atmosphere, coupled with a period of glaciation, may have had a substantial impact on the course of evolution at the time.

6. Events leading to Ordovician extinction
> Era: 440 million years ago

6. Events leading to Ordovician extinction
> Era: 440 million years ago

The Ordovician period ended some 440 million years ago, coinciding with the beginning of an ice age. An estimated 85% of all animal species on Earth died out, making it a larger extinction event than the K-T extinction (the event known to result in the extinction of the dinosaurs). While the Ice Age is generally accepted as the primary cause for the mass die-out, one theory suggests that during this period the Earth was bathed in deadly gamma radiation, which would have directly killed many of earth’s inhabitants, and also filled the atmosphere with nitrogen dioxide and create conditions that might have been the catalyst for the ice age that occurred.

7. Eruption leading to the Permian extinction
> Era: 252 million years ago

7. Eruption leading to the Permian extinction
> Era: 252 million years ago

Approximately 252 million years ago, about 90% of life on Earth died out. This event often referred to as “The Great Dying” is the single largest extinction event in Earth’s history. The catalyst for the mass extinction is believed to be an explosion of volcanic activity in what is now Siberia. The explosion put over 700,000 cubic miles of ash into the atmosphere, which could have raised global temperatures by an average of approximately 18 F. The rise in temperatures and other atmospheric changes, including acid rain, devastated Earth’s species.

Underwater eruption leading to End-Triassic extinction
> Era: 201 million years ago

8. Underwater eruption leading to End-Triassic extinction
> Era: 201 million years ago

Around 200 million years ago, the supercontinent of Pangaea was breaking up. In what was the newly forming Atlantic Ocean, a range of undersea volcanoes were releasing tons of gases and lava into the ocean and atmosphere.. The massive volume of carbon and sulfur released into the atmosphere likely catalyzed a massive global extinction event in which 76% of all terrestrial and marine species were lost.

9. Chicxulub impact
> Era: 65 million years ago

Source: Elenarts / Getty Images

9. Chicxulub impact
> Era: 65 million years ago

In what may have been the largest meteorite collision in Earth’s history, a 186-mile-in-diameter asteroid strike is believed to have caused the extinction of the dinosaurs 65 million years ago.

The impact crater is located in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. The environmental effects of the impact were likely immediate intense radiation, earthquakes, tsunamis, and mass burial under the ejected matter. Over the course of months, effects were likely massive wildfires and acid rain; years of ozone loss and cooling temperatures; and decades of greenhouse warming.

10. Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum
> Era: 56 million years ago

Source: Muni Yogeshwaran / Getty Images

10. Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum
> Era: 56 million years ago

The PETM is considered one of the best ancient examples of modern climate change. During this 15 thousand to 20 thousand-year period around 56 million years ago, the Earth warmed by about 5 C due to increase in CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere. At the peak of the PETM, the oceans are thought to have been as warm as nearly 70 F off the coast of what is now Antarctica.

11. Yellowstone eruptions
> Era: 2.1 million years ago, 1.2 million years ago, 640,000 years ago

11. Yellowstone eruptions
> Era: 2.1 million years ago, 1.2 million years ago, 640,000 years ago

Yellowstone National Park, now a popular tourist destination, has been the source of three cataclysmic volcanic eruptions, occurring 2.1 million years ago, 1.2 million years ago, and 640,000 years ago. While the first of these was the most powerful, the most recent was still extremely strong, producing an estimated 1,000 cubic kilometers, or about 240 cubic miles of ash and magma, or about 4,000 times as much material as in the eruption of Mount St. Helens.

12. Toba eruption
> Era: 74,000 years ago

Source: NASA / Wikimedia Commons

12. Toba eruption
> Era: 74,000 years ago

Around 72,000 B.C., the Toba supervolcano in Sumatra, Indonesia, erupted. The eruption may have ejected over 670 cubic miles of material into the atmosphere, thousands of times more than the ash and magma released during the eruption of Mount St. Helens in 1980. The event likely plunged the Earth into cold and relative darkness for years afterward.

13. Mount Thera eruption
> Era: 3,600 years ago

Source: Rolfsteinar / Wikimedia Commons

13. Mount Thera eruption
> Era: 3,600 years ago

In what are now the Aegean Islands near the Greek Island of Santorini, Mount Thera erupted around 1610 B.C. The blast, which may have been equivalent to hundreds of atomic bombs, is one of the largest explosions witnessed by humans. The sulfur dioxide the explosion released into the atmosphere likely had a substantial impact on the world’s climate.

Tree rings in Taxodium distich... by James St. John
14. Huaynaputina eruption
> Era: 1600 A.D.

Tree rings in Taxodium distich… (CC BY 2.0) by James St. John

14. Huaynaputina eruption
> Era: 1600 A.D.

In a recent paper on the aftermath of the Huaynaputina eruption published in Nature, a team of geologists noted there were several climate discrepancies in the year 1601, indicating a possible much wider impact on the volcano eruption may have had. Tree-ring analysis suggested sulfur particles may have caused the Northern Hemisphere’s coldest year in 600 years. Other examples of volatile climate in 1601 include altered wind patterns demonstrated by unusual ship routes, record flooding, snowfall, poor harvests, and famine.

15. Tambora eruption
> Era: 1815 A.D.

Source: Jialiang Gao / Wikimedia Commons

15. Tambora eruption
> Era: 1815 A.D.

In 1815, Mt. Tambora on Sumbawa Island in Indonesia erupted in one of the most intense volcanic eruptions experienced in human history. The blast killed at least 70,000 people and was so powerful that the sound was heard over 1,200 miles away. The ejecta released by Tambora filled the atmosphere with ash, radically disrupting global weather patterns. Many referred to 1816 as “The Year Without a Summer.” It was during that summer that Mary Shelley, weathering the dreary conditions in Switzerland with other noted authors, including her husband Percy Shelley and Lord Byron, developed the story that would become “Frankenstein: or, the Modern Prometheus.”

16. Krakatoa eruption
> Era: 1883 A.D.

16. Krakatoa eruption
> Era: 1883 A.D.

While not as substantial as some of the other volcanic events to make this list, the famous explosion of the Indonesian island of Krakatoa on Aug. 26, 1883, was still a devastating global event, killing over 36,000 people and sending material 50 miles into the air with a blast 10,000 times that of the Hiroshima atomic bomb. Most of the deaths were caused by the massive tsunamis that resulted from the eruption, including one that was 120 feet high. The six cubic miles of debris sent into the atmosphere had widespread effects on global weather patterns.

17. Spike in CO2 from human activity
> Era: 1900 to present

17. Spike in CO2 from human activity
> Era: 1900 to present

Nature no longer seems immune to the influence of human beings. In 1988, the scientific community revealed to the general public the problem of global warming from human-caused CO2 emissions that the oil company Exxon had detected as early as 1977. The warming caused by these emissions — from the burning of fossil fuels, cement production, deforestation practices, and so on — have contributed to about 37 billion metric tons of carbon dioxide emissions in 2018. This was the record to date for annual emissions, which will continue to increase as long as we continue on our current course.

Current global concentrations of three major greenhouse gases — CO2, CH4, and N2O — are well more than double pre-industrial levels (pre-1750). Since then, trillions of tons of CO2 have been added to the atmosphere by human activities, resulting in warming of slightly less than 1 C. The warming has caused large and relatively dramatic changes to the Earth, including sea-level rise and extreme weather events. Scientists pointed out in a recent report in the journal Nature Climate Change that human-caused effects on the planet will “extend longer than the entire history of human civilization thus far.”

By Michael B. Sauter and Thomas C. Frohlich

A Cataclysmic Event will bring the sudden downfall of an arrogant nation, Evil Red Empire. Isaiah 47

DECEMBER 06. THE DEATH OF THE 13th AMENDMENT TO THE US CONSTITUTION

December 06. The Death of the 13th Amendment to the US Constitution. President Bill Clinton’s “A New Beginning” imposed the Death Sentence on the rights granted by the 13th Amendment.

