Living Tibetan Spirits

SEPTEMBER 22 – THIS DAY IN HISTORY – MY QUEST FOR FREEDOM TRAPS ME IN SLAVERY

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SEPTEMBER 22 – THIS DAY IN HISTORY – MY QUEST FOR FREEDOM TRAPS ME IN SLAVERY

September 22. This Day in History. My Quest for Freedom Traps me in Slavery. My Journey to Chakrata and Beyond.

On September 22, 1971, I was Taken on Strength (TOS) of Establishment No. 22, Special Frontier Force, a military organization created in response to ‘The Cold War in Asia.’

On September 22, 2018, I live in Ann Arbor, Michigan to welcome the first day of Fall Season. Today, I claim that my quest for Freedom in Occupied Tibet traps me in Slavery in a nation which abolished Slavery with a presidential proclamation on September 22.

On September 22, 1971, I had the freedom to reject my posting to Establishment No. 22. I was given the choice to choose or decline rendering service in support of Freedom in Occupied Tibet. The choice to serve in Establishment No. 22 comes with risks for the Service Mission differs from the military mission of Indian Army which I joined on a voluntary basis.

It may appear that I am making my own choices in accepting calculated risks to my life. On September 22, 2018, I am still struggling to reconcile with the choices I made for I must reconcile with the reality of my Slavery while living in a country which sponsored my quest for Freedom in Occupied Tibet.

On September 22, 1971, I did not arrive at the final destination of my life. Chakrata represents the struggle ahead, a struggle waiting for me before I can arrive at the final destination of my life.

Rudranarasimham Rebbapragada

SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE

https://bhavanajagat.com/2013/03/27/special-frontier-force-establishment-number-22-the-central-intelligence-agency/

September 22. This Day in History. My Quest for Freedom traps me in Slavery. My Journey to Chakrata and Beyond.

SEPTEMBER 22, THIS DAY IN HISTORY – WHAT HAPPENED TODAY

Clipped from: http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history

On this day in 1862, President Abraham Lincoln issues a preliminary Emancipation Proclamation, which sets a date for the freedom of more than 3 million black slaves in the United States and recasts the Civil War as a fight against slavery.

When the Civil War broke out in 1861, shortly after Lincoln’s inauguration as America’s 16th president, he maintained that the war was about restoring the Union and not about slavery. He avoided issuing an anti-slavery proclamation immediately, despite the urgings of abolitionists and radical Republicans, as well as his personal belief that slavery was morally repugnant. Instead, Lincoln chose to move cautiously until he could gain wide support from the public for such a measure.

In July 1862, Lincoln informed his cabinet that he would issue an emancipation proclamation but that it would exempt the so-called border states, which had slaveholders but remained loyal to the Union. His cabinet persuaded him not to make the announcement until after a Union victory. Lincoln’s opportunity came following the Union win at the Battle of Antietam in September 1862. On September 22, the president announced that slaves in areas still in rebellion within 100 days would be free.

On January 1, 1863, Lincoln issued the final Emancipation Proclamation, which declared “that all persons held as slaves” within the rebel states “are, and henceforward shall be free.” The proclamation also called for the recruitment and establishment of black military units among the Union forces. An estimated 180,000 African-Americans went on to serve in the army, while another 18,000 served in the navy.

After the Emancipation Proclamation, backing the Confederacy was seen as favoring slavery. It became impossible for anti-slavery nations such as Great Britain and France, who had been friendly to the Confederacy, to get involved on behalf of the South. The proclamation also unified and strengthened Lincoln’s party, the Republicans, helping them stay in power for the next two decades.

The proclamation was a presidential order and not a law passed by Congress, so Lincoln then pushed for an antislavery amendment to the U.S. Constitution to ensure its permanence. With the passage of the 13th Amendment in 1865, slavery was eliminated throughout America (although blacks would face another century of struggle before they truly began to gain equal rights).

Lincoln’s handwritten draft of the final Emancipation Proclamation was destroyed in the Chicago Fire of 1871. Today, the original official version of the document is housed in the National Archives in Washington, D.C.

Also on this day

Civil War

1862

Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation is announced

Motivated by his growing concern for the inhumanity of slavery as well as practical political concerns, President Abraham Lincoln changes the course of the war and American history by issuing the preliminary Emancipation Proclamation. Announced a week after the nominal Union victory at the Battle of Antietam, near Sharpsburg, Maryland.

Cold War

1961

President Kennedy signs Peace Corps legislation

In an important victory for his Cold War foreign policy, President John F. Kennedy signs legislation establishing the Peace Corps as a permanent government agency. Kennedy believed that the Peace Corps could provide a new and unique weapon in the war against communism.

1975

President Ford survives a second assassination attempt

On this day in 1975, Sarah Jane Moore aims a gun at President Gerald Ford as he leaves the Saint Francis Hotel in San Francisco, California. The attempt on the president’s life came only 17 days after another woman had tried to assassinate Ford.

SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 22, 2018. MY PASSION FOR FREEDOM IN TIBET WHICH BEGAN AT CHAKRATA DOES NOT RECONCILE WITH MY SLAVERY OF TODAY. THE SCENIC BEAUTY OF CHAKRATA PLAYED NO ROLE IN THE CHOICE I MADE ON SEPTEMBER 22, 1971.

Chakrata is not the final destination of my life. It is just the beginning of a struggle that remains ahead, both in terms of time and location.

September 22. This Day in History. My Quest for Freedom Traps me in Slavery. My Journey to Chakrata and Beyond.
September 22. This Day in History. My Quest for Freedom Traps me in Slavery. My Journey to Chakrata and Beyond.
September 22. This Day in History. My Quest for Freedom traps me in Slavery. My Journey to Chakrata and Beyond.
September 22. This Day in History. My Quest for Freedom Traps me in Slavery. My Journey to Chakrata and Beyond.
September 22. This Day in History. My Quest for Freedom Traps me in Slavery. My Journey to Chakrata and Beyond.
September 22. This Day in History. My Quest for Freedom Traps me in Slavery. My Journey to Chakrata and Beyond.
September 22. This Day in History. My Quest for Freedom Traps me in Slavery. My Journey to Chakrata and Beyond.
September 22. This Day in History. My Quest for Freedom Traps me in Slavery. My Journey to Chakrata and Beyond.
September 22. This Day in History. My Quest for Freedom Traps me in Slavery. My Journey to Chakrata and Beyond.
September 22. This Day in History. My Quest for Freedom Traps me in Slavery. My Journey to Chakrata and Beyond.
September 22. This Day in History. My Quest for Freedom Traps me in Slavery. My Journey to Chakrata and Beyond.
September 22. This Day in History. My Quest for Freedom Traps me in Slavery. My Journey to Chakrata and Beyond.
September 22. This Day in History. My Quest for Freedom Traps me in Slavery. My Journey to Chakrata and Beyond.
September 22. This Day in History. My Quest for Freedom Traps me in Slavery. My Journey to Chakrata and Beyond.

