What it is to be a Substance? and What it is to Exist? We need to establish knowledge about the man on a firm basis and the information it provides must be tested for its accuracy and consistency with an external reality. We have to make the fundamental distinction between the living and the non-living matter. The scientific advances of the 19th and 20th centuries reinforced the materialistic position concerning the basic similarity of organic living and inorganic physical matter. The man is viewed as a product of natural evolution and is thought to be subject to the same laws of Physics and Chemistry or mechanistic principles.
We need a methodology to study philosophy and to understand philosophical statements. Logical Positivism, also known as Scientific Empiricism aims to clarify concepts in both everyday and scientific language. It describes analysis of language as the function of philosophy. This analysis of language and of concepts is important to understand questions of belief and ideology which affect what we think we ought to do individually and socially. I would use this method of ‘Applied Philosophy’ to analyze the philosophical doctrine of ‘Materialism’ and to interpret human nature and human existence.
What is Man? The motivation for asking this question comes from a statement expressed in Sanskrit language, ‘Sarvesham Swastir Bhavatu’ which seeks the well-being of all human beings of all races, of all nations, of all cultures, and of all religions. The term altruism describes unselfish concern for the welfare of others. It involves human behavior and actions that appear to favor another individual’s chances of survival and reproduction. The thought expressed in the Sanskrit language reveals human nature. Our efforts to support the well-being of man would be affected by our understanding the ‘real’ or ‘true’ nature of man. All religious and cultural traditions make assumptions about human nature. The basic assumption about human nature is that of finding it displayed in feelings, thoughts, actions, and behavior.If man is viewed as a multicellular organism, we need to discover the human nature of this subject who lives because of the functions of the trillions of cells. Hence, we need to know if human nature is displayed in the functional characteristics that are observable in biotic interactions of cells that constitute the human organism. The objective of this blog post is to explore the universal principles that determine human nature. Human cultures and religions seek to know human nature as reflected in the man’s thoughts, feelings, moods, actions, and behavior. I seek the knowledge of human nature by describing the characteristics of behavior exhibited by the cells that constitute the human individual.
THE STUDY OF MAN AS A LIVING THING:
Greek philosopher and the founder of Biology Aristotle ( 384 – 322 B.C. ) has observed that there is a science which investigates being as being and the attributes which belong to being in virtue of its nature. For a thing to come into being, Aristotle describes four kinds of causes, 1. Efficient Cause, 2. Formal Cause, 3. Material Cause, and 4. Final Cause, the end or purpose for which a thing exists. Aristotle describes corporeal substances are composite of two principles, form, and matter. Matter and Form are the Material and the Formal Cause respectively of what comes to be known as a thing. The matter represents the potentiality of the livng corporeal substance and the form represents the actuality of the living thing. The structure and the behavior of things contribute to their individual being and function. Aristotle did not regard the body and soul as two separate entities as the soul is merely a set of defining features. I would like to proceed with my presentation keeping the basic criteria that Aristotle would use to know human nature, 1. the human form, 2. the living matter, 3. the human living thing, its nature being a function of its structure and its behavior. In case of man, the human form undergoes changes during every stage of its existence such as infancy, boyhood, youth, adult, and old age. The living matter or protoplasm continues to live without any apparent changes in its fundamental living properties. The biological functions or the characteristics of the living matter or protoplasm do not evolve or change because of its survival value for the species. The living functions such as consciousness, responsiveness, recognition, communication through signalling, motion, and nutrition are innate properties of the living substance or protoplasm and are not acquired by a learning process. This innate ability of protoplasm to perform functions helps in the development of instinctive behavior that is observed in the organism. It is not surprising to observe that certain important features of human nature are innate rather than learned from experience. There are several factors involved in the development of human nature and in the formation of individual character. We need to recognize the contrast between the innate and the learned, heredity and environment, nature and nurture or social upbringing. The biological properties such as Motion, and Nutrition, the biological characteristics such as consciousness or awareness of its own condition called existence in a given environment, and the biological nature such as responsiveness, communication, and recognition of other living cells present in its external environment could account for an instinctive behavior pattern observed in all living organisms. This instinctive behavior pattern accounts for the nature of biotic interactions among members of a given biotic community. To explain human nature, we need to study the character and behavior of man’s corporeal substance or protoplasm and view man as a terrestrial organism represented by a biotic community of trillions of individual living cells and as a natural host to trillions of microbes that inhabit the man’s gastrointestinal tract. The terms such as spirit or soul must be used by stating its defining features and we need to understand the connection between the feature and the substance that contributes to that feature of soul or spirit that is seen as the vital, animating principle found in all living things.
THE MECHANIST CONCEPT OF LIFE:
The Mechanist Concept of Life asserts that the phenomena of life are merely processes and transformations obeying elementary laws of Physics and Chemistry. The living system is ultimately reducible to its constituent molecules and atoms. The living cell is a thermodynamically unstable system. This means that without continuous input of energy, a living cell will degrade spontaneously into a nonliving collection of molecules. To maintain life an organism not only repairs or replaces( or both ) its structures by a constant supply of the materials of which it is composed but also keeps its life processes in operation by a steady supply of energy. This functional activity of a living cell is called metabolism. Living systems must be supplied energy for continual synthesis of new organic molecules and to replace, or to repair broken organic molecules. We need to explain this functional ability of a living system to acquire energy from its external environment. This ability is not operated by laws of Physics and Chemistry. For example, in Physics, the force by which every mass or particle of matter including photons attracts and is attracted by every other mass or particle is called Gravitation which is the weakest of the four Fundamental Forces operating in nature. A living system does not use the force of Gravitation to attract a substance to use it for its metabolism. Physics explains the process of diffusion and the operation of Osmosis in which a solvent passes through a semipermeable membrane such as the wall of a livng cell, into a solution of higher concentration, so as to equalize concentrations on both sides of the membrane( the osmotic pressure gradient ). Osmosis is a relevant biological mechanism but it does not fully account for the energy acquisition by a living cell.
HOW DOES PROTOPLASM ACQUIRES ENERGY?
The functional activity called metabolism involves a living system’s continual exchange of some of its materials with its surroundings, principally in the process of building up or destroying its protoplasm. The most striking characteristics of protoplasm are its vital properties of Motion, and Nutrition. By Motion is meant the property which protoplasm has of changing its shape and position by some “intrinsic power” and exhibit amoeboid movement. Ciliary movement or the vibration of hair-like processes from the surface of any cell may also be regarded as a variety of the motion with which protoplasm is endowed. Nutrition is the “power” which protoplasm has of attracting to itself the materials necessary for its growth and maintenance from surrounding matter. When any foreign particle comes in contact with the protoplasmic substance, it becomes incorporated in it, being enwrapped by one or more processes projected from the parent mass which encloses it. When thus taken up, the foreign particle may remain in the substance of the protoplasm for some time without change, or may be again extruded. The living substance called protoplasm has the “intrinsic power” of motion and uses its power to ingest and to expel foreign particles in the external environment with which it may come into contact. The Biological Membrane or the Plasma Membrane which separates protoplasm of the cell from its environment allows a highly controlled exchange of matter across the barrier it poses; some compounds are able to pass through the membrane easily, others are completely blocked. The screening effect on the substances that enter and leave the cell is perhaps the most important function of the membrane. The actions and behavior of protoplasm, the corporeal substance is dependent upon its innate “power” and may not be attributable to elementary laws of Physics and Chemistry.
SPIRITUALISM AND HUMAN NATURE:
The structural differentiation and the functional organization of various organ systems makes man a very complex living organism. This kind of specialized functions of tissues and organs is possible because of adaptive subordination of the cells to the requirements of the Whole Organism. If altruism describes any behavior that appears to favor another individuals’ chances of survival, we can easily recognize this characteristic in the functions performed by the Red Blood Cells. Each Red Blood Cell lives for a very limited life span of its own and during its short period of existence it serves the purpose of the Whole Human Organism with a sense of devotion, with the spirit of cooperation, to provide assistance to all other cells, tissues, and organs of the body in a selfless manner. I define the term ‘Spiritualism’ as the NATURE of a relationship, a partnership, an association, or bonding between two individual living entities based upon characteristics such as compassion, sympathy, understanding, cooperation, mutual assistance, mutual tolerance, voluntary subservience to provide some benefit to the member participating in the biotic interaction. Spiritualism is innate and is not acquired by learning experience. The very existence of the human being and to perform the characteristic living functions, man depends upon the protoplasmic substance and its innate “power” to acquire energy from its external environment. The human form becomes the actuality that it represents by the NATURE of its spiritual association with the protoplasmic living matter. Man is a spiritual being because of the spiritual nature of his living substance called protoplasm.
HUMAN NATURE AND HUMAN FORMS: ‘SARVESHAM SVASTIR BHAVATU’
What is man? The motivation to ask this question comes from a statement expressed in the Sanskrit language, ‘Sarvesham Svastir Bhavatu’, which seeks the well-being of all men, of all races, of all cultures, of all religions, and of all nations. Our efforts to support the well-being of man would be affected by our understanding the ‘real’ or ‘true’ nature of man. Aristotle describes corporeal substances are composite of two principles, form and matter. It is important to seek proper understanding of human form and to know the truth about human nature by describing the form. Being born relates the man to the Subjective Reality of his physical existence and the human nature is related to the fact of man’s existence in the physical world and universe. If the Objective Reality of man is non-material, we still need to know as to what exists in the world, and as to how it exists.
PLATO’S THEORY OF FORMS – THE DUALISM OF BODY AND SOUL:
Greek philosopher Plato (427 B.C. to 347 B.C.) describes the human nature by his Theory of Forms. He describes four aspects of human being; 1. The Logical Form, 2. The Epistemological Form, 3. The Moral Form, and 4. The Metaphysical Form.