The 13th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, ratified in 1865 in the aftermath of the Civil War, abolished slavery in the United States. The 13th Amendment states: “Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.”

On January 31, 1865, the House of Representatives passed the proposed amendment with a vote of 119-56, just over the required two-thirds majority. The following day, President Lincoln approved a joint resolution of Congress submitting it to the state legislatures for ratification.

But President Lincoln would not see final ratification: Lincoln was assassinated on April 14, 1865, and the necessary number of states did not ratify the 13th Amendment until December 6, 1865.

SOCIAL SECURITY ACT, SECTION 202(y), VIOLATES THE US CONSTITUTION, 13th AMENDMENT

Social Security Act, Section. 202(y) violates the US Constitution, 13th Amendment.

At a ceremony held in Emancipation Hall of the United States Capitol Visitor Center on Wednesday, December 09, 2015, President Barack Obama and leaders of Congress commemorated the 150th Anniversary of the 13th Amendment to the US Constitution. House Speaker Paul Ryan in his remarks stated that the Constitution is Supreme Law of the Land. The 13th Amendment is just 43 words long. I want to examine if those 43 words govern, rule, and operate the lives of all inhabitants of this Land.

My readers should not be surprised if I describe the US Congress as “Slave Driver.” The reason for my claim is based on a law enacted by the US Congress in 1996 that amended the US Social Security Act of 1935. This legal provision enacted by Congress is incorporated as Section 202(y) of the Social Security Act: 

Social Security Act §202

OLD-AGE AND SURVIVORS INSURANCE BENEFIT PAYMENTS:(y) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, no monthly benefit under this title shall be payable to any alien in the United States for any month during which such alien is not lawfully present in the United States as determined by the Attorney General.

It mandates that no benefits shall be payable to any alien in the United States without showing proof of lawful residency as determined by the Attorney General. This law violates the principle enshrined in those 43 words called the 13th Amendment. US Congress enacted legislation amending Social Security Act and that amended Social Security Act is fundamentally flawed for it is unconstitutional. It takes away the property rights of individuals residing in this country. The government can impose taxes on citizens and aliens residing in the country. The Old Age Insurance Monthly Benefit paid by the Social Security Administration is not a tax; the Monthly Benefit constitutes income or property of the individual who contributed to the Insurance Plan.

The Emancipation Proclamation issued by President Abraham Lincoln in September 1862 came into effect on January 01, 1863 freeing slaves in all territory still at War with the Union. These slaves are not citizens of the Land and had no political rights or citizenship rights of their own. For all practical purposes, the slaves who lived in the US were aliens for they were not citizens of the US. 

In Law, Servitude or Slavery refers to the burden imposed upon property of a person by a specified right another has in its use. Servitude involves labor in which the person who performs labor has no right to his earnings from labor. The amended Social Security Act unconstitutionally gives power to the Social Security Administration to withhold property(wage, earnings, monthly retirement income benefits) of alien workers without obtaining formal approval by the US Court of Law. This amended Social Security Act does not uphold the Constitution as the Supreme Law of this Land.

Rudra Narasimham Rebbapragada

Ann Arbor, MI 48104-4162 USA
SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE-ESTABLISHMENT No. 22-VIKAS REGIMENT

Social Security Act, Section. 202(y) violates the 13th Amendment. President Barack Obama delivers remarks at an event commemorating the 150th anniversary of the 13th Amendment abolishing slavery, at the U.S. Capitol in Washington, D.C., Dec. 9, 2015. (Official White House Photo by Lawrence Jackson)
Social Security Act, Section. 202(y) violates the 13th Amendment. President Barack Obama delivers remarks at an event commemorating the 150th anniversary of the 13th Amendment abolishing slavery, at the U.S. Capitol in Washington, D.C., Dec. 9, 2015. (Official White House Photo by Lawrence Jackson)

Speaker.gov

The 150th Anniversary of the 13th Amendment

December 9, 2015, |Speaker Ryan’s Press Office

WASHINGTON – Earlier today, at a ceremony in Emancipation Hall of the United States Capitol Visitor Center, President Obama and leaders of Congress commemorated the 150th anniversary of the 13th amendment to the Constitution. Following are House Speaker Paul Ryan’s (R-WI) remarks at the ceremony, as prepared for delivery:
The Thirteenth Amendment is just 43 words long. It is so short that, when you read it, you can almost miss the whole significance. You have to stop and remind yourself that 600,000 people died in the Civil War—600,000 died over 43 words. Or to be more precise, they died in a war that decided whether those 43 words would ever be written.

And not everyone supported the Thirteenth Amendment. There was fierce opposition. But I think it is telling that when the state of Maryland held a referendum to abolish slavery, it was the votes of Union soldiers that put it over the top. It was the men who had been in the field and heard the battle cries and seen heroic deeds. They knew, better than most, that everyone in that field was an American.

A private in the 89th Illinois put it best. He wrote, “I have often [heard] of men say that they would not fight beside a negro soldier but . . . the whites and blacks charged together and they fell just as well as [we] did. . . . I have seen a great [many] fighting for our country. Then why should they not be free[?]”

It took a war for us to answer that question. We should be honest with ourselves. It took centuries of cruelty and injustice. But today we celebrate the moment when our country decided: Yes, they should be free. They would be free. And we thought this decision was so important that for the first time in half a century, we amended the Constitution. From then on, it would be the supreme law of the land.

And so today we celebrate this 43-word amendment, this “new birth of freedom.” “It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this.” And we should remember all that it took: the historic battles, the great generals, yes—but also the men in the ranks, the names we have forgotten, especially the men who had once been enslaved: men like William H. Carney and Andrew Jackson Smith.

These men were segregated. They were mistreated. And yet they still fought. They fought for a country that had denied them their freedom. They fought for all of us. And so when we read those 43 short and simple words, we should remember these men and what they did. We should realize those words, like their acts, are gallant, noble, profound. We have witnessed true greatness in this country. And when we ratified the Thirteenth Amendment, we committed ourselves to build a country just as great.

That is what those 43 words mean. That is what they represent. And that is more than worthy of celebration. Thank you.

Tags: U.S. Capitol, Ceremony, Constitution

 

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Copyright © 2015 Office of the Speaker of the House

Social Security Act, Section. 202(y) violates the US Constitution, 13th Amendment.
Social Security Act, Section. 202(y) violates the US Constitution, 13th Amendment.

CHINA IS NATO’S NEW ADVERSARY

CHINA IS NATO’S NEW ADVERSARY.

CHINA IS NATO’S NEW ADVERSARY

Special Frontier Force, the military alliance between Tibet, India, and the US is primarily concerned with the security challenges posed by China’s expansionist doctrine in South Asia.

In my analysis, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization or NATO will not be able to defend Europe without addressing the problem of China’s military expansionism.

Rudra Narasimham Rebbapragada
Ann Arbor, MI 48104-4162 USA
SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE-ESTABLISHMENT No. 22-VIKAS REGIMENT

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CHINA IS NATO’S NEW ADVERSARY.
Today's WorldView

BY ISHAAN THAROOR

Is China NATO’s new adversary?

Chinese President Xi Jinping at the Oct. 1 military parade in Beijing celebrating the 70th anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic of China. (Asahi Shimbun/Getty Images)
CHINA IS NATO’S NEW ADVERSARY.

Chinese President Xi Jinping at the Oct. 1 military parade in Beijing celebrating the 70th anniversary of the founding of the People’s Republic of China. (Asahi Shimbun/Getty Images)

The West’s most venerable military alliance is marking its 70th birthday this week in Britain. And it’s going to be awkward. Leaders of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, including President Trump, will gather at Buckingham Palace on Tuesday before a rushed single meeting at an 18th-century estate outside London on Wednesday. The proceedings have been choreographed to minimize friction in an increasingly fractious group, one in which Trump’s frustrations with the alliance are hardly the sole source of tension.

Still, a NATO diplomat confided in my colleague Michael Birnbaum, “There’s a 50-50 chance that this goes south.”