 

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THE STORY OF TIBET RELATES TO THE ORIGIN OF MAN

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THE STORY OF TIBET RELATES TO THE ORIGIN OF MAN

The Story of Tibet relates to The Origin of Man. Mount Kailash in Tibet is associated with The Beginning of the Anatomically Modern Man.

In Indian tradition, the story of Tibet relates to the origin of Anatomically Modern Man, the species described as Homo sapiens, sapiens. Modern Man, a Created Being, first took birth in Tibet. Modern Man’s origin or the beginning can not be traced from other species of Hominin Family which lived in Africa and Europe.

Rudranarasimham Rebbapragada

BHAVANAJAGAT

https://bhavanajagat.com/2018/05/10/theory-of-man-spectrum-of-seven-colors/

The Story of Tibet relates to the Origin of Man. In Indian tradition, Lord Shiva and Goddess Parvati symbolize the Father and the Mother Principle accounting for the existence of man in this world.

Clipped from: http://www.xinhuanet.com/english/2018-09/18/c_137476402_4.htm

The Story of Tibet relates to the Origin of Man. Mount Kailash in Tibet is associated with the Beginning of the Anatomically Modern Man.

Photo taken on Sept. 9, 2018 shows a view of 6,656-meter-high Mount Kailash, Mount Gang Rinpoche, Mount Kangrinboqe, main peak of the Kailash Range (Gangdise Range), in Pulan County of Ali Prefecture, southwest Tibet. (Xinhua/Purbu Zhaxi)

The Story of Tibet relates to the Origin of Man. Mount Kailash in Tibet is associated with The Beginning of the Anatomically Modern Man.
The Story of Tibet relates to The Origin of Man. Mount Kailash is associated with The Beginning of the Anatomically Modern Man.
The Story of Tibet relates to The Origin of Man. Mount Kailash in Tibet is associated with The Beginning of Man.
The Story of Tibet relates to The Origin of Man. Mount Kailash in Tibet is associated with The Beginning of Man.
The Story of Tibet relates to The Origin of Man. Mount Kailash in Tibet is associated with The Beginning of Anatomically Modern Man.
The Story of Tibet relates to The Origin of Man. Mount Kailash in Tibet is associated with The Beginning of the Anatomically Modern Man. Image: Frank Hackeschmidt

Mountain chain in the Kailash region in Tibet, China – Image: Frank Hackeschmidt

About Mount Kailash

Satellite view is showing Mount Kailash (officially: Kangrinboqe; Tibetan: Gang Rinpoche; Chinese: 冈仁波齐峰, Gang Ren Bo Qi Feng, named on the map: Kangrinboqe Peak), a peak in the Gangdise Trans-Himalayas mountain range (also known as the Kailas Range) in Tibet (China).

Gang Rinpoche means “precious jewel of snows”, the mountain peak is a sacred place in four religions—Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, a religion originated in India and Bön faith, a traditional belief in Tibet. This might be the reason that the mountain has never been climbed.

Mount Kailash is located just north of Lake Rakshastal (zoom out to see La’nga Co; on the left) and Lake Manasarovar (Mapam Yumco), one of the holiest lakes in various religions, the lake attracts pilgrims from Tibet, India and many other countries.

Mount Kailash is the headwaters of some of the most important and longest rivers in Asia, the Indus and the Brahmaputra.

Clipped from: http://www.nationsonline.org/oneworld/map/google_map_Kailash.htm

To find a location type: street or place, city, optional: state, country. Local Time Tibet:

Wednesday-September-19 23:30

CST – China Standard Time: UTC/GMT +8 h

The Story of Tibet relates to The Origin of Man. Mount Kailash in Tibet is associated with The Beginning of the Anatomically Modern Man.

SEPTEMBER 08, 2018 – INTERNATIONAL LITERACY DAY TRIBUTE TO THE GREAT MASTERS OF NALANDA

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SEPTEMBER 08, 2018 – INTERNATIONAL LITERACY DAY TRIBUTE TO THE GREAT MASTERS OF NALANDA

September 08, 2018. International Literacy Day Tribute to the Great Masters of Nalanda.

On Saturday, September 08, 2018, International Literacy Day, I pay my tribute to the Seventeen Great Masters of Nalanda Buddhist Monastery. I invite my readers to know about these great teachers and their contributions to the Literacy Traditions of Humanity.

Rudranarasimham Rebbapragada

SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE

https://wholedude.com/2015/10/08/tibet-awareness-the-great-masters-of-nalanda/

Clipped from: http://www.holidayscalendar.com/event/international-literacy-day/

September 08, 2018. International Literacy Day Tribute to the Great Masters of Nalanda.

International Literacy Day is a holiday which is celebrated annually on September 8th. The purpose of this day is to raise the world’s awareness of literacy issues that are faced by people all over the world and to endorse campaigns that help increase literacy for all people. It was originally established by UNESCO – the United Nations Educational, Scientific & Cultural Organization – in 1965.

When is International Literacy Day?

This year (2018) September 8 (Saturday)
Next year (2019) September 8 (Sunday)
Last year (2017) September 8 (Friday)

History of International Literacy Day

To combat worldwide issues of illiteracy, UNESCO proclaimed September 8th as International Literacy Day in 1965. The purpose of this observational day was not only to combat illiteracy but also to promote literacy as a tool that could empower individuals as well as whole communities. It is from these humble beginnings that International Literacy Day has bloomed into a tool that could help millions of people around the globe.