The Logical Form: It describes the physical being, the physical form and its identity. Each human being has characteristic physical features using which he can be identified as a member of the genus Homo and he has very specific features that establishes his identity that is shared by all the members of a species known as Homo sapiens sapiens. Each member of this species could be further identified as an individual using the present Identification technology. This specific human individual will not exist with the same identifying features during his entire duration of his physical existence. The Logical Form of human is impermanent and is subject to change and eventual death. However, the existence of this physical form is important to support the existence of man and to know his nature. Existence precedes human nature or Essence. The Essence (Who You Are) is defined and is preceded by the Reality of Existence. The human being belongs to a social group, and always exists as an Individual with Individuality while his physical form changes and passes through various stages such as infancy, boyhood, teenage, adult and old age. The Logical Form is subject to change, decay, and death. Hence, the reality of this Form is often doubted. It must be noted that Plato has not known man as a multicellular organism and his description of the Logical Form is not based upon study of Human Anatomy and Human Physiology.
The Epistemological Form: The term epistemology deals with the Theory of Knowledge. It describes the possible kinds of knowledge and the degrees of certainty for each kind of knowledge. Plato describes the knowledge that human being can acquire through education, a process of learning from sensory experiences, and teaching imparted by others. Plato expects to obtain full knowledge of human forms through proper education. Such knowledge is important to know the Metaphysical Form of man. Self-Knowledge leads to the understanding of man’s true or real nature. The perception of impermanent, material, human body is described by Plato as only opinion or belief and he considers that such perception is not true knowledge of human form. Plato has not given attention to knowledge that is innate or that is not acquired by the learning process. To perform the living functions in support of his existence, man uses biological information that is inherited and not knowledge that has to be acquired through learning.
The Moral Form: It describes qualities such as Courage and Justice, the observable aspects of human nature that could be described from human action and human behavior.
The Metaphysical Form: Plato claims that the Metaphysical Form is not perceivable by any of the senses. The Metaphysical Form is the real form of the human being as compared to the Logical Form which is considered to be unreal. The Metaphysical Form is not present in space or time, as it is beyond the world of changeable and destructible things. It belongs to the realm of unchanging, eternal forms. This form being true can be fully known through knowledge.
Plato’s Theory of Body-Soul Dualism:
Plato divides human being into two categories; 1.Body, a material entity, and 2. Mind or Soul, a non-material entity which can exist apart from the Body. Plato maintains that the Mind or Soul is indestructible, it existed eternally before birth and will exist eternally after death. He further describes the three parts of Soul as 1. Appetite – the seat of desires and passion such as hunger, thirst, and sexual desire, 2. Reason – the seat of discernment that chooses right from wrong and makes distinctions between good and evil, and 3. Spirit – the seat of self-assertion, self-interest, anger, indignation, and self-pride. Plato considers that the well-being of man depends upon harmonious interactions of the three aspects of the Soul. Plato thinks that such harmonious interactions would only be possible when Reason controls both Spirit and Appetite. To strike this balance and to maintain harmony, man has to obtain knowledge of the eternal, unchanging form. Plato thinks that Justice is revealed as a principle of each thing performing the function most appropriate to its nature, a principle of the proper adjudication of activity and being. The principle of Justice is revealed or discovered in the individual human Soul when each part of the Soul performs its proper and appropriate function. Plato believed that the Human Soul rules the Human Body. The Rule of Reason is required to combine the virtue of temperance with self-mastery and harmony results when all elements agree as to which should do what.
The Five Aspects of Human Existence:
I describe five Forms of human being and each Form can be identified by its own behavior; 1. The Physical Form as described by Human Anatomy and Human Physiology, 2. The Mental Form as described by sciences such as Psychology and Psychiatry, the Form that has intellectual and emotional aspects, 3. The Social Form as described by Social Sciences, the social aspects of man, his activities, and the structure and organization of all human institutions, 4. The Moral Form as described by man’s power of discernment or conscience to make moral and ethical choices, and 5, The Spiritual Form, the aspect that formulates harmonious interactions between the cells, the tissues, and the organs of the human body whose individual functions support the well-being of the singular entity recognized as man. The man’s existence would be at risk if any of these five aspects is adversely impacted. Unless we seek clear, visual images of Human Form in all its aspects, we will fail to understand the man and his purpose in life.
What is Man? I would begin this investigation by sharing my motivation for asking this question. The motivation comes from a statement that is expressed in Sanskrit language: “SARVESHAM SVASTIR BHAVATU”, a statement that seeks the well-being of all people, of all races, of all cultures, of all religions, and of all nations.
The meaning and purpose of life are affected by whatever we think is the real or true nature of man. It is important to recognize that our efforts to support the well-being of man would require correct understanding and knowledge of the real or true man.
WHAT IS INTELLIGENCE?
Intelligence can only exist in living matter and living entities. The word Intelligence (Latin. Intelligentia) involves perception, discernment, the ability to learn or understand from experience, and the ability to acquire and retain knowledge. Intelligence is associated with all-around effectiveness of a living organism to maintain its existence. Intelligence influences a broad range of living functions and could be observed in the performance of those functions. The potentiality or capacity called Intelligence has a biological basis. However, in popular usage, Intelligence is used to describe the cognitive (knowing) component distinct from the affective (emotional), and motivational (drive) components of human behavior. Very often, people use the term Intelligence to describe the variations in the ability to learn, to function in society and to behave according to contemporary social expectations. I would like to differ from this conception of Intelligence as an innate ‘brain- power’- a mental faculty which distinguishes the more highly evolved animals from simple organisms, and tries to measure Intelligence levels and the differences among individuals and separate geniuses from average persons. It is not reasonable to think of Intelligence as an exclusive function or faculty of the mind. Psychologists who describe the psychological basis of Intelligence tend to view Intelligence as a combination of the innate characteristics of an individual’s Central Nervous System which is molded by experience, learning, heredity, and environmental factors. Psychologists describe Intelligence as a collection of a large number of highly varied, although overlapping mental skills and abilities. Intelligence may include about 120 specific abilities which are grouped under three categories as: 1. logical processes, 2. the kinds of information processed, and 3. the products of such information processed (eg. classes, systems, relations). It is understandable to know Intelligence as multidimensional and Intelligence serves as the basis for the performance of a wide variety of functions that involve knowing information, use or application of information, and physical performance or observed behavior which could be called Intelligent Behavior. Still, there is no single definition of Intelligence. There is no agreement if Intelligence could be directly observed and be accurately measured. Intelligence remains as a hypothetical ability. There is an abstract faculty that apprehends, conceptually and perceptually, relations among objects. I would like to present this abstract function of Intelligence to recognize relations among objects as a feature of a living cell and its ability to recognize the presence of other living cells present in its environment, its ability to recognize substances present in its environment, its ability to selectively use or dispose of molecules, its ability to express cooperation, tolerance, mutual assistance, defence, communication, and functional subordination in various biotic interactions with its own being, or in its interactions with other living species. My purpose is that of recognizing the fact of Intelligence as the characteristic of all living organisms and living cells and it could be important to recognize the association between Intelligence and Consciousness as the basis for a living entity to exist in its environment. We cannot afford to ignore the fact that millions of human beings have perished because of Intelligence displayed in operation and behavior of a variety of Viruses, Bacteria, Protozoa, other parasites, venomous creatures (eg. spiders, scorpions, and snakes) and carnivorous animals.
SPIRITUALISM AND INTELLIGENCE:
I suggest that we need to make a distinction between Intelligence and Intellect, the mental function which is associated with thinking. Brain like all other organs and tissues of the human body has grown and developed from the protoplasm of a single, fertilized egg cell. The intellectual abilities of brain are dependent upon the basic, underlying nature and ability of its living matter or protoplasm. Intelligence represents innate ability or capacity to learn and adapt. It has the ability to acquire new knowledge from experience. This potentiality and capacity of Intelligence is reflected in mental abilities like creative thinking and analytical thinking. In my view, both Consciousness, and Intelligence are the defining features of Soul or Spirit and hence I submit that the living matter or protoplasm is of Spiritual nature as it knows to formulate its relations with other living entities with a nature that exhibits traits of Compassion, Sympathy, and Understanding to achieve both internal, and external Harmony, Tranquility, and Peace to support its existence and living condition. Man because of his intellectual abilities entertains thoughts about immortality, eternal life, and everlasting life as he recognizes the potentiality and capacity of his Intelligence that sustains and maintains his living condition.
What is man? The tradition of knowing oneself is a longer tradition than any other Science. This is a study in which the Knower and the Known are one. The object of the scientific inquiry is the nature of the scientist. The motivation to know man comes from a statement expressed in the Sanskrit language, “Sarvesham Svastir Bhavatu” which seeks the well-being of all the men of all races, of all cultures, of all religions, and of all nations.
Our efforts to support the well-being of man would be affected by our ability to discover the universal principles that describe the ‘real’ or ‘true’ nature of man. All human literary, philosophical, religious, and scientific traditions make assumptions about human nature. The basic assumption about human nature is that of finding it displayed in feelings, thoughts, moods, and mental states of the human individual from where human actions and behavior proceed. All such actions and behaviors that emanate from mental states show individualistic variations. It will not be easy to discover universal principles that could clearly establish the basis of true and real human nature by simply studying human mind and its functions. The structure and behavior of things contribute to their individual being and function. To understand human behavior, we may have to know the structure and behavior of the human living matter or substance to which we attach human identity and recognize it as the human person. I try to know the human nature from the functional characteristics that are observable in biotic interactions of cells, tissues, organs and organ systems formed and developed by the human living matter and constitute the human organism. If a man is viewed as a multicellular organism, I try to discover the human nature of a subject who objectively exists because of the living functions of cells, tissues, organs and organ systems that provide the biological basis for that existence. In this context, I have explored the theories shared by biologist Konrad Lorenz, psychologist Dr. B.F. Skinner, philosopher Jean Paul Sartre and now I would like to review the Theory of psychoanalysis formulated by Dr. Sigmund Freud. It must be noted that all of them and several others have explained the human nature without explaining the connection between the nature that is observed and the biological basis for the existence of the human individual whose behavior and actions they have studied.