Perhaps the pessimism is unwarranted. Seven decades after NATO’s founding, its 29 member states account for about half of the world’s military spending and close to half of the world’s GDP. By any calculation, it’s a formidable alliance. But differences within the bloc are becoming pronounced. French President Emmanuel Macron, for one, wants to see NATO shift away from being a Cold War-era bulwark against Russia to a more nimble security organization geared to countering terrorism.

Since coming to power, Trump has also taken a different tack, calling into question the necessity of the alliance, raging over the inadequacy of European defense spending and scrapping a key nuclear treaty with Moscow that helped shield Europe. Yet, this week, he’s expected to emphasize the need for NATO to take on a new adversary and rising 21st-century superpower — China. In the run-up to the summit, U.S. officials pointed to China as a “very strong competitor” that needs to be effectively brought to heel.

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CHINA IS NATO’S NEW ADVERSARY.

NATO officials are also getting more vocal about how China fits into the bloc’s strategic deliberations. In an interview with CNBC on Monday, NATO Secretary-General Jens Stoltenberg said China was “shifting the global balance of power” and presenting Western policymakers with “some opportunities but also some serious challenges.” He added that the alliance — a transatlantic pact — was not focused on engaging China in its own Pacific backyard but elsewhere in the world. European politicians have also recognized that the alliance has to reckon with Beijing. “China is set to become the subject of the 21st century on both sides of the Atlantic,” German Foreign Minister Heiko Maas said in a speech in Washington in April. “China is a challenge on almost every topic. It is important to gain a better understanding of what that implies for NATO.”

“There’s no way that NATO will move into the South China Sea, but we have to address the fact that China is coming closer to us, investing heavily in infrastructure,” Stoltenberg said. “We see them in Africa, we see them in the Arctic, we see them in cyberspace, and China now has the second-largest defense budget in the world.”

That may be music to the Trump administration’s ears, which sees itself at the start of a decades-long, high-tech contest with Beijing. With varying success, Secretary of State Mike Pompeo has clamored for European nations to resist Chinese investments in the continent’s digital infrastructure, particularly in the development of 5G wireless networks that will underlie a whole new world of advanced technologies, including artificial intelligence, autonomous vehicles, and smart grids.

“With so much on the line, it’s urgent that trustworthy companies build these 21st-century information arteries,” Pompeo wrote in an op-ed for Politico Europe. “Specifically, it’s critical that European countries not give control of their critical infrastructure to Chinese tech giants like Huawei, or ZTE.”

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CHINA IS NATO’S NEW ADVERSARY.

The Chinese are predictably unimpressed by suggestions of a confrontation with NATO. “European nations are now faced with two options: blindly following the U.S. or cooperating with China despite U.S. preaching,” noted an editorial in Global Times, a strident English-language Chinese state mouthpiece. “Making this choice will only turn Europe … into a U.S. puppet. Is this a scenario the once strongest continent wants to see? And if European countries shut their door on China’s 5G technology, will they be able to bear the potential losses?”

Analysts in Washington aren’t reading too much into the current atmospherics. In a briefing call with reporters, Michael O’Hanlon of the Brookings Institution said that Trump has “acted so unilaterally” in his tariff showdowns with China and Europe that it’s “hard to imagine” any substantial strategic decisions being forged through a multilateral body such as NATO.

Then there is a range of internal disagreements on the continent, where a number of countries have already become beachheads for significant Chinese investment and influence. “I think the question isn’t so much whether or not NATO as an alliance has the internal coherence to face China with a united front, but if Europe as a whole has that coherence, and, what is NATO’s role here?” Rachel Rizzo, the adjunct fellow at the Center for New American Security, told Today’s WorldView. “Obviously, China is a growing challenge and so it’s wise for the alliance to discuss how it might play a role in Europe’s future strategy, but I think NATO leaders are cognizant of the fact that they shouldn’t go out in search of monsters to destroy.”
China said Monday that it would sanction U.S.-based nonprofit organizations, including the National Endowment for Democracy and Human Rights Watch, in retaliation for new U.S. legislation that supports Hong Kong’s protesters. China also will suspend rest-and-recuperation visits to Hong Kong by U.S. military ships and aircraft, a Chinese foreign ministry spokeswoman said, adding that further moves are possible.

CHINA IS NATO’S NEW ADVERSARY.

THE PROBLEM OF KASHMIR UNDERMINES INDIA-TIBET RELATIONS

The Disputed Territory : Shown in green is Kas...
The Disputed Territory: Shown in green is the Kashmiri region under Pakistani occupation. The orange-brown region represents Indian-controlled Jammu and Kashmir while the Aksai Chin is under Chinese occupation. The entire territory is the Indian Union State of Jammu and Kashmir. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

REMEMBERING A WAR: THE 1962 INDIA – CHINA WAR – THE WAR’S TOP SECRET:

REMEMBERING A WAR: THE 1962 INDIA-CHINA WAR: This is a photo image taken in 1972, ten years after the 1962 War, while I proudly served the Nation in North East Frontier Agency. There was no schism or division among the Officers Corps. The Men and the Officers were totally united and were fully motivated to fight the Enemy and we had patrolled the border along the McMahon Line and went beyond the border for Operational reasons. There was no Fear and we were Prepared for the Challenge.
REMEMBERING THE 1962 INDIA – CHINA WAR: Communist China apart from its illegal military occupation of Tibet during 1949-50, had illegally occupied Indian territory in Aksai Chin Region of Ladakh Province in the State of Jammu and Kashmir prior to its sudden, military attack during 1962 all along the Himalayan Frontier. India’s Prime Minister Jawaharlal  Nehru could not request military assistance from the United States as the US considers Kashmir as the territory entitled to Pakistan,
REMEMBERING THE 1962 INDIA – CHINA WAR : The McMahon Line in India’s North-East Frontier Agency or the State of Arunachal Pradesh. The Top Secret of 1962 War is the number of Chinese soldiers that were killed and injured during their military attack. Communist China must take courage and admit the true numbers. This War was not a total loss. India learned its lesson. We had a spectacular Military Victory during 1971 during our Bangladesh Liberation War.
REMEMBERING A WAR – THE 1962 INDIA-CHINA WAR: India’s Spiritual response to the plight of Tibetans is the real cause of the 1962 India-China War. In this photo image dated September 04, 1959, Indira Gandhi, daughter of India’s Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru is seen with His Holiness Dalai Lama. I take absolute pride at this moment and if War is the price to defend Tibet and its Dignity, as an Indian, I am happy to pay the price.
During 1962, I was a student at Giriraj Government Arts College, Nizamabad, Andhra Pradesh, India. The entire student community joined together to voice their protest against Communist China’s act of brutal aggression. We raised donations to support the National Defense Fund and people across the entire Nation united to express their Love to the members of Indian Armed Forces who were fighting the battle. By 1971, I had finished my military training and was posted to a Unit that defends the Himalayan Frontier along the McMahon Line.

Kindly read the attached story titled “Remembering a War: The 1962 India-China War” and share your comments and views. The attached story is attributed to Neville Maxwell(1923 to 1974), a British journalist who worked for China’s Intelligence service. He published a book titled “India’s China War” and I call him a “PEDDLER” for he indulged in peddling information provided by China’s Intelligence Service. His story is inspired by Communist China’s Intelligence Service. I am happy to give a public response to their Communist Propaganda that aims to promote psychosis of fear among gullible Indian citizens and others. They must know that the global community is getting united to oppose China’s military occupation of Tibet.

I have the following problems with Neville Maxwell’s story about “The 1962 India-China War.” You may also share it with others who have Service experience in India and Southeast Asia.

1. Neville Maxwell justifies Communist China’s military invasion of Tibet during 1949-50.

2. Neville Maxwell claims that Communist China respects the McMahon Line. In reality, China occupied the Aksai Chin region prior to the 1962 War. China has no legal authority inside Tibet and China cannot tell India not to cross the McMahon Line. We have valid reasons to ignore and refuse China’s legitimacy inside Tibet.