As of 2016, about 775 million adults lack even the most basic, minimum literacy skills all over the world. This means that about 1 in 5 adults in the world – or about 20 % of all people – are not literate. Of that 20%, about 66% of those are women. About 75 million of the world’s children are not in school or have dropped out before they have finished. However, thanks to the efforts of UNESCO & World Literacy Day, more and more people are becoming literate and about 4 billion people are currently literate, as of now.

International Literacy Day Customs & Traditions

Every year, UNESCO issues a theme for the celebration of International Literacy Day. For instance, in 2011, the theme was “Literacy & Peace,” in 2013, the theme was “Literacy for the 21st Century” and in 2015, the theme was “Literacy and Sustainable Societies.”

UNESCO and its partners use these themes to highlight the programs which it and its partners use to tackle various parts of the literacy issues in the world. As a result of some of these programs, attention is often raised in the media about literacy issues. Especially on the Internet where the hashtag #literacyday has been trending for the last few years.

International Mother Language Day

International Mother Language Day is an annual worldwide observance that falls on February 21st. This day not only celebrates language diversity all over the world but also remembers the killing of four students on February 21, 1952. These students were killed because they campaigned to officially use their mother language in Bangladesh.

History of International Mother Language Day

International Mother Language Day was originally a social movement that started to defend a person’s right to speak and write in one’s mother language. February 21st was picked as the date because that is when students who were attending the University of Dhaka, Jagannath University and Dhaka Medical College were murdered by police while they were demonstrating for the right to speak in their mother tongue – Bengali. This started a social movement that began to snowball over the next few decades.

Eventually, this social movement was picked up by a Bengali named Rafiqul Islam that was living in Vancouver, British Columbia in Canada. He decided to send a letter to the United Nation to ask for a day to be established that would preserve and protect the languages of the world. In his letter, he stated that February 21st should be the day on which it is celebrated in honor of the killings in Dhaka. This would eventually lead to the proposal of resolution A/RES/61/266.

Finally, in 1999, the United Nations General Assembly passed resolution A/RES/61/266. This resolution set February 21st as International Mother Language Day and called on all member states to promote this observational holiday as a way to promote the preservation and protection of all languages used by people all over the world.

International Mother Language Day Customs & Traditions

Officially, UNESCO and many of its partners promote a number of linguistic and cultural diversity events on International Mother Language Day. Many universities all over the world will host a mother language day and some governments will issue a proclamation on this day. In Bangladesh, people lay flowers at the martyr’s monument known as Shaheed Minar. Also, there are various awards and prizes for the literacy competitions that promote multiculturalism and multilingualism are held on this day.

DALAI LAMA LAUDS NALANDA PRIESTS FOR LOGICAL BUDDHIST TEACHINGS

Clipped from: https://www.thestatesman.com/cities/dalai-lama-lauds-nalanda-priests-for-logical-buddhist-teachings-1502680999.html

September 08, 2018. International Literacy Day Tribute to the Great Masters of Nalanda.

Tibetan spiritual leader, the Dalai Lama.(Photo: IANS)

Tibetan spiritual leader Dalai Lama on Monday praised the seventeen pandits (priests) of Nalanda for their logical way of teaching Buddhism and said he himself is one of their biggest admirers.

“The only complete and detailed explanation of the ancient Nalanda teaching has persevered in the Tibetan language which is the reason that the Chinese people who are interested in learning Buddhism, are learning the Tibetan language,” he said.

He said the ancestors of Tibetan people had well preserved this knowledge for thousands of years, which enabled Tibetans to expertise in promoting the knowledge in the Tibetan language.

“It is the duty of Tibetan people to continue the practical teachings of those ancestors while at the same time take pride in possessing such vast and profound knowledge passed by them,” he said.

He said he respects all kinds of religious beliefs which only teach love and compassion as the ultimate source of human happiness.

He cited an example of how humans are born out of love and how they survive on love. He emphasised that the masters of Nalanda encourage its followers to approach their teaching with logic and reason rather than following it blindly. Thus, people should experiment and research on the teachings of those masters in light of reason, he added.

He urged the Tibetan people to preserve the rich Tibetan language as it has the potential to serve all the sentient beings on earth. He assured the people that he would live for hundred years to serve humanity and especially to lead the cause of Tibet under his guidance.

TIBET AWARENESS – THE GREAT MASTERS OF NALANDA

I am pleased to share an article titled ‘The Seventeen Pandits of Nalanda Monastery’ by Professor James Blumenthal Ph.D. who gives a brief account of Nalanda University and its great influence upon Tibetan Buddhism. I pay my respectful tribute to Professor Blumenthal who passed away on October 09, 2015. May LORD GOD bless his soul.

Rudranarasimham Rebbapragada
Ann Arbor, MI 48104-4162, USA

THE GREAT MASTERS OF NALANDA – CENTER OF BUDDHIST LEARNING IN ANCIENT INDIA:

September 08, 2018. International Literacy Day Tribute to the Great Masters of Nalanda.
September 08, 2018. International Literacy Day Tribute to the Great Masters of Nalanda. Acharya Nagarjuna.

TIBET AWARENESS – THE GREAT MASTERS OF NALANDA. ACHARYA NAGARJUNA.

September 08, 2018. International Literacy Day Tribute to the Great Masters of Nalanda. ACHARYA NAGARJUNA.

TIBET AWARENESS – THE GREAT MASTERS OF NALANDA. ACHARYA NAGARJUNA.

September 08, 2018. International Literacy Day Tribute to the Great Masters of Nalanda. ARYADEVA.

TIBET AWARENESS – THE GREAT MASTERS OF NALANDA. ARYADEVA.

September 08, 2018. International Literacy Day Tribute to the Great Masters of Nalanda. ASANGA.

TIBET AWARENESS – THE GREAT MASTERS OF NALANDA. ASANGA.

September 08, 2018. International Literacy Day Tribute to the Great Masters of Nalanda. VASUBANDHU.

TIBET AWARENESS – THE GREAT MASTERS OF NALANDA. VASUBANDHU.

September 08, 2018. International Literacy Day Tribute to the Great Masters of Nalanda. Dignaga.