PSYCHOANALYSIS AND THE PRINCIPLE OF DETERMINISM:
Dr. Sigmund Freud is known as the creator of Psychoanalysis. He is the author of several books; The Interpretation of Dreams (1900), The Psychopathology of Everyday Life (1901), Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality (1905), Five Lectures on Psycho-Analysis (1909), Introductory Lectures on Psycho-Analysis (1915 -1917), Beyond the Pleasure Principle (1920), The Ego and the Id (1923), The Future of an Illusion (1927), An Outline of Psycho-Analysis (1938), and others. He assumes that all phenomena are determined by the laws of Physics and Chemistry. He considers that man is a product of Natural Evolution and is subject to the same laws of mechanistic principles. According to Freud, every event has preceding sufficient causes within the realm of the mind. He investigated for hidden causes in a person’s mind. Freud suggests that there are uncontrollable causes in every individual’s mind that determine the choices the individual makes. Freud contends that the mind includes ‘unconscious’ items of which the person has no ordinary knowledge. Freud postulates that the ‘unconscious’ mental state is dynamic in nature and that it actively exerts pressures and influences on what a person is and what he does. Freud coined the term Psychoanalysis to describe both the theories of Personality and the method of treating mental illness. Freud profoundly influenced man’s view of himself. Psychoanalysis involves the possibility of ‘unconscious’ mental states which have causal effects on people’s mental life. Psychoanalysis is based upon the idea that people could suffer from some idea or memory or emotion of which they are not conscious, but from which they could be cured by somehow bringing it into consciousness. Freud applied Psychoanalytic theory to the whole of normal mental life, not just to pathological conditions. He evolved a method of treatment to address the problems of neurotic mental disorders. The Freudian concept thus describes the powerful influence of the ‘unconscious’ mind on conscious thought and behavior and the equally powerful influence of the apparently forgotten past on the present. Apart from using terms such as ‘unconscious’, ‘preconscious’, and ‘conscious’, he distinguished three major structural systems within the human mind or personality; the ‘id’ which contains all the instinctual drives seeking immediate satisfaction, the ‘ego’ which deals with the real world outside the person, mediating between ‘ego’ and the ‘id’, and the ‘superego’, a special part of the ‘ego’ which contains the conscience, the social norms acquired in childhood. Whatever can become ‘conscious’ or items that could be ‘preconscious’ is in the ‘ego’ and everything in the ‘id’ is permanently ‘unconscious’. Freud’s concept of man includes his theory of the ‘instincts’ or ‘drives’, the motive forces within the mind. Freud also shares the historical theory of individual human character and the adult character depends upon the experience of infancy and childhood. Freud says that individual well-being or mental health depends on a harmonious relationship between the various parts of the mind and between the person and the real world in which man has to live. When we apply the Psychoanalytic theory to verify the contents of man’s ‘conscious’ or ‘unconscious’ mind, the basic assumption of Freud that man is governed by laws of Physics and Chemistry gets disproved. Human beings are vastly different from the entities studied by Physics and Chemistry. Psychoanalysis could only have individualistic applications. Psychoanalysis does not provide data that could be further tested empirically. We cannot test the usefulness or judge the efficacy of Psychoanalytic treatment in the same manner that is used to evaluate other therapeutic interventions.
SPIRITUALISM AND CONSCIOUSNESS:
I would like to explain ‘Spiritualism’ as the potency that is evidenced as the presence of consciousness in any given living organism or living cell. It is the chief biological characteristic of living matter. Spiritualism is the power that causes consciousness and awareness that is exhibited in the biological properties of living matter; biological properties such as Motion, Nutrition, and Reproduction by Cell Division. Spiritualism is the biological basis for human existence and it explains human nature which is expressed as an internal, mutually beneficial partnership, relationship, association, connection, and bonding between the cells, the tissues, and the organ systems of the human organism and the Whole Organism that represents the Human Person in the world he lives. Clinical Medicine provides the opportunities to promote the well-being of all people as it includes the principle of verification of the objective, biological basis of human existence. Dr. Freud may explain as to why a man may choose to drink alcohol or use tobacco. But, his Psychoanalysis will not determine the behavior, action, and response of the man’s liver, heart, lungs, blood vessels and other cells, tissues, and organ systems to the choices that the man makes. While man makes mental choices for his actions and behavior, he has no freedom, no free will to make choices on behalf of his cells, tissues, and organ systems. While Freud lays the emphasis on a harmonious relationship between the various parts of the mind and between the person, I speak about harmonious relationships in the Whole Person and not simply between a few unobservable mental entities. We need a theory that recognizes the spiritual nature of man’s living matter and the spiritual relationships that it formulates while developing and building the very complex multicellular human organism.
Dr. Edward Osborne Wilson is recognized as the world’s leading authority on ants. He is the foremost proponent of Sociobiology, the study of the genetic basis of the social behavior of all animals including humans. In his book, Sociobiology : The New Synthesis (1975) he presented his theories about the biological basis of social behavior. It involves the application of the Theory of Evolution to the study of animal and human social behavior. It holds that the Theory of Evolution by ‘natural selection’ applies to behavior in the same way that it applies to structure and physiological functions. He holds that behavior patterns are genetically determined and are governed by the process of ‘natural selection’. Accordingly, he explains that social behavior relies upon the principle that genes are able to influence behavior and will be selected if the behaviors they encourage contribute ultimately to the reproductive success of the individual carrying those genes. The ‘Darwinian Fitness’ of an organism or a gene is a measure of the ability of that organism or gene to project copies of itself into future generations. Because, ‘natural selection’ would influence genetically controlled behavior, he believes that individuals will tend to behave in ways that maximize their ‘Darwinian Fitness’. However, he attributes 10 percent of human behavior as genetically induced, the rest being attributable to environment. It could be indeed true that some behavioral abilities depend upon underlying genetic mechanisms which support the neural and hormonal mechanisms that are required in the performance of actions by organisms. Dr. Wilson recognizes the essentially biological principles on which animal societies are based and could apply those principles to human social behavior. One of Dr. Wilson’s most notable theories is that a characteristic such as ‘altruism’ could be genetically based and may have evolved through the process of ‘natural selection’. Dr. Wilson maintains that altruistic behavior is consistent with ‘natural selection’ in that the sacrifice is made to save closely related individuals who share many of the sacrificed organism’s genes.
ALTRUISM AND SOCIOBIOLOGY:
The term ‘altruism’ (French – altruisme) was coined by Auguste Comte, the founder of Positivism and Sociology. It is considered as antithesis to Egoism. Altruism is behavior that benefits others at some cost to the individual displaying altruistic behavior. Social scientists refer to altruism as the behavior of an individual who consciously comes to the aid of another, without expecting anything in return. Such behavior is influenced by empathy, an emotional response that results from being aware of another person’s emotions. In Ethics, altruism is described as a theory of conduct that regards the good of others as the end of moral action. It describes unselfish concern for the welfare of others. However, biologists view altruism as any behavior that reduces the ‘Darwinian Fitness'(reproductive success) of the altruist while increasing the fitness of another. It is common for animals to share food, help provide for another’s young, defend others against predators, and give alarm calls when a predator appears. Such animal altruism is common and it does not require psychological abilities and functions like sharing of emotions, feelings, and thoughts. Altruism as a behavior is not always a psychological function or ability. It is displayed as pure altruism in the social behavior of worker bees, ants, and wasps.
SPIRITUALISM – THE NEW SYNTHESIS:
It must be understood that behavior is a fundamental characteristic of life and of all living entities. All species, whether single-celled protozoans or the largest of mammals possess the capacity to respond to stimuli in their environment. This ability called responsiveness is the fundamental attribute of all kinds and types of behavior. Psychologists like B.F. Skinner tend to focus on the learned components of behavior and stress the importance of environment and its influence on behavior. Biologists like Konrad Lorenz tend to focus primarily on the analysis of the innate components of behavior. Sociobiologists tend to recognize the role of genes and the influence of environment and describe that behavioral abilities depend on underlying genetic mechanisms that develop the structures and physiological mechanisms that are important to display a given behavior. It may be noted that both Psychologists and Biologists are describing behavior in the context of social relations and interactions between individual and groups of living organisms. Living things behave in ways to maximize their chances of survival. In the entire animal kingdom, most living organisms display parental or social instincts. All animals display social behavior. No animal is ever completely isolated from some kind of environment that may not include members of the same species or other species. Animals form parental societies to care for their offspring. Bacteria come together to live as colonies. Hence, it will be important to recognize social behavior that is displayed by individual living cells. I define Spiritualism as the capacity or the biological ability of an individual living cell to form harmonious relations with others and to participate in or contribute constructively to changes in the social environment. The potency called Spiritualism is reflected in the biological functions of Consciousness and Intelligence. At a cellular level, the social aspect of Consciousness is reflected by the biological abilities of the cell such as association, cooperation, communication, recognition of other living cells in its immediate environment, and performing actions which have characteristics of functional subservience to provide benefits like survival and reproductive success to other cells. A very good example of Spiritualism is that of altruism displayed by the mature Red Blood Cells of the man. The mature Red Blood Cells have no nuclei and hence cannot divide or reproduce. Each Red Blood Cell has a very limited life span of its own. They sustain their meagre energy needs by a form of anaerobic respiration as they do not have mitochondria like the trillions of other cells of the human body. The Red Blood Cells are passive in nature and they simply exist to provide Oxygen to other cells and tissues, collect Carbon Dioxide while being swept along by the blood stream. Since the mature Red Blood Cells have no nuclei, their behavior is not operated by genes or genetic mechanisms which could be important in their formation, development, and maturation. The social aspects of the Red Blood Cell behavior is related to the spiritual nature of its living substance. I would ask Biologists to give attention to the nature, functional abilities of the living substance apart from the consideration of genes and genetic mechanisms. It may be very clearly understood that the nucleus, the chromosomes, and the genes have no independent existence of their own and they perform their cellular functions while they derive energy and nutritional support from the living substance or Protoplasm that has the biological abilities of Consciousness, and Intelligence which is reflected in its properties like responsiveness, the power of nutrition, and reproduction. Spiritualism is the Science of New Synthesis; the New Synthesis that formulates the relationships between Substance, Structure, Function, Heredity of a Living Organism and its Environment, Behavior, and Social Community.