3. Neville Maxwell uses slander and innuendo to discredit General Kaul and there is no substance or proof to verify any of those claims. General Kaul’s only fault is that; Kaul is a Kashmiri Brahmin. His promotion and creation of a new Army Corps Commander position are justified because of the enemy’s hostility and threats.

4. Neville Maxwell blames Mr. N. B. Mullik, the Director of the Intelligence Bureau for doing his job. Mr. Mullik did his best under the given circumstances. To gather intelligence, we need to have aggressive patrolling and we must cross the McMahon Line to verify the enemy’s strength and intentions. I did the same thing during 1972 while I was posted in North East Frontier Agency. I went with foot patrol parties and had deliberately, and intentionally crossed the border to know and detect enemy activities. A person with basic Infantry training knows the purpose of a patrol. It is not a picnic. India has a natural right to gather intelligence about the activities of its enemy. The enemy has no jurisdictional rights or legal authority( other than the fact of its military occupation) in that area of Indian security operations.

5. Neville Maxwell gives no credit to the Simla Agreement of 1914 and the McMahon Treaty that established the legitimate boundary between Tibet and India. Manchu China had signed this Treaty apart from Tibet. China invaded and occupied Tibet during 1949-50 and changed the situation for India. China’s occupation of Tibet offers no good reason for India to initiate bilateral talks with China about border demarcation. As such, the issue was already decided by the McMahon Treaty. The essay criticizes India’s effort to control its own legitimate territory. It says India provoked an angry reaction from China as India wanted to send armed patrols to a few selected border posts. Why should not India send patrols to define its own territory? The story says that India was a bit aggressive. Look at the aggressiveness of China which had already occupied the whole of Tibet and crushed all Tibetan resistance to its military occupation.

6. India played a reasonable role to protect its interests and used its Army with the resources it had at that time. If we are facing a superior force, it does not mean that we should remain entirely passive on our side of the border.

The only mistake made by Indian Prime Minister Nehru was his inability to join the US camp to fully confront the military threat posed by Communist China. India had a very good chance to kick the Chinese out of Tibet during 1949-50 and we missed a golden opportunity as the Kashmir. issue subdued India’s initiative.

I still believe that India must prepare for this military challenge and stand up to defend Arunachal Pradesh and Ladakh. Unfortunately, we lost Aksai Chin to China without fighting them. After Chinese unilateral occupation of Aksai Chin, We lost territory to China in Pakistan-occupied Kashmir. India must not relent on this border issue and our goal must be that of evicting the military occupier from Tibet.

7. Neville Maxwell justifies Communist China’s military invasion of Tibet and blames India for defending its borders in the face of China’s superior strength. It has no word to blame China and its Expansionism.

8. The 1962 War is not a total loss. The Top Secret of the 1962 India-China War is the number of Chinese killed and wounded in this military invasion. If Communist China has any courage, I would ask them to disclose the true numbers. I am glad for we could kill the Enemy on the battlefield.

9. While I served on the Himalayan frontier (September 1971 to December 1974), I always medically inspected each soldier and made an assessment of each soldier’s physical and mental fitness. Each was physically, and mentally fully prepared to face the challenge and fight the Enemy. I have never sent a soldier to get a medical opinion from an Army Psychiatrist. Neville Maxwell talks about the divisions among the Officer Corps. I have personally met several Officers who had served in 1962 and there are no such divisions among the Officer Corps. In 1971, India won a great Military Victory in the conduct of Bangladesh Operations. Indian Army, the Officers, and men are totally united and worked together with no differences of opinion and executed the operation on the Battlefield. I had no personal or direct contact with very senior Officers but I know all Officers of the rank of Brigadier and below within my Formation. In my analysis, both during 1962 and during 1971, the men and the Officer Corps of the Indian Army were fully united to oppose the enemy and were willing to fight the enemy.

10. All said and done, the 1962 War was a good lesson and we are better prepared and more willing to fight this War again.

Neville Maxwell, a British Journalist, a paid agent of China’s Intelligence Service named “HARRY ROSSITSKY” as the CIA Station Head in New Delhi. What was the source of this information? How did he come to this conclusion about the Identity of CIA’s Station Head in New Delhi? I welcome China’s Intelligence Service to come and verify our Identities on the Battlefield. CIA does not fight this Battle. When I served in the Indian Army along the Himalayan Frontier, it was me, the Officers, and All Ranks of the Units in which I had served who trained and prepared to fight the Enemy. China will face us and not the CIA on the Battlefield. There is a legitimate border between India and Tibet. As far as Communist China is concerned, I would ask Indian people to define their territory by accepting the challenge posed by Communist China’s illegal occupation of Tibet.
REMEMBERING THE 1962 INDIA–CHINA WAR: I remember visiting and paying my respects at the War Memorial erected at WALONG in remembrance of the Battle fought at Namtifield or Namti Plains, near Walong, Arunachal Pradesh (North-East Frontier Agency of Indian Union). Deputy Commissioner Bernard S Dougal paid his tribute in the following verse:
The Sentinel hills that round us stand
Bear witness that we loved our Land;
Amidst shattered rocks and flaming Pine,
We fought and died on Namti Plain.
O’ Lohit gently by us glide,
Pale stars above us softly shine,
As we sleep here in sun and rain.

Rudra Narasimham Rebbapragada
Ann Arbor, MI 48104-4162, USA
http://BhavanaJagat.com

Dr. R. Rudra Narasimham, B.Sc., M.B.B.S.,
Personal Number. MS-8466 Rank Lieutenant/Captain AMC/SSC,
Medical Officer, South Column, Operation Eagle(1971-72),
Personal Number. MR-03277K Rank Captain/Major AMC/DPC
Medical Officer, Headquarters Establishment No. 22 C/O 56 APO(1971-74),
Directorate General of Security,
Office of Inspector General Special Frontier Force,
East Block V, Level IV, R. K. Puram,
New Delhi – 110 022 – India.

THE GREAT LESSON LEARNED FROM THE 1962 INDIA–CHINA WAR:

REMEMBERING THE 1962 INDIA–CHINA WAR:” AHIMSA PARAMO DHARMA; DHARMA HIMSA TATHAIVA CHA” – Non-Violence is the highest principle, and so is Violence( use of Force or HIMSA ) in defense of the Righteous. I am not opposed to using force or violence to defend this Flag of Tibet and restore the true Tibetan Identity and its Independence. The Great Lesson learned from the 1962 War: EVICT THE MILITARY OCCUPIER FROM THE LAND OF TIBET.

COMMUNIST CHINA’S PROPAGANDA :

This story titled, “Remembering  A War: The 1962 India–China War” that is reproduced below is another face of Communist China’s propaganda warfare. China has been selling this story to gullible Indians and claims that China is a victim of India’s attack on China. This entire piece does not mention the word TIBET and Communist China’s illegal occupation of Tibet and the uprising in Tibet and H.H. Dalai Lama’s getting asylum in India. Communist China used a massive force of Peoples’ Liberation Army to attack India all across the Himalayan frontier. Prime Minister Nehru is often blamed for China’s evil actions. On account of Kashmir, Nehru did not join the United States camp that may have prevented this attack. The United States was willing to check Communist China’s expansionist policy, but, unfortunately, India could not take advantage of the US policy for the US simultaneously supports Pakistan’s occupation of Kashmir.

Kindly share this view with your friends who have military service experience. It will be abundantly clear that the attached story is a pack of lies.

REMEMBERING A WAR: THE 1962 INDIA-CHINA WAR .A STORY POSTED BY CHINA’S INTELLIGENCE SERVICE AND CONTRIBUTED BY NEVILLE MAXWELL :

After the 1962 war, the Indian Army commissioned Lt Gen Henderson Brooks and Brig PS Bhagat to study the debacle. As is wont in India, their report was never made public and lies buried in the government archives. But some experts have managed to piece together the contents of the report. One such person is Neville Maxwell, who has studied the 1962 war in depth and is the author of ‘India’s China War’.
In the articles that follow, Indians will be shocked to discover that, when China crushed India in 1962, the fault lay at India, or more specifically, at Jawaharlal Nehru and his clique’s doorsteps. It was a hopelessly ill-prepared Indian Army that provoked China on orders emanating from Delhi, and paid the price for its misadventure in men, money and national humiliation. This is a three part series of articles by Neville Maxwell:-
Part I – The Genesis of the 1962 Sino-Indian War.
Part 2 – How the East was Lost.
Part 3 – India’s Shameful Debacle.