TIBET AWARENESS – THE GREAT MASTERS OF NALANDA. DIGNAGA.

September 08, 2018. International Literacy Day Tribute to the Great Masters of Nalanda. Dharmakirti.

TIBET AWARENESS – THE GREAT MASTERS OF NALANDA – DHARMAKIRTI.

September 08, 2018. International Literacy Day Tribute to the Great Masters of Nalanda. Guna Prabha and Shakya Prabha.

TIBET AWARENESS – THE GREAT MASTERS OF NALANDA. GUNA PRABHA AND HIS DISCIPLE SHAKYA PRABHA.

September 08, 2018. International Literacy Day Tribute to the Great Masters of Nalanda. Buddhapalita.

TIBET AWARENESS – THE GREAT MASTERS OF NALANDA. BUDDHAPALITA.

September 08, 2018. International Literacy Day Tribute to the Great Masters of Nalanda. Bhavaviveka.

TIBET AWARENESS – THE GREAT TEACHERS OF NALANDA. BHAVAVIVEKA.

September 08, 2018. International Literacy Day Tribute to the Great Masters of Nalanda. Bhavaviveka.

TIBET AWARENESS – THE GREAT MASTERS OF NALANDA. ACHARYA BHAVAVIVEKA.

September 08, 2018. International Literacy Day Tribute to the Great Masters of Nalanda. Chandrakirti.

TIBET AWARENESS – THE GREAT MASTERS OF NALANDA. CHANDRAKIRTI.

September 08, 2018. International Literacy Day Tribute to the Great Masters of Nalanda. Padmasambhava, Shantarakshita.

TIBET AWARENESS – THE GREAT MASTERS OF NALANDA. SHANTARAKSHITA.

September 08, 2018. International Literacy Day Tribute to the Great Masters of Nalanda. Shantarakshita.

TIBET AWARENESS – THE GREAT MASTERS OF NALANDA. SHANTARAKSHITA.

September 08, 2018. International Literacy Day Tribute to the Great Masters of Nalanda. Kamalashila, Bhavanakrama.

TIBET AWARENESS – THE GREAT MASTERS OF NALANDA. KAMALASHILA.

September 08, 2018. International Literacy Day Tribute to the Great Masters of Nalanda. Kamalashila, Bhavanakrama.

TIBET AWARENESS – THE GREAT MASTERS OF NALANDA. KAMALASHILA. BHAVANAKRAMA – THREE STAGES OF MEDITATION.

September 08, 2018. International Literacy Day Tribute to the Great Masters of Nalanda. Haribhadra.

TIBET AWARENESS – THE GREAT MASTERS OF NALANDA. HARIBHADRA.

September 08, 2018. International Literacy Day Tribute to the Great Masters of Nalanda. Vimuktisena.

TIBET AWARENESS – THE GREAT MASTERS OF NALANDA. VIMUKTISENA.

September 08, 2018. International Literacy Day Tribute to the Great Masters of Nalanda. Shantideva.

TIBET AWARENESS – THE GREAT MASTERS OF NALANDA. SHANTIDEVA.

September 08, 2018. International Literacy Day Tribute to the Great Masters of Nalanda. Atisha.

TIBET AWARENESS – THE GREAT MASTERS OF NALANDA. ATISHA.

September 08, 2018. International Literacy Day Tribute to the Great Masters of Nalanda. Atisha.

TIBET AWARENESS – THE GREAT TEACHERS OF NALANDA. ATISHA.

THE SEVENTEEN PANDITS OF NALANDA MONASTERY

BY JAMES BLUMENTHAL, INFO-BUDDHISM.COM
Posted on October 8th, 2015

Oregon, USA — Nalanda Monastic University was the greatest center of Buddhist learning in India’s glorious past. With upwards of 30,000 monks and nuns including 2,000 teachers living, studying and practicing there during its heyday, Nalanda was unmatched.

Established during the Gupta Dynasty in the late 5th to early 6th century C.E. under the patronage of the Gupta king Shakraditra, the institution survived for six hundred years, through the Pala Dynasty, until ultimately being destroyed in 1203 by Turkish Muslim invaders. In 1204 the last throne-holder (abbot) of Nalanda, Shakyashribhadra, fled to Tibet. In the intervening centuries, however, many of India’s greatest Buddhist masters trained and taught at Nalanda.

Nalanda’s renown as a center for higher learning spread far. It attracted students from as far away as Greece, Persia, China and Tibet. Although Buddhism was naturally the central focus of study, other subjects including astronomy, medicine (Ayurveda), grammar, metaphysics, logic, philosophy of language, classical Hindu philosophy, non-Indian philosophy and so forth were all regularly studied. Chinese pilgrims who visited Nalanda in the 7th century C.E. give detailed accounts of the physical premises and activities in their travelogues. For example, they describe three nine-story buildings comprising the library that housed millions of titles in hundreds of thousands of volumes on a vast variety of topics!

Much like the large Gelug monasteries of Sera, Drepung and Ganden, living quarters were divided according to regions of the world from which the monks and nuns came. There are clear records of a well-populated Tibet Vihara at Nalanda during the later period. In fact, history reveals that at one point there was a Tibetan gatekeeper at Nalanda. The gatekeepers were traditionally the top scholars/debaters at the institution. Their job was to stand “guard” at the gate and defeat in debate any non-Buddhist who proposed to challenge the scholarship and ideas of the institution. If they could not defeat the gatekeeper in debate, they would not be allowed further into the monastery.

The Seventeen Pandits of Nalanda Monastery refers to a grouping of seventeen of the most important and influential Mahayana Buddhist masters from India’s past. His Holiness the Dalai Lama frequently refers to himself as a follower of the lineage of the seventeen Nalanda masters today. He even wrote an exquisite poem in praise of the seventeen.
So who were they? Historically speaking, this particular grouping of Indian masters seems to have become prominent quite recently and to be based on attributions of lam-rim (stages of the path) lineages in Tibet. A likely predecessor to this grouping is an Indian reference to the Six Ornaments of the Southern Continent (i.e., India) and the Two Excellent Ones. These eight form the core of the seventeen.