THE THEORY OF HUMAN NATURE: “SARVESHAM SVASTIR BHAVATU”
What is Man? The motivation for asking this question comes from a statement expressed in Sanskrit language, “Sarvesham Swastir Bhavatu” which seeks the well-being of all humans of all races, of all cultures, of all religions, and of all nations.
Our efforts to support the well-being of man would be affected by our understanding the ‘real’, or ‘true’ nature of man. All human traditions including several philosophical and scientific traditions make assumptions about human nature. The basic assumption about human nature is that of finding it displayed in feelings, thoughts, moods, action, and behavior. I try to know human nature from the functional characteristics that are observable in biotic interactions of cells, tissues, and organs that constitute the human organism. If man is viewed as a multicellular organism, I need to discover the human nature of this subject who lives because of the functions of the cells, tissues, and organs that provide the structural basis of the human organism.
THE KEY TO HUMAN NATURE – EVOLUTION vs CREATION:
The Anatomically Modern Man’s evolution from ape-like ancestors is thought to be the key to our true human nature. Ethology or the scientific study of animal behavior is based on the Theory of Evolution. In order to explain human condition, ethological theories of human nature appeal to the evolutionary past of man.
Lorenz sees the man as an animal who has evolved from other animals. He thinks that human behavior is subject to the same causal laws of nature as all animal behavior. Many patterns of animal behavior show “hereditary coordination” or “instinctive movements” that are innate rather than learned. The ‘instinctual’ behavior is fixed and may not be eliminated or altered by the environment. Instinct is inherited and it is essentially unlearned behavior. Some of the most important aspects of animal behavior are innate. Lorenz studied the nature of instinctive behavioral acts. The instinctual behavior is caused by a ‘drive’ which causes the behavior to appear spontaneously. The “four big-drives” are feeding, reproduction, flight, and aggression. Very often, behavior is activated by two or more basic drives. To account for an instinctive behavior pattern in a species, reference is made to its survival value it has for the genes for that behavior. To explain the existence of any particular organ or behavior pattern, Lorenz looks for its survival value for the species. In his book, “On Aggression” (1963), he explains the natural history of man’s aggressive behavior. He considers that man has an innate drive to aggressive behavior towards his own species like many other animals. Fighting and warlike behavior in man have an inborn basis. He seeks an evolutionary explanation for human innate aggressiveness or ‘Intraspecific’ aggression which is concerned with fighting and threats between members of the same species. The most destructive aspect of human aggression is its communal nature and the fighting is not between individuals but between groups. Humans fight as groups and human beings are the only animals to indulge in mass slaughter of their own species. He explains that this innate aggressive behavior has evolved from the communal defense response of our pre-human ancestors. However, Lorenz made no scientific study of behavior displayed by apes. Among the members of Homo genus, man is the only surviving representative of the Homo sapiens species and hence it will not be easy to validate his conclusions about evolutionary origin of innate human aggressive behavior. If aggression is viewed as a hereditary behavior which is based upon its survival value for the genes for that behavior, it must be noted that all human ancestors had perished and have gone extinct and the behavior of aggression could not be of value in defending their survival as a species.
COMPASSION WITHIN THE INDIVIDUAL AND BETWEEN INDIVIDUALS:
Compassion or sympathy (sym=together + pati=suffer) describes the emotional feelings of sorrow for the sufferings or troubles of another person or others accompanied by an urge to help. Compassion describes an understanding arising from the sameness of emotional feeling. When a man recognizes pain or sorrow in the lives of others, it spontaneously arouses the emotional feelings of compassion. This understanding and the emotional response to the pain and suffering in the lives of others appears to be instinctive. Apart from the “four big-drives,” compassion is operated by an innate drive or it is a motivated behavior. Compassion and altruism (any behavior that appears to favor another individual’s chances of survival) is a response generated by human nature. Compassion acts like a physical force, power, or energy. It has the power to uplift a man from physical pain and mental, or emotional pain or sorrow. The instinct of compassion comes into play and acts as a force, power, or energy when a man experiences sorrow and reacts to the suffering or troubles of another man. I am also suggesting that the emotionally motivated behavior of compassion is found within individuals apart from between individuals. If my experience of pain or suffering does not elicit the emotional response of compassion from others, fortunately, I can derive the benefit of the uplifting power of compassion by simply knowing the source of compassion that exists within myself. When a person is enjoying a state of good health, we find that the cells, tissues, and organs of that human person are interacting with each other in a harmonious manner and these intraspecific biotic interactions display characteristics such as mutual assistance, mutual cooperation, mutual tolerance, and mutual functional subservience to provide a benefit to the human individual who lives because of the functions of these cells, tissues, and organs. The constituent parts of the human body interact with each other with a sense of devotion, sympathy, compassion, and understanding. We often try to find compassion in the actions performed by others in response to the pain, and suffering that we may experience. We describe compassion from the thoughts, emotional feelings, understanding, and sympathetic response that we witness in the behavior and action of others. I recognize compassion in the nature of the interactions between the cells, tissues, and organs of my body and consider that such compassion always operates to keep me the human person in good and positive health. I understand the reality of human existence and suggest that the existence is made possible because compassion is innate to human nature guiding the normal living functions both in health and sickness. I observe the operation of compassion in the wound healing mechanism that is described as ‘Inflammation and Repair’. The emotional feelings of compassion are important for the survival of man who exists to find emotional satisfaction from his living experience. The instinctive behavior of compassion supports the survival of man as it provides an emotional sense of satisfaction and contentment which contributes to the experience of joy and happiness in life.
COMPASSION IS THE KEY TO HUMAN NATURE:
The biological properties, characteristics, and the biological nature of the living substance or protoplasm could account for an instinctive behavior pattern like compassion. Biological functions and characteristics such as nutrition, recognition, awareness, responsiveness, and communication with other living cells have not evolved because of their survival value for the species. At a fundamental level, certain living characteristics or nature is innate or implanted in matter at the beginning of life. The nature called compassion is implanted or innate to the living substance or matter known as protoplasm.
Human Nature and Human Behavior: “Sarvesham Svastir Bhavatu”
What is man? The motivation for asking this question comes from a statement expressed in Sanskrit language: “Sarvesham Svastir Bhavatu”, which seeks the well-being of all men, of all races, of all religions, of all cultures, and of all nations.
Our efforts to support the well-being of man would be affected by our understanding the ‘real’ or ‘true’ nature of man. I recognize that man exists with the following seven forms, 1. the Physical Being as described by Human Anatomy, Human Physiology and other Medical Sciences, the human being in health and sickness, 2. the Mental Being, the intellect and emotional aspects as described by Psychology and Psychiatry, 3. the Social Being as described by Social Sciences, 4. the Moral Being as described by Morals and Ethics, the power of discernment used by man to make the distinction between good and evil, and right and wrong, 5. the Spiritual Being as described by the spiritual nature of man’s corporeal substance that develops and builds the cells, tissues, and organs of the human body. 6. the Creative Being that constitutes the man as a specific Individual with Individuality without any further choice, and 7. the Rational Being, the dimension of the man who cannot avoid the use of the reasoning process to know himself and the world in which he exists.
While most religious and philosophical traditions explore spirituality by understanding human thoughts, and feelings, I try to know this spiritual aspect of human nature by observing the functional behavior that is displayed in the interactions of cells, tissues, and organs that constitute the human organism. If man is viewed as a multicellular organism, human behavior must be observed in the biotic interactions of cells, tissues, and organs because of whose functions man lives in the world. The five aspects of man contribute to the five kinds of behavior of man; the physical, mental, social, moral, and spiritual behavior. A muscle cell displays the behavior of contraction in response to a stimulus and it is able to contract because of its contractile nature which gives it the power of contracting. I would like to explain that Spiritualism is the human nature that gives the man the power or ability to perform his living functions and display his characteristic behaviors like feeding, and reproduction.
HUMAN BEHAVIOR AND ENVIRONMENT:
B. F. Skinner studied behavior and the environmental causes of behavior mediated through conditioning mechanisms. In his opinion, all behavior is a function of environmental variables. He proposed a thesis of ‘Universal Determinism, and thinks that every human event including all human choices has a set of preceding environmental causes. In Indian tradition, the Bhagavad Gita also explains the relation between human behavior and environment or ‘Prakriti’. Chapter XIV, verse 5 states : “Sattvam, rajas, tama iti gunah prakriti sambhavah”, the modes of human behavior such as Sattva (the mode of goodness), Rajas (the mode of passion), and Tamas(the mode of ignorance) are generated by the interactions between human body and the environment in which he lives. At the same time, Indian tradition makes a very clear distinction between true human nature and the three modes of human behavior. The real, or true man is described by the spiritual characteristic of human nature.
The Bhagavad Gita in Chapter XVIII, verse 20 claims that all living entities share a single reality even while they are divided into innumerable forms (“Sarva bhuteshu yenaikam bhavam avyayam iksate” ) and directs us to recognize that spiritual nature as the true reality that is common among different living forms. B.F. Skinner paid attention to the external causes or influences that generate or modify human behavior and has totally avoided the study of innate or inner cause of behavior. He did not give any importance to the role of heredity in human behavior. This internal influence on an organism’s behavior is not directly observable and an experimenter cannot manipulate such internal influences to conduct experimental studies of behavior. Skinner’s findings about external influences and environmental conditioning mechanisms explain several aspects of human behavior but they do not explain the relationship between human behavior and human existence.