Part I – The Genesis of the 1962 Sino-Indian War

When the Army’s report into its debacle in the border war was completed in 1963, the Indian government had good reason to keep it TOP SECRET and give only the vaguest, and largely misleading, indications of its contents. At that time the government’s effort, ultimately successful, to convince the political public that the Chinese, with a sudden ‘unprovoked aggression,’ had caught India unawares in a sort of Himalayan Pearl Harbour was in its early stages, and the Report’s cool and detailed analysis, if made public, would have shown that to be self-exculpatory mendacity.
But a series of studies, beginning in the late 1960s and continuing into the 1990s, revealed to any serious enquirer the full story of how the Indian Army was ordered to challenge the Chinese military to a conflict it could only lose. So, by now, only bureaucratic inertia, combined with the natural fading of any public interest, can explain the continued non-publication – the Report includes no surprises and its publication would be of little significance but for the fact that so many in India still cling to the soothing fantasy of a 1962 Chinese ‘aggression.’
It seems likely now that the Report will never be released. Furthermore, if one day a stable, confident and relaxed government in New Delhi should, miraculously, appear and decide to clear out the cupboard and publish it, the text would be largely incomprehensible, the context, well known to the authors and therefore not spelled out, being now forgotten. The Report would need an Introduction and gloss – a first draft of which this paper attempts to provide, drawing upon the writer’s research in India in the 1960s and material published later.
Two Preambles are required, one briefly recalling the cause and course of the border war; the second to describe the fault-line, which the border dispute turned into a schism, within the Army’s officer corps, which was a key factor in the disaster — and of which the Henderson Brooks Report can be seen as an expression.
Origins of the border conflict
India, at the time of Independence, can be said to have faced no external threats. True, it was born into a relationship of permanent belligerency with its weaker Siamese twin, Pakistan, left by the British inseparably conjoined to India by the chronically enflamed member of Kashmir, vital to both new national organisms; but that may be seen as essentially an internal dispute, an untreatable complication left by the crude, cruel surgery of Partition.
In 1947, China, wracked by civil war, was in what appeared to be death throes and no conceivable threat to anyone. That changed with astonishing speed, however, and, by 1950, when the new-born People’s Republic re-established in Tibet the central authority which had lapsed in 1911, the Indian government will have made its initial assessment of the possibility and potential of a threat from China, and found those to be minimal, if not non-existent.
First, there were geographic and topographical factors, the great mountain chains which lay between the two neighbours and appeared to make large-scale troop movements impractical (few could then see in the German V2 rocket the embryo of the ICBM). More important, the leadership of the Indian government – which is to say, Jawaharlal Nehru – had for years proclaimed that the unshakable friendship between India and China would be the key to both their futures, and therefore Asia’s, even the world’s.
The new leaders in Beijing were more chary, viewing India through their Marxist prism as a potentially hostile bourgeois state. But, in the Indian political perspective, war with China was deemed unthinkable and, through the 1950s, New Delhi’s defence planning and expenditure expressed that confidence. By the early 1950s, however, the Indian government, which is to say Nehru and his acolyte officials, had shaped and adopted a policy whose implementation would make armed conflict with China not only “thinkable” but inevitable.
From the first days of India’s Independence, it was appreciated that the Sino-Indian borders had been left undefined by the departing British and that territorial disputes with China were part of India’s inheritance. China’s other neighbours faced similar problems and, over the succeeding decades of the century, almost all of those were to settle their borders satisfactorily through the normal process of diplomatic negotiation with Beijing.
The Nehru government decided upon the opposite approach. India would, through its own research, determine the appropriate alignments of the Sino-Indian borders, extend its administration to make those good on the ground and then refuse to negotiate the result. Barring the inconceivable – that Beijing would allow India to impose China’s borders unilaterally and annex territory at will – Nehru’s policy thus willed conflict without foreseeing it.
Through the 1950s, that policy generated friction along the borders and so bred and steadily increased distrust, growing into hostility, between the neighbours. By 1958, Beijing was urgently calling for a standstill agreement to prevent patrol clashes and negotiations to agree on boundary alignments. India refused any standstill agreement, since it would be an impediment to intended advances and insisted that there was nothing to negotiate, the Sino-Indian borders being already settled on the alignments claimed by India, through blind historical process. Then it began accusing China of committing ‘aggression’ by refusing to surrender to Indian claims.
From 1961, the Indian attempt to establish an armed presence in all the territory it claimed and then extrude the Chinese was being exerted by the Army and Beijing was warning that if India did not desist from its expansionist thrust, the Chinese forces would have to hit back. On Oct 12, 1962, Nehru proclaimed India’s intention to drive the Chinese out of areas India claimed. That bravado had by then been forced upon him by public expectations which his charges of ‘Chinese aggression’ had aroused, but Beijing took it as in effect a declaration of war. The unfortunate Indian troops on the frontline, under orders to sweep superior Chinese forces out of their impregnable, dominating positions, instantly appreciated the implications: ‘If Nehru had declared his intention to attack, then the Chinese were not going to wait to be attacked.’
On Oct 20, the Chinese launched a pre-emptive offensive all along the borders, overwhelming the feeble – but, in this first instance, determined – resistance of the Indian troops and advancing some distance in the eastern sector. On Oct 24, Beijing offered a ceasefire and Chinese withdrawal on the condition that India agrees to open negotiations: Nehru refused the offer even before the text was officially received. Both sides built up over the next three weeks, and the Indians launched a local counterattack on Nov 15, arousing in India fresh expectations of total victory.
The Chinese then renewed their offensive. Now many units of the once crack Indian 4th Division dissolved into rout without giving battle and, by Nov 20, there was no organised Indian resistance anywhere in the disputed territories. On that day, Beijing announced a unilateral ceasefire and intention to withdraw its forces: Nehru, this time, tacitly accepted.
Naturally the Indian political public demanded to know what had brought about the shameful debacle suffered by their Army. On Dec 14, a new Army Cdr, Lt Gen JN Chaudhuri, instituted an Operations Review for that purpose, assigning the task of enquiry to Lt Gen Henderson Brooks and Brig PS Bhagat.