The Six Ornaments first include Nagarjuna (c. 2nd century C.E.), the revealer of the Perfection of Wisdom Sutras and the systematizer and founder of the Middle Way (Madhyamaka) school of Buddhist philosophy. The most famous treatise of his six texts of reasoning is The Fundamental Wisdom of the Middle Way, probably the single most analyzed, commented upon and discussed philosophical treatise in Buddhism’s history.

The second of the six ornaments is Aryadeva (c. 3rd century C.E.) who is sometimes referred to as Nagarjuna’s heart disciple and sometimes simply as his first authoritative commentator. Like Nagarjuna, Aryadeva is universally revered as an authoritative voice for all subsequent Middle Way commentators and is most well-known for his treatise The Four Hundred Stanzas.
Aryadeva was born as the son of a Sinhalese king and is considered the co – founder of Mahayana philosophy

In addition to the two Middle Way school masters, included among the six ornaments are the two earliest masters from the Mind-Only school (Yogachara/Chittamatra): Asanga (300–390 C.E.), the founder, and his disciple and half-brother, Vasubandhu (c. 4th century C.E.) one of the system’s earliest and most authoritative commentators. In addition to his own treatises, Asanga is also famous, according to tradition, for retrieving the five Maitreya Buddha texts¹ directly from Maitreya in his pure land, Tushita. With regards to Vasubandhu, before becoming a leading exponent of the Mind-Only school, he wrote a famous treatise from the perspective of the Great Exposition school (Vaibhashika) entitled The Treasure of Knowledge (Abhidharmakosha) which is utilized extensively in Tibetan scholastic studies. Traditionally, seven years is dedicated to the study of this text in the Gelug geshe curriculum.

Two additional Mind-Only school proponents round out the six ornaments: Dignaga (6th century C.E.) and Dharmakirti (600–660 C.E.). The two are most famous as the groundbreakers in Buddhist logic and epistemology. Specifically, they wrote philosophical treatises on the contents and means of accruing valid knowledge. They argued that from the Buddhist perspective there were two sources of valid knowledge: logical inference and direct perception. Much of their writings were detailed elaborations on these topics.

The Two Excellent Ones refers to the two great Vinaya masters: Gunaprabha (c. 9th century C.E.) andShakyaprabha. Gunaprabha was a disciple of Vasubandhu’s and is most famous for his treatise, the Vinaya Sutra. Shakyaprabha was a disciple of Shantarakshita (also among the seventeen) and the other major teacher of vinaya among the seventeen. He is particularly associated Mulasarvastivada-vinaya line which has been followed in Tibet since the time of the early Dharma King, Ralpachen (born c. 806 C.E.). His teacher Shantarakshita began this ordination lineage in Tibet when he ordained the first seven Tibetan monks and founded Samye Monastery.

Beyond the Six Ornaments and Two Excellent Ones, are nine additional Indian Buddhist masters, each of whom profoundly impacted the shapes of Indian and/or Tibetan Buddhism for centuries.

Buddhapalita (470–550 C.E.) was one of the great commentators on Nagarjuna’s Madhyamaka thought. He is the earliest Indian Madhyamaka specifically identified as a proponent of the sub-school of Madhyamaka known in Tibet as the Middle Way Consequence school (Prasangika-Madhyamaka). He received this designation in Tibet due to his use of a form of reasoning that drew out the absurd logical consequences of the philosophical rivals of Madhyamakas when he commented on Nagarjuna’s root text on wisdom.

Buddhapalita was subsequently criticized by another Madhyamaka master, Bhavaviveka (500–578 C.E.). He argued that a proper Madhyamaka commentator ought to do more than show the absurdities of other’s views; they also have a responsibility to establish the view of emptiness and to do so with autonomous inferences (svatantranumana). He subsequently became known in Tibet as the “founder” and primary proponent of a sub-school of Madhyamaka known as the Middle Way Autonomy school (Svatantrika-Madhyamaka).

Chandrakirti (600–650 C.E.) is revered by many in Tibet as the founder of the Middle Way Consequence school, often regarded as the highest Buddhist philosophical explanation of reality. He famously came to the defense of Buddhapalita’s use of consequentialist reasoning contra Bhavaviveka’s criticism. In a line of thinking further developed by Je Tsongkhapa (1357–1419 CE) they argued that a Madhyamaka philosopher ought not to utilize autonomous inferences because the very use of that sort of reasoning entailed the acceptance of an inherent nature in the subject of the argument. Since the existence of an inherent nature in anything was precisely what Nagarjuna was refuting, the use of autonomous inference seemed like a fatal flaw for a Madhyamaka. Though historical evidence suggests that Chandrakirti’s views likely did not have extensive support in India until the late period there, by the 13th century in Tibet, his views on a proper understanding of Madhyamaka began to dominate the philosophical landscape and continue to today.

Shantarakshita (725–788 C.E.) was a towering figure in late Indian Buddhist philosophy and immensely influential in Tibet. Philosophically, he is famous for integrating the three major lines of Mahayana philosophy into an integrated coherent system. These were the Madhyamaka, the Yogachara and the logico-epistemological thought of Dharmakirti. Beyond India, he spent the last seventeen years of his life in Tibet, ordaining its first monks and serving as abbot of it first monastery. Moreover, probably nobody has exerted a greater influence on Tibetan Buddhism in terms of the way in which Tibetans approach philosophy. Shantarakshita virtually taught Tibetans how to do philosophy during the early dissemination of the Dharma there.
Two of Shantarakshita’s disciples (in addition to Shakyabhadra mentioned above) are also included in the list of seventeen. Kamalashila (c. 8th century C.E.) likewise was an immensely important figure in India and Tibet. Like his teacher, Kamalashila wrote extensively on Madhyamaka and pramana (logic and epistemology) as well as on meditation theory and practice.
His three Stages of Meditation (Bhavanakrama) texts are among the most cited in traditional Tibet expositions on the topics. Moreover, also like his teacher, he spent extensive time in Tibet during the early dissemination. He famously and successfully defended the Indian gradual approach to enlightenment at the Great Debate at Samye (also called the Council of Lhasa) against the instantaneous approach advocated by Hvashang Mohoyen, the Chinese master. Tibetan histories often recount that since that time Tibetan have followed the Indian method.