To understand human existence, we have to learn about the nature of man’s substance and the behavior of the cells, tissues, and organs that provide the structural and functional basis of the human organism. Man is a very complex living organism that shows structural differentiation and the functional organization of various tissues and organ systems. The specialized functions of tissues and organs is possible because of the functional subordination of the cells to the requirements of the organism as a whole. In other words, the specialized functions of tissues and organs could be described as ‘altruistic’ behavior, a behavior that promotes the well-being and appears to favor the individual’s chances of survival and reproduction. Man may exhibit behavior under the influence of environment and may act in the modes of behavior such as goodness (Sattva), passion (Rajas), or ignorance (Tamas), but his existence is made possible by his innate human nature which acts as an internal influence and determines the characteristics of the biotic interactions between the cells, the tissues, and organs of his own body.
What it is to be a Substance? and What it is to Exist? We need to establish knowledge about the man on a firm basis and the information it provides must be tested for its accuracy and consistency with an external reality. We have to make the fundamental distinction between the living and the non-living matter. The scientific advances of the 19th and 20th centuries reinforced the materialistic position concerning the basic similarity of organic living and inorganic physical matter. The man is viewed as a product of natural evolution and is thought to be subject to the same laws of Physics and Chemistry or mechanistic principles.
We need a methodology to study philosophy and to understand philosophical statements. Logical Positivism, also known as Scientific Empiricism aims to clarify concepts in both everyday and scientific language. It describes analysis of language as the function of philosophy. This analysis of language and of concepts is important to understand questions of belief and ideology which affect what we think we ought to do individually and socially. I would use this method of ‘Applied Philosophy’ to analyze the philosophical doctrine of ‘Existentialism’ and to study the views and philosophy of Jean Paul Sartre and his efforts to interpret the human nature and the human existence.
What is man? The motivation for asking this question comes from a statement expressed in Sanskrit language, “Sarvesham Swastir Bhavatu”, which seeks the well-being of all humans, of all races, of all religions, of all cultures, and of all nations. Our efforts to support the well-being of man would be affected by our understanding the ‘real’ or ‘true’ nature of man. All human traditions, including religious, cultural, literary, philosophical, and scientific traditions make assumptions about human nature. The basic assumption about human nature is that of finding it displayed in thoughts, feelings, moods, and the actions and the behaviors that proceed from such mental states of the human individual. Human nature could be discovered by understanding the biological basis for human existence. Human nature is a reflection of that potency that keeps the human object existing. To describe human nature from mental life or mental states of an individual causes Subject-Object Dualism. I try to know human nature by knowing the characteristics of the substance that exists. The substance when it performs its functions, the characteristics of its behavior could be observed in biotic interactions, the interactions of the cells, the tissues, and the organ systems that constitute the human organism. I try to discover human nature of a subject who objectively exists because of the functions of the cells, the tissues, and organ systems that provide the basis for that existence.
EXISTENTIALISM-THE PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN EXISTENCE:
The philosophical focus of Existentialism is concerned with the uniqueness of the individual human being, the meaning or purpose of human life as a subjective experience, and with the freedom of human individual. Sartre believed in the ability of every person to choose for himself his attitudes, purposes, values, and a way of life. Sartre’s thesis is that humans are essentially free, free to choose (though not free not to choose) and free to negate the given features of the world. In his novel, “Being and Nothingness” (1943), Sartre expresses an opinion that the only ‘authentic’ and genuine way of life is that freely chosen by each individual for himself. Sartre’s driving belief in Radical Freedom involves the ability to choose not only a course of action but also what one would become. According to Sartre, man is truly free, the world, whether material or social can place no constraints on him, not even to the extent of determining what would or would not be good reasons for following a given course of action. Sartre thought that there are no transcendent or objective values set for human beings and that there is no ultimate meaning or purpose inherent in human life. Sartre insists that the only foundation for values is human freedom and that there can be no external or objective justification for the values anyone chooses to adopt.
HUMAN CONSCIOUSNESS AND HUMAN EXISTENCE:
Sartre makes a radical distinction between consciousness (L’etre-pour- soi, being-for-itself) and non-conscious objects (L’etre-en-soi, being-in-itself). Though it is correct that human beings have emotional feelings, thoughts, and moods, the nature of consciousness is the same in all living entities. The presence or absence of feelings is of no consideration to make the fundamental distinction between inanimate and animate beings. He focused on the opposition between objective things and human consciousness. This basic dualism is shown by the fact that consciousness necessarily has an object; it is always consciousness of something which is not itself. Consciousness makes the distinction between itself and its object. Sartre makes a conceptual connection between consciousness and nothingness. Human consciousness is a non-thing as its reality consists in standing back from things and taking a point of view on them. Because consciousness is a non-thing (Sartre’s “neant” literally means “nothingness”), it does not have any of the causal involvements that things have with other things. This means that consciousness and thus humans themselves are essentially free. In Sartre’s view, to pretend that we are not free is that of self-deception or bad faith (mauvaise foi). According to Sartre, the freedom of human consciousness is experienced by humans as a burden and it causes anguish. Sartre’s most basic point is that to be conscious is to be ‘free’. Sartre’s concept of human freedom is a simple mental entity and it involves the freedom of imagination. However, man has a very limited freedom to convert his imagination into an external actuality. The man lacks total freedom and has no true freedom as he does not directly rule or govern even a single cell in his body which comprises of trillions of individual living cells which have functional autonomy and are independent entities while being part of a group.
HUMAN CONSCIOUSNESS AND HUMAN FREEDOM:
I may have to disagree with the view shared by Sartre and various others about the nature of human consciousness. The problem involves the description of consciousness as a mental function. Consciousness is a neurobiological function, and more importantly it is the basic living function. The living cell is aware or conscious of the fact of its own existence, it is conscious of itself and its internal condition, and it is conscious of its external environment and objects found in its external environment. Hence, consciousness must be described as a biological characteristic of living cells and living organisms. Consciousness describes the nature of the substance that is living, the matter that lives and is known as living matter. The living matter is conscious of its internal condition, a condition that demands the supply of energy from an external source to keep its existence. The biological properties of motion, and nutrition come into play because of this biological characteristic called consciousness. Hence it is a vital, or animating principle of all living cells and living organisms. The living cell because of its consciousness knows its nature of energy dependent existence and uses its power of motion and nutrition to attract substances found in its external environment to perform all other living functions to support its growth and maintenance. The fact of energy dependent existence and the consciousness of that conditioned existence displays the lack of human freedom in matters that pertain to human existence. A complex human living system exists because of harmonious interactions, partnership, relationship, and association between the cells, the tissues, the organs, and the organ systems that constitute the human individual. These biotic interactions display behavioral characteristics such as mutual assistance, mutual cooperation, mutual tolerance, mutual subservience, mutual functional subordination to provide benefits to each other to support the survival and reproductive success of each other. There is sympathy, compassion, and understanding for the needs of each other, the participants of a biotic or biological community or association of living cells that comprise the human person. I observe the human organism and I can accurately describe that Spiritualism is the chief attribute of human existence and human nature. The man has no freedom and the man has no choice other than that of existing as a Spiritual Being. It is ironic that the man has no cortical or mental awareness of the spiritual nature of his own body and the substance that lives because of its nature. By seeking awareness of the underlying spiritual nature, the man will be able to live in harmony and peace within himself and with others in his environment. I agree with the view of Sartre and suggest that man’s existence precedes his essence. Sartre has failed to contemplate upon the biological basis of human existence and hence could not describe the reality of human essence and human nature. The Subjective Reality of physical existence precedes and defines the nature of human being. Who you are (your Essence) is defined by what you do (your Existence). To know the man’s essence, to describe the human nature, we need a man who is existing. If there is no living, physical being called man, it would serve us no purpose to know its nature or essence. In Spiritualism, the man’s essence and existence come together to establish the purpose of man in Life.
THE ART OF RECEIVING AND THE ART OF GIVING:
Sir Winston Churchill said, “You make a living by what you get. You make a life by what you give.” To add clarity to this quote, I would like to say that human existence depends upon receiving energy from an external source. Human nature involves sharing that energy with others. The human person comprises of about 100 trillion individual, living cells and at the same time there are about 10 times 100 trillion microorganisms that inhabit the human gastrointestinal tract. There is a mutually beneficial relationship between man the host and the microbes that inhabit the gastrointestinal tract. These microbes receive a fair share of energy and material that man consumes as food and drink. This relationship persists during the entire course of man’s life. If receiving is inescapable, giving is inevitable consequence of human living and human life. Spiritualism is the potency that gives the man the ability to Receive and to Give to others.
The objective of this presentation is to define ‘Spiritualism’ as an internal, mutually beneficial partnership, relationship, association, or bonding between individual living cells of the same organism, or between two different organisms. Spiritualism has to be explained in the context of biotic interactions and consciousness determines the nature and characteristics of such biotic interactions.
Dr. Heinrich Anton de Bary had coined the term ‘Symbiosis’ in 1879. It describes the living together of unlike organisms; the intimate association of two dissimilar organisms from which each organism benefits. Symbiosis (sym – together; bios – life) refers to various kinds of close and permanent associations between members of different species and the term could also be used to describe the nature of social relations between different human beings.
WHAT IS A BIOTIC COMMUNITY?
A biotic community is a biological or natural community consisting of two or more interacting and interdependent populations of living cells or living organisms. No species, and no individual member lives in isolation from other species or other living members in a biological community. The life of the community and of all its members, and of all organisms in it requires energy.
NO MAN IS AN ISLAND, ENTIRE OF ITSELF:
Ernest Hemingway’s novel “For Whom The Bell Tolls” gives this modern version of the quote from John Donne’s Meditation XVII, “Devotion Upon Emergent Occasions” : “No man is an island, entire of itself; every man is a piece of the continent a part of the main.” In this blog post I would like to examine the biological basis for human existence and understand the nature of man and the status of man as an organism existing at a given place, and given environment because of mutually beneficial biotic interactions.