Part II – How the East was Lost

All colonial armies are liable to suffer from the tugs of contradictory allegiance and, in the case of India’s, that fissure was opened in the Second World War by Japan’s recruitment from prisoners of war of the Indian National Army to fight against their former fellows. By the beginning of the 1950s, two factions were emerging in the officer corps:-
· One patriotic but above all professional and apolitical, and orthodox in adherence to the regimental traditions established in the century of the Raj;
· The other nationalist, ready to respond unquestioningly to the political requirements of their civilian masters and scorning their rivals as fuddy-duddies still aping the departed rulers, and suspected as being of doubtful loyalty to the new ones. The latter faction soon took on an eponymous identification from its leader, B M Kaul.
At the time of Independence, Kaul appeared to be a failed officer, if not one disgraced. Although Sandhurst-trained for infantry service, he had eased through the war without serving on any frontline and ended it in a humble and obscure post in public relations. But his courtier wiles, irrelevant or damning until then, were to serve him brilliantly in the new order that Independence brought, after he came to the notice of Nehru, a fellow Kashmiri Brahmin and, indeed, distant kinsman.
Boosted by the prime minister’s steady favouritism, Kaul rocketed through the Army structure to emerge in 1961 at the very summit of the Army HQ. Not only did he hold the key appointment of Chief of General Staff but the Army Commander, Thapar, was, in effect, his client. Kaul had, of course, by then acquired a significant following, disparaged by the other side as ‘Kaul boys’ (‘call-girls’ had just entered usage), and his appointment as CGS opened a putsch in HQ, an eviction of the old guard, with his rivals, until then his superiors, being not only pushed out but often hounded thereafter with charges of disloyalty.
The struggle between those factions both fed on and fed into the strains placed on the Army by the government’s contradictory and hypocritical policies – on the one hand, proclaiming China an eternal friend against whom it was unnecessary to arm; on the other, exerting armed force to seize territory it knew China regarded as its own.
Through the early 1950s, Nehru’s covertly expansionist policy had been implemented by armed border police under the Intelligence Bureau, whose director, NB Mullik, was another favourite and confidant of the prime minister. The Army high command, knowing its forces to be too weak to risk conflict with China, would have nothing to do with it. Indeed when the potential for Sino-Indian conflict inherent in Mullik’s aggressive forward patrolling was demonstrated in the serious clash at the Kongka Pass in Oct 1959, Army HQ and the MEA united to denounce him as a provocateur and insisted that control over all activities on the border be assumed by the Army, which thus could insulate China from Mullik’s jabs.
The takeover by Kaul and his ‘boys’ at Army HQ in 1961 reversed that. Now, regular infantry would take over from Mullik’s border police in implementing what was formally designated a ‘forward policy,’ one conceived to extrude the Chinese presence from all territory claimed by India. Field commanders receiving orders to move troops forward into territory the Chinese both held and regarded as their own warned that they had no resources or reserves to meet the forceful reaction they knew must be the ultimate outcome: they were told to keep quiet and obey orders.
That may suggest that those driving the forward policy saw it in kamikaze terms and were reconciled to its ending in gunfire and blood – but the opposite was true. They were totally and unshakably convinced that it would end not with a bang but a whimper – from Beijing. The psychological bedrock upon which the forward policy rested was the belief that, in the last resort, the Chinese military, snuffling from a bloody nose, would pack up and quit the territory India claimed.
The source of that faith was Mullik, who from beginning to end proclaimed as oracular truth that, whatever the Indians did, there need be no fear of a violent Chinese reaction. The record shows no one squarely challenging that mantra at higher levels than the field commanders who throughout knew it to be dangerous nonsense: there were civilian ‘Kaul boys’ in the ministries of external affairs and defence too and they basked happily in Mullik’s fantasy. Perhaps the explanation for the credulousness lay in Nehru’s dependent relationship with his IB chief: since the prime minister placed such faith in Mullik, it would be at the least lese majeste, and even heresy, to deny him a kind of papal infallibility.
If it be taken that Mullik was not just deluded, what other explanation could there be for the unwavering consistency with which he urged his country forward on a course which, in rational perception, could lead only to war with a greatly superior military power and, therefore, defeat? Another question arises: who, in those years, would most have welcomed the great falling-out which saw India shift in a few years from strong international support for the People’s Republic of China to enmity and armed conflict with it? From founding and leading the Non-Aligned Movement to tacit enlistment in the hostile encirclement of China which was Washington’s aim? Mullik maintained close links with the CIA station head in New Delhi, Harry Rossitsky. Answers may lie in the agency’s archives.
China’s stunning and humiliating victory brought about an immediate reversal of fortune between the Army factions. Out went Kaul, out went Thapar, out went many of their adherents – but by no means all. Gen Chaudhuri, appointed to replace Thapar as Army chief, chose not to launch a counter-putsch. He and his colleagues of the restored old guard knew full well what had caused the debacle: political interference in promotions and appointments by the prime minister and Krishna Menon, defence minister, followed by clownish ineptitude in the Army HQ as ‘Kaul boys’ scurried to force the troops to carry out the mad tactics and strategy laid down by the government.
It was clear that the trail back from the broken remnants of the 4th Division limping onto the plains in the north-east, up through intermediate commands to the Army HQ in New Delhi and then, on to the source of political direction, would have ended at the prime minister’s door – a destination which, understandably, Chaudhuri had no desire to reach. (Mullik was anyway to tarnish him with the charge that he was plotting to overthrow the discredited civil order, but, in fact, Chaudhuri was a dedicated constitutionalist – ironically, Kaul was the only one of the generals who harboured Caesarist ambitions.)
The Investigation
While the outraged humiliation of the political class left Chaudhuri with no choice but to order an enquiry into the Army’s collapse, it was up to him to decide its range and focus, indeed its temper. The choice of Lt Gen Henderson Brooks to run an Operations Review (rather than a broader and more searching board of enquiry) was indicative of a wish not to make the already bubbling stew of recriminations boil over.
Henderson Brooks (until then in command of a corps facing Pakistan) was a steady, competent but not outstanding officer, whose appointments and personality had kept him entirely outside the broils stirred up by Kaul’s rise and fall. That could be said too of the officer Chaudhuri appointed to assist Henderson Brooks, Brig PS Bhagat (holder of a WW II Victoria Cross and commandant of the military academy). But the latter complemented his senior by being a no-nonsense, fighting soldier, widely respected in the Army, and the taut, unforgiving analysis in the Report bespeaks the asperity of his approach.
There is further evidence that Chaudhuri did not wish the enquiry to dig too deep, range too widely, or excoriate those it faulted. The following were the terms of reference he set:-
· Training;
· Equipment;
· System of command;
· Physical fitness of troops;
· Capacity of commanders at all levels to influence the men under their command.
The first four of those smacked of an enquiry into the sinking of the Titanic briefed to concentrate on the management of the shipyard where it was built and the health of the deck crew; only the last term has any immediacy, and there the wording was distinctly odd – commanders do not usually ‘influence’ those they command, they issue orders and expect instant obedience.
But Henderson Brooks and Bhagat (henceforth HB/B) in effect ignored the constraints of their terms of reference and kicked against other limits Chaudhuri had laid upon their investigation, especially his ruling that the functioning of Army HQ during the crisis lay outside their purview. ‘It would have been convenient and logical’, they note, ‘to trace the events [beginning with] Army HQ, and then move down to the Commands for more details… ending up with field formations for the battle itself’. Forbidden that approach, they would, nevertheless, try to discern what had happened at Army HQ from documents found at lower levels, although those could not throw any lighton one crucial aspect of the story – the political directions given to the Army by the civil authorities.
As HB/B began their enquiry, they immediately discovered that the short rein kept upon them by the Army chief was by no means the least of their handicaps. They found themselves facing determined obstruction in Army HQ, where one of the leading lights of the Kaul faction had survived in the key post of director of military operations – Brigadier DK Palit.
Kaul had exerted his power of patronage to have Palit made DMO although others senior to him were listed for the post, and Palit, as he was himself to admit, was ‘one of the least qualified among [his] contemporaries for this crucial General Staff appointment.’ Palit had thereafter acted as enforcer for Kaul and the civilian protagonists of the ‘forward policy,’ Mullik foremost among the latter, issuing the orders and deflecting or over-ruling the protests of field commanders who reported up their strategic imbecility or operational impossibility.
Why Chaudhuri left Palit in this post is puzzling: the Henderson Brooks Report was to make quite clear what a prominent and destructive role he had played throughout the Army high command’s politicisation, and, through inappropriate meddling in command decisions, even in bringing about the debacle in the north-east. Palit, though, would immediately have recognised that the HB/B enquiry posed a grave threat to his career and so did that entire he could to undermine and obstruct it.
After consultation with Mullik, Palit took it upon himself to rule that HB/B should not have access to any documents emanating from the civil side – in other words, he blindfolded the enquiry, so far as he could, as to the nexus between the civil and military. As Palit smugly recounts his story, in an autobiography published in 1991, he personally faced down both Henderson Brooks and Bhagat, rode out their formal complaints about his obstructionism, and prevented them from prying into the ‘high level policies and decisions’ which he maintained were none of their business.
In fact, however, the last word lies with HB/B – or will do if their report is ever published. In spite of Palit’s efforts, they discovered a great deal that the Kaul camp and the government would have preferred to keep hidden; and their report shows that Palit’s self-admiring and mock-modest autobiography grossly misrepresents the role he played.
The Henderson Brooks Report is long (its main section, excluding recommendations and many annexures, covers nearly 200 typed foolscap pages), detailed and, as far as the restrictions placed upon its authors allowed, far-ranging. This introduction will touch only upon some salient points, to give the flavour of the whole (a full account of the subject they covered is in the writer’s 1970 study, India’s China War).