Haribhadra (700–770 C.E.), the last of Shantarakshita’s disciples included in the group of seventeen, wrote the most famous and commonly utilized of the 21 Indian commentaries on The Ornament of Clear Realizations by Maitreya and the Mahayana path system in general. The other major commentator on The Ornament of Clear Realizations to be included among the seventeen is Vimuktisena (c. 6th century C.E.) whose text Illuminating the Twenty Thousand: A Commentary on the Ornament is likewise extensively cited by subsequent Tibetan authors.

Shantideva (c. 8th century C.E.) composed what is perhaps the most important and influential classic on how to practice in the Mahayana tradition: A Guide to the Bodhisattva’s Way of Life (Bodhisattvacharyavatara) while a monk at Nalanda. His text on the development of bodhichitta and the practice of the six perfections is revered and studied extensively by all Tibetan traditions. His Holiness the Dalai Lama often refers to his favorite passage in Buddhist literature as coming from the dedication section of this text: “As long as space endures, as long as sentient being remain, may I too remain, to dispel the miseries of the world.”

The final master included among the seventeen was the Bengali scholar-adept Atisha (980–1054 C.E.), who was a critical figure in the later dissemination of Buddhism in Tibet. Like many of the others on this list, Atisha’s impact on the shape of Tibetan Buddhism was immense. His classic, The Lamp for the Path to Enlightenment (Bodhipathpradipa) is widely regarded as the root text on the graduated stages of the path presentation found in Tibetan classics like Je Tsongkhapa’s The Great Treatise on the Stages of the Path to Enlightenment (also commonly referred to by the abbreviated Tibetan name, Lamrim Chenmo), Gampopa’s Jeweled Ornament of Liberation and Patrul Rinpoche’s The Words of My Perfect Teacher among others. In addition to the stages of the path teachings, Atisha also introduced the lojong, or mind training, tradition of Mahayana practice in Tibet. Lojong teachings are quintessential Mahayana teachings in that their aim is to eliminate both the self-cherishing attitude and self-grasping by teaching means to cultivate the altruistic compassion of bodhichitta and the direct realization of emptiness. Like the stages of the path teachings, the mind training tradition is one that is embraced by all Tibetan lineages.

Together the seventeen great masters of Nalanda monastery represent the real high points of Indian Mahayana. The inspiration and teachings of these great masters continue to bless practitioners of the Mahayana to the present day.

Notes

¹ The five Maitreya texts are: The Ornament of Clear Realization (Abhisamayalamkara), The Ornament of Mahayana Sutras (Mahayanasutralamkara), Distinguishing the Middle from the Extremes (Madhyantavibhaga), Distinguishing Phenomena and the Nature of Phenomena (Dharma-dharmata-vibhaga), and The Sublime Continuum (Uttaratantra).

http://buddhistchannel.tv/index.php?id=70,12493,0,0,1,0#.VhaCC_mqqko

JAMES BLUMENTHAL, Ph.D. is an associate professor of Buddhist philosophy at Oregon State University and professor of Buddhist Studies at Maitripa College. He is the author of The Ornament of The Middle Way: A Study of the Madhyamika Thought of Shantarakshita along with more than 40 articles in scholarly journals and popular periodicals on various aspects of Buddhist thought and practice. He recently finished work with Geshe Lhundup Sopa on Steps on the Path: Vol. IV, a commentary on the ‘ Shamatha’ chapter of Lamrim Chanmo of Tsongkhapa which is due for publication in the fall.

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TIBET AWARENESS – THE GREAT MASTERS OF NALANDA UNIVERSITY. ‘SEVENTEEN PANDITS OF NALANDA MONASTERY’ BY PROFESSOR JAMES BLUMENTHAL, Ph.D., OREGON STATE UNIVERSITYOn blogs.oregonstate.edu

September 08, 2018. International Literacy Day Tribute to the Great Masters of Nalanda.

TIBET AWARENESS – THE GREAT MASTERS OF NALANDA

September 08, 2018. International Literacy Day Tribute to the Great Masters of Nalanda.

TIBET AWARENESS – GREAT MASTERS OF NALANDA. BUDDHIST CENTER OF LEARNING WHICH FLOURISHED FROM 427 TO 1197 CE. AT NALANDA, BIHAR, INDIA.

September 08, 2018. International Literacy Day Tribute to the Great Masters of Nalanda.

TIBET AWARENESS – SEVENTEEN MASTERS OF NALANDA MONASTIC UNIVERSITY. THIS CENTER OF BUDDHIST LEARNING FLOURISHED FOR 600 YEARS. THE CAMPUS COMMUNITY OF 30,000 MONKS, NUNS INCLUDED 2,000 TEACHERS.

 

FBI Director’s threat assessment demands US-Tibet Direct Dialogue

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FBI Director’s threat assessment demands US–Tibet Direct Dialogue

In FBI Director Christopher Wray’s evaluation, China is ‘most significant’ threat to US. In my analysis, the threat posed by Communist China requires an immediate response. On behalf of Living Tibetan Spirits, I recommend US-Tibet Direct Dialogue to confront threats arising from spread of Communism to mainland China. It must be said, Tibetans understand China’s deception better than any other people in our world.

Rudranarasimham Rebbapragada

SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE

FBI Director Chris Wray says China is ‘most significant’ threat to US – Business Insider

Clipped from: http://www.businessinsider.com/fbi-director-says-china-is-the-broadest-most-significant-threat-to-the-us-2018-7

FBI Director Christopher Wray at the Aspen Security Forum. Screenshot/Aspen Security Forum

Amid rampant discussion about Russian election interference and espionage, FBI Director Christopher Wray has deemed China the largest, most concerning threat to the US.

Speaking at the Aspen Security Forum on Wednesday, Wray was asked whether he saw China as an adversary and, if so, to what level.

“I think China, from a counterintelligence perspective, in many ways represents the broadest, most challenging, most significant threat we face as a country,” Wray answered.

“And I say that because for them it is a whole of state effort. It is economic espionage as well as traditional espionage; it is nontraditional collectors as well as traditional intelligence operatives; it’s human sources as well as cyber means.