WHAT ARE BIOTIC INTERACTIONS?
Living organisms interact with each other competitively and sometimes beneficially. Some of these interactions are temporary, casual and of minor importance whereas others are permanent, vital and of major significance. Many interactions are highly specialized and complicated involving adaptive changes in structure, function, behavior, and ecology. Some interactions create negative effects on the interactants, reducing survival or reproductive success; other interactions produce effects increasing survival or reproductive success. In some cases, members of an interaction are apparently unaffected. Biotic interactions could be divided into two categories; a. Intraspecific Interactions; interactions between the individual living cells that comprise the same multicellular orgainsm, or interactions between members of the same species, and b. Interspecific Interactions; interactions between members of two or more different species. The biotic interactions may involve nutritional benefits, support of other metabolic functions, space in which to live, shelter, or protection, transport, or reproductive capability. Biotic interactions are significant not only because they influence individual species but also because they constitute the principal stabilizing, connective linkages among the various species contained in a biotic community. Individual members of any given species in a biological community persist in relative harmony because of biotic interactions despite individual gains and losses. As a consequence of this web of interactions, the biotic community as a whole persists with all of its members ultimately contributing to its continuation. The consequences of biotic interactions could be positive, negative, or neutral. Mutualism is an association of two different species that result in mutual benefit or gain. Facultative Mutualism or Protocooperation involves facultative interactions between plants and animals in ways that are general and indirect but beneficial to both species. The interactions that occur between soil bacteria and fungi and between them and higher plants growing in the soil are Protocooperative. In the zone of plant roots, soil bacteria and fungi interact with each other, some producing nutrients or metabolites required by others and all obtaining nutrients ultimately from root exudates and decaying organic matter. Plants benefit from the actions of this microflora by acquiring needed minerals, and nitrogen compounds. The important association of nitrifying bacteria in the process called Nitrogen Fixation, the extraction of Nitrogen from the environment by the roots of leguminous plants is well-known. Collectively all microflora and higher plants, with associated soil fauna, participate in determining soil composition, soil structure, and soil fertility. Man exists in nature as a terrestrial organism because of these biotic interactions that transform the characteristics of soil and its ability to support life. Biotic communities that are based on Obligative Mutualism are characterized by stable, persistent, and interdependent associations between species. Coexistence in a given habitat is always required as this association is mandatory for the survival of each participant. This kind of association is perpetrated from one generation to the next. To guarantee the coexistence of the partners, the species involved show relationships based upon structure, behavior, and life history. In lichens, the fungal member penetrates algal cells with feeding tubes or haustoria, thus effecting an intimate physical interconnection. This nutrient exchange helps the algal cells to develop resistance to drying or to extreme temperatures. Commensalism is an association in which one member benefits while the other remains unaffected. Physical Commensalism involves the need for living space and the examples are provided by woody plants that physically support numerous orchids and ferns. Nutritional Commensalism is well illustrated by the many organisms found in the alimentary tracts of man and other higher animals. Such microbial gut flora use host waste products for food and acquire water and a suitable climate in which to live. No harm is done to the hosts. In Parasitism, the smaller organism benefits at the expense of the larger organism. Both plants and animals are attacked by parasites. Many parasites cause disease and death of the host organism. Parasitism constitutes a considerable burden on a host population. Many disease causing organisms are parasites carried from host to host by some other organism; for example Malaria is caused by a protozoan parasite transmitted by mosquitoes. In such situations, the biotic interactions involve three necessarily coexisting species: the pathogen, the carrier or vector species, and the host. An intermediate host interposed between the target host and parasite adds ecological complications to host-parasite interactions: the parasite, host, and intermediate host must all be present in the same community in suitable numbers at the same time. Consumption describes organisms eating organims. It is the most important class of biotic interactions. Herbivory describes animals eating plants. Predation refers to a large or strong animal that consumes a small or weak animal. Scavengers eat or consume dead or decaying organisms and organic material. Consumption is the basic food association( trophic link ) through which the composition dynamics and variation of biological community’s structure takes place. All organisms form links in the community food chains and food webs, the nutritional pathways characteristic of given biological community. Amensalism is an association between organisms of two different species in which one is inhibited or destroyed and the other is unaffected. There are two basic modes of Amensalism; 1. Competition occurs when two species utilize a common, limited resource such as food, space, and water, and in doing so, one species interferes with, injures, or deprives the other species. Competition may involve a larger or stronger organism that excludes a smaller or weaker one from living space or deprives it of food; Intraspecific Competition occurs when competitors are of the same species. Competitive interactions may lead to Competitive Exclusion or Competitive Displacement, and 2. Antibiosis, in which one organism is unaffected but the other is damaged or killed by a chemical secretion. The classic example of Antibiosis is the discovery of Penicillin antibiotic by Dr. Alexander Fleming who had observed that the bread mold Penicillium notatum had effects upon the growth of colonies of bacteria. Mutual Antagonism occurs when a biotic interaction between two species results in harm or death to both.
INTERACTIONS WITHIN A SPECIES: THE ROLE OF NEGATIVE INTERACTIONS:
Intraspecific Competition provides the ultimate force limiting the abundance of a species in a community. Natural enemies could be present or absent but others of the same species are always present providing the Competition that insures against over exploitation of available resources and the irreversible destruction of a community due to overpopulation. Fighting and territorial defense are some of the overt methods by which Competition manifests itself. Territoriality, the dividng up of resources, mostly space, is a common means of defense against overcrowding. Instead of involving individuals against individuals, it involves groups of individuals. It also produces the response of migration of individuals and mass flight of large groups of individuals. Competitive Intraspecific Interactions between humans and Mutual Antagonism among human social groups may endanger human existence.
THE ROLE OF POSITIVE INTRASPECIFIC INTERACTIONS:
The man’s life journey begins with conception and implantation of the embryo into maternal tissues about six days after conception. The prolonged period of gestation, the anatomical connection between developing fetus and mother, the psychological bonding and the extended period of dependence of newborn and the role of parental care reveal the importance of Positive Intraspecific Interactions for human existence. Numerous interactions among individuals of the same species lead to the development of social groups. Parental Care and protection provides the basis for many aggregations of like individuals, and social units like families.
MAN’S BIOLOGICAL EXISTENCE AS THE HOST OF A BIOTIC COMMUNITY:
The man exists in nature as a natural host to a biotic community of trillions of microorganisms. At birth, the stomach and gastrointestinal tract are usually sterile. With the first intake of food and contact with other humans present in the environment, bacteria commence the colonization of infant’s digestive tract. These microorganisms perform functions beneficial to the host. The microbes are provided with a protected place to live and their environment is rich in nutrients. This mutual, beneficial, symbiotic relationship is always present during the entire course of life after birth. The human body consists of about 100 trillion cells and it carries about ten times as many microbes in the intestines. The microbial flora include enteric bacteria, bacteroides, enterococci, lactobacilli, and clostridia. The small intestine contains low numbers of bacteria, about 100,000 to 10 million bacteria per milliliter of fluid. In the large intestine, the bacterial members can reach 100 billion per milliliter of fluid. It is estimated that these gut flora have around 100 times as many genes in aggregate as there are in the human genome. The metabolic activities performed by these bacteria resemble those of an internal organ of human body. The microbes are important to the health of humans. These bacteria are useful for efficient processing of food, absorption of water, absorption of nutrients like Magnesium, Calcium, and Iron. They perform a variety of useful functions such as synthesis of essential vitamins like Biotin, Vitamin K and production of short-chain fatty acids. The gut flora may produce hormones to direct the host to store fat. They train the host immune system to respond only to pathogens and thereby prevent the growth of harmful, pathogenic bacteria. They stimulate increased growth of human gut cells and also stimulate the growth of indigenous bacteria. Gut flora have enzymes that human cells lack for breaking down complex sugars called polysaccharides. The gut flora help in the digestion of unutilized energy substrates and may contribute upto 60 percent of the weight of the feces for human excretory function. Microbial flora of the gut can influence the phenomenon known as “Oral Tolerance” which may reduce an overactive immune response like those found in allergies and auto-immune disease. Gut flora play a major role in metabolizing dietary carcinogens and hence have a role in prevention of cancer. The human existence demands the play of these biotic interactions for its own benefit and for the benefit of the biotic community as its natural host.
SPIRITUALISM – THE NATURE OF SPIRITUAL INTERACTIONS:
The term ‘spiritual’ describes the nature of a relationship, partnership, an association, or bonding between two living entities based upon the characteristics such as compassion, sympathy, cooperation, mutual assistance, tolerance, voluntary subservience, devotion, and functional subordination to provide some benefit to the members participating in the biotic interaction at a given place and in a given environment. Depending upon the size, complexity, and structure and functions of the Whole Organism, Spiritual Biotic Interactions and Spiritual Relationships are also based upon thoughts and feelings of sympathy and compassion that are attributes of mental functions and emotional makeup of the partners interacting. The Spiritual nature of biotic interactions is a reflection of the Spiritual nature of the Creator of the living entities who has provided the different modes of interactions using inspiration and imagination. Hence, Spiritualism as a biotic interaction describes an internal, mutually beneficial partnership between individual cells of the human organism and the Whole Organism that represents it as a Human Individual.
THE STATUS OF MAN IN NATURE:
The First Book of Moses, The Old Testament Book of Genesis describes the story of Creation; in Chapter 2, verse 7, it narrates man’s creation: “And the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul.”
THE MAN IS A CREATED BEING:
The man is a created being as he always exists as one of its own kind of unique, original, and distinctive object. The man always arrives from a previously existing egg cell and yet his genome has not existed before, and would not exist again. The man exists as an object that is created using the powers of inspiration and imagination that keeps the man as an Individual with Individuality.