Part III – India’s Shameful Debacle
The Forward Policy
This was born and named at a meeting chaired by Nehru on Nov 2, 1961, but it had been alive and kicking in the womb for years before that – indeed its conception dated back to 1954, when Nehru issued an instruction for posts to be set up all along India’s claim lines, ‘especially in such places as might be disputed.’ What happened at this 1961 meeting was that the freeze on provocative forward patrolling, instituted at the Army’s insistence after Mullik had engineered the Kongka Pass clash, was ended – with the Army, now under the courtier leadership of Thapar and Kaul, eagerly assuming the task which Mullik’s armed border police had carried out until the Army stopped them.
HB/B note that no minutes of this meeting had been obtained, but were able to quote Mullik as saying that ‘the Chinese would not react to our establishing new posts and that they were not likely to use force against any of our posts even if they were in a position to do so.’ That opinion contradicted the conclusion Army Intelligence had reached 12 months before: that the Chinese would resist by force any attempts to take back territory held by them.
HB/B then trace a contradictory duet between the Army HQ and the Western Army Command, with HQ ordering the establishment of ‘penny-packet’ forward posts in Ladakh, specifying their location and strength, and the Western Command protesting that it lacked the forces to carry out the allotted task, still less to face the grimly foreseeable consequences. Kaul and Palit ‘time and again ordered, in furtherance of the “forward policy,” the establishment of individual posts, overruling protests made by the Western Command’. By Aug 1962 about 60 posts had been set up, most manned with less than a dozen soldiers, all under close threat by overwhelmingly superior Chinese forces. The Western Command submitted another request for heavy reinforcements, accompanying it with this admonition:
‘[I]t is imperative that political direction is based on military means. If the two are not correlated, there is a danger of creating a situation where we may lose both in the material and moral sense much more than we already have. Thus, there is no short cut to military preparedness to enable us to pursue effectively our present policy…’
That warning was ignored, reinforcements were denied, orders were affirmed and, although the Chinese were making every effort, diplomatic, political and military, to prove their determination to resist by force, again it was asserted that no forceful reaction by the Chinese was to be expected. HB/B quote Field Marshall Roberts: ‘The art of war teaches us to rely not on the likelihood of the enemy not coming, but on our own readiness to receive him; not on the chance of his not attacking, but rather on the fact that we have made our position unassailable’ But, in this instance, troops were being put in dire jeopardy in pursuit of a strategy based upon an assumption – that the Chinese would not resist with force – which the strategy would itself inevitably prove wrong. HB/B notes that from the beginning of 1961, when the Kaulist putsch reshaped Army HQ, crucial professional military practice was abandoned:
This lapse in Staff Duties on the part of the CGS [Kaul], his deputy, the DMO [Palit] and other Staff Directors is inexcusable. From this stemmed the unpreparedness and the unbalance of our forces. These appointments in General Staff are key appointments and officers were handpicked by Gen Kaul to fill them. There was therefore no question of clash of personalities. General Staff appointments are stepping stones to high command, and correspondingly carry heavy responsibility. When, however, these appointments are looked upon as adjuncts to a successful career and the responsibility is not taken seriously, the results, as is only too clear, are disastrous. This should never be allowed to be repeated and the Staff as of old must be made to bear the consequences of their lapses and mistakes. Comparatively, the mistakes and lapses of the Staff sitting in Delhi without the stress and strain of battle are more heinous than the errors made by the commanders in the field of battle.
War and Debacle
While the main thrust of the Forward Policy was exerted in the western sector of the border, it was also applied in the east from Dec 1961. There the Army was ordered to set up new posts along the McMahon Line (which China treated – and treats – as the de facto boundary), and, in some sectors, beyond it. One of these trans-Line posts, named Dhola Post, was invested by a superior Chinese force on Sep 8, 1962, the Chinese thus reacting there exactly as they had been doing for a year in the western sector. In this instance, however, and although Dhola Post was known to be north of the McMahon Line, the Indian government reacted aggressively, deciding that the Chinese force threatening Dhola must be attacked forthwith, and thrown back.
Now, again, the duet of contradiction began, the Army HQ and, in this case, Eastern Command (headed by Lt Gen L P Sen) united against the commands below: 33 Corps (Lt Gen Umrao Singh), 4 Div (Maj Gen Niranjan Prasad) and 7 Bde (Brig John Dalvi). The latter three stood together in reporting that the ‘attack and evict’ order was militarily impossible to execute.
The point of confrontation, below Thagla ridge at the western extremity of the McMahon Line, presented immense logistical difficulties to the Indian side and none to the Chinese, so whatever concentration of troops could painfully be mustered by the Indians could instantly be outnumbered and outweighed in weaponry. Tactically, again the irreversible advantage lay with the Chinese, who held well-supplied, fortified positions on a commanding ridge feature.
The demand for military action and the victory it was expected to bring was political, generated at top level meetings in Delhi. ‘The Defence Minister [Krishna Menon] categorically stated that in view of the top secret nature of conferences no minutes would be kept [and] this practice was followed at all the conferences that were held by the Defence Minister in connection with these operations’. HB/B commented: ‘This is a surprising decision and one which could and did lead to grave consequences. It absolved in the ultimate analysis anyone of the responsibility for any major decision. Thus it could and did lead to decisions being taken without careful and considered thought on the consequences of those decisions.’
Army HQ by no means restricted itself to the big picture. In mid-Sep it issued an order to troops beneath Thagla ridge to:-
(a) Capture a Chinese post 1,000 yards NE of Dhola Post.
(b) Contain the Chinese concentration S of Thagla.

HB/B comment: ‘The General Staff, sitting in Delhi, ordering an action against a position 1,000 yards NE of Dhola Post is astounding. The country was not known, the enemy situation vague, and for all that there may have been a ravine in between [the troops and their objective], but yet the order was given. This order could go down in the annals of History as being as incredible as the order for “the Charge of the Light Brigade.”
Worse was to follow
Underlying all the meetings in Delhi was still the conviction or by now, perhaps, prayer, that even when frontally attacked the Chinese would put up no serious resistance, still less react aggressively elsewhere. Thus it came to be believed that the problem lay in weakness, even cowardice, at lower levels of command. Gen Umrao Singh (33 Corps) was seen as the hub of the problem, since he was backing his div and bde commanders in their insistence that the eviction operation was impossible.
‘It was obvious that Lt Gen Umrao Singh would not be hustled into an operation, without proper planning and logistical support. The Defence Ministry and, for that matter, the General Staff and Eastern Command were prepared for a gamble on the basis of the Chinese not reacting to any great extent.’ So the political leadership and Army HQ decided that if Umrao Singh could be replaced by a commander with fire in his belly all would come right, and victory be assured.
Such a commander was available – Gen Kaul. A straight switch, with Kaul relinquishing the CGS post to replace Umrao Singh, would have raised too many questions, so it was decided instead that Umrao Singh would simply be moved aside, retaining his corps command but no longer being concerned with the situation on the border. That would become the responsibility of a new formation, 4 Corps, whose sole task would be to attack and drive the Chinese off Thagla ridge. Gen Kaul would command the new corps.
HB/B noted how even the most secret of government’s decisions were swiftly reported in the press, and called for a thorough probe into the sources of the leaks.
Many years later Palit, in his autobiography, described the transmission procedure. Palit had hurried to see Kaul on learning of the latter’s appointment to command the notional new Corps: ‘I found him in the little bedsitter den where he usually worked when at home. I was startled to see, sitting beside him on the divan, Prem Bhatia, editor of The Times of India, looking like the proverbial cat who has just swallowed a large yellow songbird. He got up as I arrived, wished [Kaul] good luck and left, still with a greatly pleased smirk on his face.’
Bhatia’s scoop led his paper next morning. The ‘spin’ therein was the suggestion that whereas, in the western sector, Indian troops faced extreme logistical problems, in the east that situation was reversed and, therefore, with the dashing Kaul in command of a fresh ‘task force,’ victory was imminent. The truth was exactly the contrary, those in NEFA faced even worse difficulties than their fellows in the west, and victory was a chimera.
Those difficulties were compounded by persistent interference from the Army HQ. On orders from Delhi, ‘troops of [the entire 7 Bde] were dispersed to outposts that were militarily unsound and logistically unsupportable.’ Once Kaul took over as Corps Cdr, the troops were driven forward to their fate in what HB/B called ‘wanton disregard of the elementary principles of war.’
Even in the dry, numbered paragraphs of their report, HB/B’s account of the moves that preceded the final Chinese assault is dramatic and riveting, with the scene of action shifting from the banks of the Namka Chu, the fierce little river beneath the menacing loom of Thagla ridge along which the under-clad Indian troops shivered and waited to be overwhelmed, to Nehru’s house in Delhi – whither Kaul rushed back to report when a rash foray he had ordered was crushed by a fierce Chinese reaction on Oct 10. To follow those events, and on into the greater drama of the ensuing debacle is tempting but would add only greater detail to the account already published.
Given the nature of the dramatic events they were investigating, it is not surprising that HB/B’s cast of characters consisted in the main of fools and/or knaves on the one hand, their victims on the other. But they singled out a few heroes too, especially the jawans, who fought whenever their commanders gave them the necessary leadership, and suffered miserably from the latter’s often gross incompetence. As for the debacle itself, ‘Efforts of a few officers, particularly those of Capt NN Rawat’ to organise a fighting retreat, ‘could not replace a disintegrated command;’ nor could the cool-headed Brig Gurbax Singh do more than keep his 48 Bde in action as a cohesive combat unit until it was liquidated by the joint efforts of higher command and the Chinese.
HB/B place the immediate cause of the collapse of resistance in NEFA in the panicky, fumbling and contradictory orders issued from Corps HQ in Tezpur by a ‘triumvirate’ of officers they judge to be grossly culpable: Gen Sen, Gen Kaul, and Brig Palit. Those were, however, only the immediate agents of disaster: its responsible planners and architects were another triumvirate, comprised of Nehru, Mullik and again, Kaul, together with all those who accompanied them into the fantasy that a much stronger neighbour could be confronted and overcome through guile and puny force.