“We have economic-espionage investigations in every state, all 50 states, that trace back to China. It covers everything from corn seeds in Iowa to wind turbines in Massachusetts and everything in between. So the volume of it, the pervasiveness of it, the significance of it, is something I think this country cannot underestimate.”

The comments follow a 2017 report by the US trade representative that accused China of “trade secret theft, rampant online piracy and counterfeiting, and high levels of physical pirated and counterfeit exports.” The report found intellectual-property theft by China was costing the US up to $600 billion annually.

It seems a far more strategic and wide-ranging effort than Russia’s ongoing interference efforts, which dominated headlines in the US this week amid President Donald Trump’s widely panned summit with President Vladimir Putin.

Wray said Russia needed to be dealt with “aggressively,” but he seemed far more concerned with what he called China’s efforts to position itself as “the sole dominant superpower, the sole dominant economic power.”

“They’re trying to replace the US in that role, and so theirs is a long-term game that’s focused on just about every industry, every quarter of society in many ways,” Wray said. “It involves academia, it involves research and development, it involves everything from agriculture to high-tech. And so theirs is a more pervasive, broader approach but in many ways more of a long-term threat to the country.”

This isn’t the first time China’s patience and willingness to play the long game have been described as reasons its interference campaigns are more successful than those of Russia.

John Garnaut. Screenshot

Earlier this year, John Garnaut, who led a secret government inquiry into China’s political influence in Australia, told the US House Armed Services Committee that Russia preferred “focused, sharp strikes,” while Beijing’s actions were more incremental.

“Unlike Russia, which seems to be as much for a good time rather than a long time, the Chinese are strategic, patient, and they set down foundations of organizations and very consistent narratives over a long period of time,” Garnaut told the committee.

Garnaut’s report found China had attempted to influence politics at all levels in Australia. The Australian government has since introduced new foreign-interference laws— much to Beijing’s ire — and the issue is frequently discussed and debated in the public sphere.

It’s this widespread shift toward a consensus on China’s influence and interference attempts that Wray described as “one of the bright spots” since he became FBI director just over 10 months ago.

“It’s one of the few things I’ve seen that, in a country where it feels like some people can’t even agree on what day of the week it is, on this I think people are starting to come together,” Wray said.

“I see it in the interagency, I see it up on the Hill when I’m talking to the intelligence committees across the spectrum. I think people are starting to wake up and rub the cobwebs, or sleep, out of their eyes. And my hope is we’re in a moment where we can pivot and start to take this much more seriously.”



THE TIBET QUESTION – UNITY OF TIBETAN TERRITORY

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THE TIBET QUESTION – UNITY OF TIBETAN TERRITORY

The Tibet Question – Unity of Tibetan Territory is Most Important.

Living Tibetan Spirits demand Unity of entire Tibetan territory as the first step to resolve problem called ‘The Tibet Question’. During 1974, Special Frontier Force dispatched me to visit Bylakuppe and I spent over four weeks of time speaking to Tibetan children. Tibetans fully understand the boundaries of Tibet and there must be no compromise on this issue.

Rudranarasimham Rebbapragada

SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE

UNITY OF THREE PROVINCES OF TIBET IS MOST IMPORTANT: HIS HOLINESS THE DALAI LAMA IN BYLAKUPPE

Clipped from: http://tibet.net/2017/12/unity-of-three-provinces-of-tibet-is-most-important-his-holiness-the-dalai-lama-in-bylakuppe/

The Tibet Question – Unity of Tibetan Territory is Most Important.

His Holiness the Dalai Lama addressing recently arrived Tibetan pilgrims from Tibet and Tibetan teachers gathered for a workshop on Secular Ethics in the Sera Lachi Assembly Hall in Bylakuppe, Karnataka, India on 22 December 2017. Photo/Tenzin Phende/DIIR

Bylakuppe: His Holiness the Dalai Lama gave an audience to new arrivals from Tibet and  a group of Tibetan teachers gathered for Secular ethics workshop on Friday morning.

“Tibetans in Tibet are the real masters of the country. Despite facing immense hardship, you have kept your spirits up. In 1959, the whole of Tibet was thrown into turmoil. There is a story that after the bombardment of Lhasa, Mao Zedong asked what happened to the Dalai Lama. When he heard that I had escaped to India, he is said to have replied, ‘Then we’ve lost.'”

“The Chinese authorities thought the issue of Tibet would simply fade away, but even after 58 years it hasn’t. In 1959, many countries had no idea about Tibet; they do now,” His Holiness said, urging them to uphold the spirit.

“What is important,” he said, “is that all three provinces of Tibet remain united, standing together in solidarity,” His Holiness told the gathering.

“Tibetans should pride themselves of its thousand millennium old cultural heritage, rooted in the profound Nalanda teachings.”

The Tibet Question – Unity of Tibetan Territory is Most Important.

His Holiness the Dalai Lama and President Dr Lobsang Sangay, Central Tibetan Administration arrives at the Sera Lachi Assembly hall to meet the Tibetan pilgrims from Tibet and participants of the workshop on Secular ethics. Photo/Tenzin Phende/DIIR

“We started appealing to the UN late 1959, but, as Pandit Nehru advised me, the USA will not go to war with China over Tibet. We concluded that eventually we would have to deal with the Chinese government. Until now the Chinese policy has been to denigrate the Tibetan people and their culture, nevertheless we remain hopeful of being able to preserve our culture and values within the People’s Republic of China” he added.

His Holiness emphasized “Tibetan language is the key to hold Tibetan alive and unity. Nothing can exterminate Tibetan language which started more than 1000 years ago.”

His Holiness briefly explained about Middle way approach and its appreciation from Chinese intellects.

The Tibet Question – Unity of Tibetan Territory is Most Important.

President of Central Tibetan Administration, Dr Lobsang Sangay addressing recently arrived Tibetan pilgrims from Tibet and Tibetan teachers gathered for a workshop on Secular Ethics in the Sera Lachi Assembly Hall in Bylakuppe, Karnataka, India on 22 December 2017. Photo/Tenzin Phende/DIIR

President Dr Lobsang Sangay, Central Tibetan Administration also addressed the new arrivals and the participants of the workshop on Secular ethics.