THE MAN IS A SPIRITUAL BEING:
The status of the man in nature describes him as a created object; a new object, one of its own kind, distinctive, and unique. The principle of Creation involves the use of inspiration and imagination as opposed to the view proposed by the Theory of Evolution. The fundamental issue is about understanding man’s status in nature. Did man come into existence by gradual changes caused by random and unguided events called genetic mutations? Or, does man actually exist in nature because of his relationship with other objects present in his living environment? What defines man’s existence? What establishes the reality of man’s physical existence? Should we focus on the changing form? Alternately, should we give attention to an unchanging relationship that is a prerequisite for the existence of all life forms? If an object cannot come into its state of existence, how could that object get a shape or form? In the context of a discussion about the man’s existence in nature, I state that the man is a created object, and hence the man exists as a Spiritual being. The term Spirituality describes the nature of this connection between the man and His Creator. Soul is the immortal part of the man as distinguished from his body; it is the vital principle which moves and animates all Life. Soul may represent the essence of a human being, it could be the quality which confers individuality, humanity, and the moral nature of man. I divide man into two categories; the first category is called the ‘SELF’ which represents man as a physical, mental, and social being; and the second category is called the ‘KNOWING-SELF’ which represents the man as a moral, and spiritual being. These two categories function together and the functional unity of the human person is an attribute of a neurobiological function called Consciousness. The man’s physical being is represented by a changing external or morphological appearance and while the physical Identity is constantly changing, the unchanging Individuality is supported by man’s spirituality or the nature of his constant spiritual relationship.
THE ETERNAL REALITY OF SOUL’S IMMORTALITY:
Religious thinkers have further defined Soul as that part of the individual which partakes of divinity. People of all races, cultures and religions would like to investigate the nature of this God-Connection as they perceive the world and the universe in which they exist as a fact of Creation. I need to find evidence that would fundamentally deny the fact of Creation.
THE MAN IS A SOCIAL BEING:
Apart from being a created Physical being, the man is recognized as a Social being as he displays social instincts and social behaviors in all of his activities. A rudimentary understanding of Sociology or Theories of Social Science would clarify this matter. Social instincts and Social Behaviors are seen in all animals including bacteria. At a cellular level, the social function is called ‘Association’. The man is an association of trillions of cells. Each human organ and organ system represents an association of cells that display functional subordination to perform selective tasks. Life is just impossible without social structure and organization.
THE MAN IS A MORAL BEING:
Man is an individual who exists in a social group. At the same time, man is a Moral being, as he displays moral behavior even when he is corrupt. Man displays the ability of Repentance for his thoughts, for his actions of commission and omission. Man has the ability to admit his sins, express remorse and may often punish himself for his sinful conduct. Man experiences grief for his actions that are sinful. Man actively searches for solutions for his sinful conduct. Man cannot sustain his biological existence if he had morally failed. A famous example would be that of Apostle Judas Iscariot, the betrayer of Jesus.
MATTER, ENERGY, AND KNOWLEDGE
Greek philosopher Aristotle observes that corporeal substances are composite of two principles, form and matter. What is called matter is potentiality, what is called form is actuality. The totality of things have been divided in various ways. The three fundamental distinctions are 1. the distinction between the natural and the supernatural, 2. the distinction between the material and the spiritual, and 3. the distinction between the lifeless and the living. When we make the distinction animate/inanimate, living/non-living, and inorganic/organic, a question arises about the nature of that distinction. The difference, is that one of kind or degree? The Mechanistic View claims the continuity of nature in terms of the universality of purely mechanical principles. I have defined Life as ‘Knowledge in Action’. Please view the blog post at
I define Life as organization of matter with implanted supernatural Knowledge. The establishment of supernatural Knowledge in matter describes the operation of ‘God Principle’, Spirit, or Soul. Life comes into existence when matter and energy come together with the establishment of ‘God Connection’.
LIFE AND CONSCIOUSNESS:
The basic characteristic of a Living Cell or organism is the presence of consciousness. I recognize a cell as a Living Cell if it displays functions that characterize the presence of awareness or consciousness. The Living Cell or Living Object need not be aware or conscious of the Subject who may be investigating or observing the properties of the Object. The Living Object need to be aware of its own existence and its condition called Living. Atoms and molecules display their properties and interact according to the Laws of Physics and Chemistry. Living organic molecules show individualistic behaviors under experimental conditions that could be repeated and be verified. The Living Cell is very selective and it responds in a variable manner to physical and chemical stimuli. It can communicate or send signals to other Living Cells present in its environment. It responds according to its internal condition in relation to the environment in which it exists. The interactions of non-living physical matter are not goal-oriented. The interactions of Living matter are goal-oriented and they specifically achieve the purpose of sustaining, preserving, defending, and continuing the Living functions.
THE MAN IS A MORTAL, PHYSICAL BEING:
LIFE AND DEATH IS A CONTINUOUS PROCESS:
When does Life begins? When does Life ends? Every Living Cell is derived from a previously existing Living Cell. Life has not experienced the final event called DEATH. Life continues its act of Living through a function called Reproduction. A given species is considered to be totally extinct only if there is no surviving member to represent that particular species. Death is a programmed event and it gives meaning to the Identity of a Living Object. The dissolution of a single Living Object should not obscure the fact that Life is a continuous process. Life continues as Living Objects get new Identities. It is very reasonable to expect that Life would continue after the death of a given Living Object. People all over the world are a witness to that simple and direct observation. During the Life-Death continuum, the connection between the Creator and the created Living Object is manifested by the biological function called awareness or consciousness. The presence of Soul is evidenced by the presence of consciousness. As long as the Soul is functioning and is united with the physical being, the presence of consciousness could be detected and could be verified.
THE SOUL AND GOD CONNECTION:
There has been no clearly defined and universally accepted metaphysical conception of the term Soul. It is a term rarely used with precise definition in philosophy, religion, or common life. In this discussion we face the problem of using words to which no definitive meaning is attached. If I make an attempt to define the word ‘God’, you may even speculate that I may belong to a new religious order. We need to come to a consensus even if an entity called ‘God’ does not exist. We need to formulate a view, a hypothetical view about Soul and test that hypothesis by countering it with a skeptical hypothesis. The Science called Physics deals with the properties, changes, interactions, etc. of matter and energy in which energy is considered to be continuous. In the ultimate analysis, matter is a representation of its energy content. The Science called Biology deals with Life and Life processes. While Life is made up of physical matter, Life processes are not explained by simple mechanistic interactions. However, I am willing to use the principles, the methods, and the tools used by Physics. Molecular Biology explains biological events by studying the molecules within cells; the molecular basis of genetics – Nucleic Acids and its relationship to energy cycling and replication. If this universe is seen as matter and energy, I would define God as the Controller of Force/Power/Energy. All living things are essentially made up of the same kind of living matter and yet they appear to be different. Life could be attributed to ONE common principle which has the ability to be simultaneously different. Each living object comes into a state of existence as a new object, as an original object, one of its own kind, unique, and distinctive. This morphological variation is an attribute of the organic molecules that establish the phenotype or the physical identity of that living organism. Physics provides those powerful tools to see the molecules and to recognize their individualistic behavior. Life comes into existence using a creative principle, and creative mechanisms that need inspiration, and imagination apart from the use of simple mechanistic laws. If Life is governed by the Law of Individuality, I would define God as a Creative Force/Power/Energy.
A majority of these life forms that we know and have studied, have synchronized their state of existence with an event that produces alternating periods of light and darkness while that source of light is not being turned ‘on’ and ‘off’. Rather we are forced to experience the effects of an illusion. Sunrise and Sunset is the reality that governs a majority of Biological Rhythms that control the life processes. Illusion is the necessary condition for the biological existence of Life. If Earth’s rotational spin generates this illusion, God uses Force/Power/Energy to cause illusion. In the universe that exists today, to the extent we have verified; there are no two identical celestial objects that exhibit the same rotational spin. In this context, it may be said that the Force/Power/Energy called God has created Earth to provide a home to the life forms that He has created as Individuals. These life forms have the ability called reproduction and yet lack the ability of producing two identical new objects. Sexual or Asexual reproduction always results in the production of new Individuals which could be easily verified by using the Biometric Identification Technology. Even the clones, sharing identical genomes, in reality exist as individuals. This Individuality when investigated by the tools supplied by Physics, it is discovered that the organic molecules such as the DNA molecules behave as Individuals and the man is not able to modify that behavior. Under the same experimental conditions, the DNA molecules behave as individuals. When we examine the nature of this biological existence, it indicates that life processes are supported by the provision of energy from an external source. The Living Cell is a thermodynamically unstable system. This means that without a continuous input of energy a Living Cell will degrade spontaneously into a nonliving collection of molecules. This lack of energy independence would direct us to define God as the Power/Force/Energy which delivers Compassion/Mercy/Grace which helps energy acquisition by energy dependent living organisms. Life forms on planet Earth exist depending upon an extraterrestrial source of energy or Cosmic Power/Force/Energy. Life exists because of its ability called ‘Association’. The act of associating, the state of being associated; the companionship, the fellowship, and the partnership is the defining feature of the State or Condition, or Act of Living. Association or partnership between energy seeker and energy provider could be described as God-Connection. Organisms that are single do not live as single cells but develop association with other single cells to form distinct Colonies. Organisms that are multicellular represent an organization of individual cells that are associated having common interests, purposes, sensations, etc., Since association has a purpose, in the context of biological existence, the association or connection, or partnership between the energy seeker, and the energy provider is a meaningful event and not a simple, mechanical, physical event governed by the Laws of Interactions between Matter and Energy. There are Four Fundamental Interactions and they do not regulate or define this Interaction between Living matter and the Cosmic Force/Power/Energy. Living matter uses and exploits energy in a creative manner to build organic molecules and to break down organic molecules. The life processes are very similar and yet the results are totally different. While using energy mostly following a similar metabolic pathway, each organism supports its identity and individuality.