Kashmir is India’s Achilles heel. India-Tibet relations remain compromised as Pakistan’s occupation of Kashmir remains undeterred.

India’s Tibet Policy is always shaped by Security concerns over foreign aggressors in Kashmir

Special Frontier Force Defends Jammu and Kashmir. India’s Tibet Policy is always shaped by security concerns over foreign aggressors in Kashmir.

Irked by China, India signals turnaround on Dalai Lama

Read more at https://www.deccanherald.com/national/national-politics/irked-by-china-india-signals-turnaround-on-dalai-lama-777246.html

As Beijing keeps riling New Delhi with J&K rants, India invites 84-year-old Tibetan leader to deliver prestigious lecture instituted in memory of its second President.

India’s Tibet Policy is always shaped by security concerns over foreign aggressors in Kashmir.

The government has given its nod to an autonomous institution funded by its Ministry of Human Resource Development that is housed in the summer retreat of President of India to invite Dalai Lama to deliver a lecture next Thursday – a move, which is likely to rile China.

The Indian Institute of Advanced Studies (IIAS) housed at Rashtrapati Nivas in Shimla has invited Dalai Lama to deliver a lecture instituted in memory of eminent educationist and philosopher Dr. Sarvepally Radhakrishnan, who had served as the first Vice President and second President of India.

New Delhi’s nod to the institution to invite Dalai Lama to deliver lecture signaled a subtle shift in its approach on engaging with the exiled Tibetans and it came about 20 months after the Cabinet Secretariat in February 2018 advised senior leaders and the functionaries of the government to stay away from events attended by Dalai Lama and other leaders of the global campaign to free Tibet from “repressive rule” of China.

Dalai Lama will deliver the 24th annual Radhakrishnan Memorial Lecture at the India International Centre in New Delhi on Thursday. Vinay Sahasrabuddhe, a member of Parliament of the ruling Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) and the Director-General of the Indian Council of Cultural Relations (ICCR) will be the Guest of Honor at the event, according to an invitation circulated by the IAAS.

New Delhi’s ties with Beijing came under stress once again after China joined Pakistan to oppose India’s August 5 decision to strip Jammu and Kashmir of its special status and reorganize the state into two Union Territories.

China is concerned over the implication of the Modi government’s move on Jammu and Kashmir on its protracted boundary dispute with India. The Chinese government perceived it as New Delhi’s “unilateral” move to change the status quo in the disputed territory and to strengthen its claim – not only on areas of Kashmir under occupation of Pakistan, but also on 5180 sq km of areas ceded by Pakistan to China in 1963 as well as on Aksai Chin – a disputed territory between India and China.

Though Modi hosted Xi for the second “informal summit” at a seaside resort near Chennai on October 11 and 12, China’s opposition to India’s decisions on Jammu and Kashmir cast a shadow over the meeting.

India, in fact, raised its pitch to re-assert claim over its territories illegally occupied by China, after the communist country on October 31 described the reorganization of Jammu and Kashmir as “unlawful”.

REMEMBERING THE 1962 INDIA – CHINA WAR: Communist China apart from its illegal military occupation of Tibet during 1949-50, had illegally occupied Indian territory in the Aksai Chin region of Ladakh Province in the State of Jammu and Kashmir prior to its sudden, military attack during 1962 all along the Himalayan Frontier. India’s Prime Minister Jawahar Lal Nehru failed to request military assistance from the United States to oppose this military occupation and land grab by Communist China. due to concerns over the US support for Pakistan’s aggression in Kashmir.

The Living Tibetan Spirits of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment thank American people for their continued support

The Dalai Lama holds up his Congressional Gold Medal after being presented the award by (L-R) Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi (D-CA), Sen. Robert Byrd (D-WV) and President George W. Bush in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda October 17, 2007, in Washington, DC. President Bush participated in the ceremony despite Beijing’s strong disapproval of the recognition for the 72-year-old exiled leader from Tibet.


US Congress Resolution Commends Dalai Lama For His Commitment To Global Peace

The resolution recognizes the cultural and religious significance of a genuinely autonomous Tibet and the deep bond between people of America and Tibet.

83-year-old Dalai Lama lives in exile in the hill town of Dharamsala
WASHINGTON: 

A group of four influential US lawmakers has introduced a resolution in Congress commending the Tibetan spiritual leader the Dalai Lama for his commitment to global peace and non-violence.

The resolution, introduced in the House of Representatives, came weeks after US ambassador-at-large for Religious Freedom Samuel D Brownback traveled to Dharamsala in India and met the Dalai Lama and discussed ways to advance religious freedom.

The 83-year-old Dalai Lama, a globally revered figure and recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize, lives in exile in the hill town of Dharamsala. He fled to India in early 1959 to escape from the Chinese occupation.

The House resolution — introduced by Congressman Ted Yoho and co-sponsored by Michael McCaul, Chris Smith, and George McGovern — recognizes the significance of the genuine autonomy of Tibet and the Tibetan people and the work the 14th Dalai Lama has done to promote global peace, harmony, and understanding.

The resolution recognizes the cultural and religious significance of a genuinely autonomous Tibet and the deep bond between the American and Tibetan people.

It commends the 14th Dalai Lama for his commitment to global peace and non-violence.

It would be beneficial to convene a bipartisan, bicameral forum, either through a joint meeting of Congress, a teleconference broadcast in the Auditorium at the Capitol Visitor Center, or roundtable between members of Congress and the Dalai Lama to discuss peaceful solutions to international conflicts, the resolution notes.

China, which firmly opposes any contact with the Dalai Lama by any foreign official, says the successor to the Dalai Lama must be chosen according to religious rituals and historical conventions as well as the backing from the ruling Communist Party.

His Holiness the Dalai Lama receiving the US Congressional Gold Medal from US President George W. Bush at Capitol Hill in Washington DC, the USA on October 17, 2007.