In his talk, he emphasized that Middle Way is best approach to have win-win situation and expressed hope for positive changes to take place within China. “The present situation inside Tibet is indeed sad and unfortunate, but I am hopeful that in time, changes will take place within China.”

“We are seeking genuine autonomy for Tibet through non-violence and Chinese government can’t say no to this as it does not contradict China’s sovereignty and One China Policy,” he said.

Enumerating the practicality of Middle Way Approach, under the prevailing situation inside Tibet and exile, Dr Sangay highlighted the widespread support and appreciation expressed by world leaders for the policy envisioned by His Holiness the Dalai Lama.

The Tibet Question – Unity of Tibetan Territory is Most Important.

President of Central Tibetan Administration, Dr Lobsang Sangay addressing recently arrived Tibetan pilgrims from Tibet and Tibetan teachers gathered for a workshop on Secular Ethics in the Sera Lachi Assembly Hall in Bylakuppe, Karnataka, India on 22 December 2017. Photo/Tenzin Phende/DIIR

He further said, “Tibetan in exile practice full democracy rather than Chinese communist party of holding power by few people. Many of high-level authorities are mostly Chinese. So we seek to genuine autonomy, which is within framework of Peoples Republic of China’s constitution.”

President Dr Sangay urged people to invest in education rather than wasting money on luxury. “Since 2011, Kashag has given top priority to education and will continue to do so.”

Towards the end, he urged for the Tibetans to stay united. “Keeping differences aside, if we all work together, the dreams and the aspirations of the Tibetan people in Tibet and in exile will be fulfilled,” the President said.

filed by Correspondent Tenzin Phende-

The Tibet Question – Unity of Tibetan Territory is Most Important.

Tibetan teachers gathered for a workshop on Secular Ethics listening to His Holiness the Dalai Lama during their meeting at Sera Lachi Assembly Hall in Bylakuppe, Karnataka, India on December 22, 2017. Photo/Tenzin Phende/DIIR

The Tibet Question – Unity of Tibetan Territory is Most Important.

 

MONDAY, MAY 28, 2018 – UNKNOWN SOLDIER OF AMERICA PAYS TRIBUTE TO FALLEN FREEDOM FIGHTERS OF SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE

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MONDAY, MAY 28, 2018 – UNKNOWN SOLDIER OF AMERICA PAYS TRIBUTE TO FALLEN FREEDOM FIGHTERS OF SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE

On Monday, May 28, 2018, Memorial Day, Living Tibetan Spirits pay tribute to fallen freedom fighters of Special Frontier Force. I trained at Special Frontier Force with US patronage to fight war in occupied Tibet to secure Freedom. This war qualifies me as ‘Unknown Soldier of America’ for the war serves to defend America from Enemy. While training for this US sponsored military mission, freedom fighters of Special Frontier Force gave their precious lives. Their mortal remains lie buried in unmarked graves in Chittagong Hill Tracts with none to pay respects with flowers.

Rudranarasimham Rebbapragada

SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE

PRESIDENT DONALD J. TRUMP PROCLAIMS MEMORIAL DAY, MAY 28, 2018, AS A DAY OF PRAYER FOR PERMANENT PEACE

Monday, May 28, 2018, Memorial Day – Unknown Soldier of America pays tribute to fallen freedom fighters of Special Frontier Force.

Clipped from: https://www.whitehouse.gov/presidential-actions/president-donald-j-trump-proclaims-memorial-day-may-28-2018-day-prayer-permanent-peace/

Monday, May 28, 2018, Memorial Day – Unknown Soldier of America pays tribute to fallen freedom fighters of Special Frontier Force.

SENIOR ALIEN IN US GULAG VS SENIOR IN OCCUPIED TIBET

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SENIOR ALIEN IN US GULAG VS SENIOR IN OCCUPIED TIBET

Senior Alien in US Gulag vs Senior in Occupied Tibet

Living Tibetan Spirits admit with due honesty that Senior in Occupied Tibet is living a better life compared to Septuagenarian Senior Alien who lives his miserable life in US Gulag without hope for receiving monthly retirement benefits during concluding years of his life’s journey. When you behold the man, his condition is self-evident.

Senior Alien in US Gulag vs Senior in Occupied Tibet.

Rudranarasimham Rebbapragada

SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE

HAPPY LIFE OF A SENIOR IN ALI PREFECTURE OF TIBET – XINHUA – ENGLISH.NEWS.CN

Clipped from: http://www.xinhuanet.com/english/2018-05/18/c_137189053.htm

Senior Alien in US Gulag vs Senior in Occupied Tibet

A two-story house in Dianjiao Village, Zhaxigang Town of Ga’er County, Ali Prefecture in southwest China’s Tibet Autonomous Region. (Xinhuanet/Xue Zhen)

BEIJING, May 18 (Xinhuanet) — A two-story house equipped with all kinds of household appliances is where Cama Ciren, a 72-year-old Tibetan and his wife live.

This is Dianjiao village, where they have lived for 34 years, in Zhaxigang Town of Ga’er County, Ali Prefecture in southwest China’s Tibet Autonomous Region.

“The village was actually isolated from the outside world in the 1980s and 1990s. There were only two or three households,” he recalled.

“Without a tent, we built a rock wall to shelter us from the wind. All of our clothes were scrabbled by hands,” he added.

Things have changed over the years. By 2012, Dianjiao was already a well-off village where each family lived in new house and a newly built road connected the village with the outside world.

Senior Alien in US Gulag vs Senior in Occupied Tibet

Cama Ciren (1st L), his wife (2nd R) and his younger sister are in their living room. (Xinhuanet/Xue Zhen)

At their age, Cama Ciren and his wife are not supposed to labor for a living. But they lead a comfortable life owing to the government subsidy policy.

“The subsidies we receive each year exceed 20,000 yuan,” his wife said, adding that they also enjoy full medical reimbursement, which they could not even imagine before.

Speaking of children’s education, Cama said that there are three college graduates in the village, his daughter being one of them.

“She landed a job immediately after graduation,” he said.

Today, none of the children at school-age in Dianjiao village drops out of school. Their food, accommodation, and tuition fees are all covered by the government.

“A happier life awaits us in the future,” he said.

Senior Alien in US Gulag vs Senior in Occupied Tibet