SOUL AND DEATH:
The idea of ‘Soul’ always comes in the context of Death. If man is immortal, we will not be spending our time and energy to verify the existence of an immortal principle. The human subject has a limited life span and it arouses a sense of curiosity about the existence of something that could defy Death. I am trying to define the word ‘Soul’ in a manner to promote an understanding that ‘Soul’ is immortal if we look at man as an Association of individual living cells. We need to establish the Identity of that Individual for whose purpose or interest this Association of Individual living cells exists. If we think of Death as a final event, it is not supported by factual evidence. In this Association, death is a daily event. We simply fail to acknowledge this daily event as there is an immortal principle that is escaping this death experience. The Individual thinks that he is alive and sustains his Individuality without getting overwhelmed by the dying process that is continuous. While the human organism is changing its external appearance and identity all the time, the Individuality survives if ‘Soul’ the vital, or operating immortal principle is functioning. The issue or question about ‘transmigration’ of Soul would not arise if every living organism exists strictly as an Individual with an Individuality. As stated before,man has no choice and he must always exist as an Individual even when we use Reproductive Genetic Engineering Technology to produce identical clones with the same genome. The dissolution of matter may not change the Law of Conservation of Energy. If Soul is defined as the God Connection that gives the ability of energy acquisition, the Soul when removed from a physical object to which it has given Individuality, would operate as per the commands of the Controller of Force/Power/Energy. It provides the possibility of carrying the impressions of a previous state of existence into a new state of existence with a new identity and Individuality. During the life span of a given Individual, an association of cells in which death is a daily event, Soul is a continuous principle as its purpose and interest is to maintain Individuality of that Individual.
SOUL AND THE LIVING CELL:
I attach my ideas to some ideas expressed by others. Sartre is a well-known person. He won the Nobel Prize for literature but declined to accept it. I may not totally agree with his views on consciousness. He shares his view in a manner that people can easily understand. He makes a distinction between objective things and human consciousness. He claims that consciousness is a ‘non-thing'(‘neant’ or nothingness) and its reality consists in standing back from things and taking a point of view on them. Because consciousness is a non-thing, it does not have any of the causal involvements that things have with other things. If you stand before a mirror, the reflection exists only if it is supported by the presence of a physical being or thing. If the physical thing is taken away, the reflected image is gone but the reflective surface retains its ability to reflect the images of things.
THE BIOLOGICAL MEMBRANE AND CONSCIOUSNESS:
In a Living Cell, consciousness reflects its external environment and its internal condition or internal environment. The Living Cell knows, it is aware of its state, fact, and act of its Living. The Living Cell makes contact with its environment by using a cell membrane, a biological membrane, or a bio-membrane. If you carefully look at some of the functions of this membrane, you would discern that the Living Cell has consciousness or awareness of these functions.
The Biological Membrane behaves in a conscious manner and it is not a simple, physical barrier between the Protoplasm, the Living Substance and its environment. If the term ‘soul’ describes a vital principle, or a source of Knowledge, it provides the information with which the living functions like the cellular respiration could be performed. Some molecules and ions can freely move across this Bio-membrane and some are actively pumped in or out of the Cell that involves expenditure of energy. The Living Cell has the ability to recognize the condition of its nucleus, if the DNA is damaged, the Cell can initiate a process and cause its own dissolution.
In a multicellular organism, the consciousness works both at the level of each individual cell and to establish the functioning of the organism as an individual unit. Without functional unity, the organism cannot maintain its biological existence. Cell differentiation is the process by which the individual cells use adaptation to perform specific tasks. The Red Blood Cells perform specific tasks.
THE NEUROBIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF CONSCIOUSNESS:
In the human Brain Stem, several neurons, and nuclei which are in an area called the Reticular Formation are functionally adapted to compose the contents of human consciousness. The Reticular Formation gives the Capacity for Consciousness. The contents of this consciousness are read in the cortical areas of the cerebral hemispheres and described as Cortical awareness. Most philosophers, most of the psychologists, and several of the religious thinkers pay attention to this Cortical awareness and describe that as human consciousness. We tend to ignore the fact that there would be no Cortical awareness unless there is a Capacity for Consciousness. Most recently, the surgeons removed the complete left cerebral hemisphere from a child to stop convulsive seizures. The child is alive, fully conscious, and hopefully would continue to live in future with some neurological deficits. Just like the human heart which has four different muscular chambers and each has a function of its own; we need to understand consciousness by knowing its components. We need to use separate terms to distinguish these different components. There would be confusion if a term is used without attaching a specific meaning. Cortical awareness is important and is very interesting and yet man can exist and survive with minimal cortical awareness. We have seen children with severe degrees of mental retardation, and they can keep their biological existence if they retain the ability to Compose Consciousness. I want to designate the upper Brain Stem as the Seat of Consciousness and the word consciousness itself must describe the functions of the Brain Stem which are most important for man’s biological existence. A man is clinically dead in the absence of these Brain Stem functions involved in the Capacity of Consciousness. In Clinical Medicine, the term conscious is often used to measure the degree of Arousal or Cortical awareness and hence this subject matter would remain confusing for a long time. If a subject is unconscious, I would not issue a ‘death certificate’. In Clinical Medicine, the term used is ‘Brain Death’ and when Brain Death is diagnosed, the human person for all practical purposes is dead. I would suggest that we must use the term ‘Unconscious’ specifically to indicate the Brain Death which is diagnosed by testing the Brain Stem Reflexes. If the human person is viewed as a single physical thing or object, the integration of functions is achieved at the Brain Stem ( Reticular Formation), and he maintains his individuality throughout his physical existence only when this part of the brain is functioning. If you like the term individual soul or Jeeva Atma, its existence is a reflection of this function. To see a reflection, we need two things; the physical object and a reflective surface. The quality of reflecting objects may depend upon the presence of Knowledge. It is not known if this particular kind of knowledge exists as organic molecules; however, it is very well understood that most of the knowledge to perform a variety of biological functions is contained in organic molecules and the most well-known group of these organic molecules are known as DNA. There are Viruses which can function with RNA. Hence, there is still a possibility of finding organic molecules that could be associated with the functional ability called consciousness, awareness, cognition, recognition, responsiveness, perception, memory, intelligence, and association. The most important aspect of ‘association’ is ‘God Connection’ and without this function of ‘association’ man cannot keep his biological existence.
IDENTITY AND INDIVIDUALITY:
The issue of spirituality, the nature of Soul and consciousness must be explored in the context of arriving at an understanding of man’s Identity and Individuality. If man is viewed as an association of trillions of cells, we need to know the Identity of that Subject who lives because of the functions of the trillions of cells. The purpose of consciousness at cellular level is to foster functional unity of the multicellular organism and to establish it as an Individual. In a multicellular organism, cells have short lives as individuals. The Subject or the whole organism has a life span of its own and it has effects on individual cells. Multicellularity is accompanied by adaptive subordination of all cells to the requirements of the organism as a whole. To achieve proper numerical balance between functionally related cell groups, the death of many cells is necessary for other cells to reach maturity. This programmed cell death plays an important role in embryological development. Such programmed cell death events are essential if the organism as a whole is to develop its normal final form. Waves of genetically driven cell deaths are critical to the proper modeling of organs and organ systems. We need to know and understand that death of cells is a must to establish the Identity and to sustain the Individuality of the human being. The dying process helps man to understand his Individuality. The Individuality is preserved while death is a daily event at the cellular level. The phenotype or the morphological appearance of the human Subject undergoes constant change during the life journey and yet the Individuality remains unchanged. We recognize the death of this human Subject when his Soul departs from his body. Soul may be stated as an entity which is regarded as being immortal or spiritual part of the person. The Spirit of a dead person generally refers to a principle separate from the body and leading an existence of its own. If Soul is viewed as a Non-thing or Nothingness, it comes into the world of existence by entering the physical being at its conception which becomes conscious or aware of its existence. This consciousness has also existed in a previously existing Living Egg Cell which is the Mother of Life, Energy, and Knowledge. Consciousness by its very nature is immortal, it is eternal, and it has no birth or death. We recognize the arrival and departure of the new product during the Life-Death continuum where the Individuality is unaffected by the changes that are caused by the powerful influence of Time.
On this day, August 14, 1935, FDR signs the Social Security Act. However, the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA) does not cover Retirement Insurance Benefit Plans sponsored by government entities such as the Social Security Administration (SSA). This glaring omission of Social Security Retirement Insurance Benefit Plan from the protection offered by ERISA transformed SSA into “SLAVE DRIVER.” SSA uses this absence of oversight with great impunity to violate the principles of Equal Protection guaranteed by the US Constitutional Law.
President Bill Clinton on August 22, 1996, sabotaged the Social Security Act of 1935 to introduce his ‘A New Beginning’. His Welfare Reform Act of 1996 marks The New Beginning of Slavery in the United States.
On this day in 1935, President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs into law the Social Security Act. Press photographers snapped pictures as FDR, flanked by ranking members of Congress, signed into law the historic act, which guaranteed an income for the unemployed and retirees. FDR commended Congress for what he considered to be a “patriotic” act.
Roosevelt had taken the helm of the country in 1932 in the midst of the Great Depression, the nation’s worst economic crisis. The Social Security Act (SSA) was in keeping with his other “New Deal” programs, including the establishment of the Works Progress Administration and the Civilian Conservation Corps, which attempted to hoist America out of the Great Depression by putting Americans back to work.
In his public statement that day, FDR expressed concern for “young people [who] have come to wonder what would be their lot when they came to old age” as well as those who had employment but no job security. Although he acknowledged that “we can never insure one hundred percent of the population against one hundred percent of the hazards and vicissitudes of life,” he hoped the act would prevent senior citizens from ending up impoverished.
Although it was initially created to combat unemployment, Social Security now functions primarily as a safety net for retirees and the disabled and provides death benefits to taxpayer dependents. The Social Security system has remained relatively unchanged since 1935.