Two events in the 1960s underlined the urgent need to restructure and revitalise India’s Intelligence system: the 1962 war against China, and the one against Pakistan in 1965, both shocking instances of failures in information gathering. The officer who would be given charge of this task was R.N. Kao—someone as unlike romanticised ideals of spies in films and novels as possible.
The founder-chief of India’s Research and Analysis Wing lived and operated from the shadows. Understated and gentlemanly, he may not have looked the part, but Kao undoubtedly put Indian Intelligence on the world map. In this riveting book, authors Anusha Nandakumar and Sandeep Saket trace the roots of modern Indian espionage, and describe the newly formed R&AW’s integral role in the liberation of Bangladesh.
Kao had one goal, to build an Intelligence-gathering agency that would ensure the security and integrity of India. And eventually, the legend of the ‘Kaoboys’—the nickname given to the team he built—would spread far and wide. This is the compelling tale of how it started; of covert operations, courage and quick thinking; and of how wars are won as much off the battlefield as on it.
Kao also played an integral role in setting up the National Security Guard (NSG), an elite force that has proved invaluable in dealing with hijackings and terrorist attacks. Along with B.N. Mullick, he helped form the Sashastra Seema Bal (SSB) and the Aviation Research Centre (ARC). In 1963, Kao set up and served as the first head of the Aviation Research Centre (ARC) with the US assistance. Kao orchestrated the defence and intelligence cooperation between India and the US after 1962.
Spymaster RN Kao: Far Cry From James Bond, Who Helped Liberate Bangladesh & Put R&AW on World Map
Authors Anusha Nandakumar and Sandeep Saket, in their book ‘The War That Made R&AW’, traces the roots of Indian espionage and establishment of R&AW in 1968.
True to its name, the book ‘The War That Made R&AW’ authored by Anusha Nandakumar and Sandeep Saket, takes us on a voyage through the tumultuous and uncertain times leading up to the Bangladesh Liberation War of 1971, which tested the tenacity of the newly formed R&AW, India’s External Intelligence Agency, and helped put it on the world map as a name to reckon with.
The book sheds light on the work of the brave men who fought in the shadowy realm of intelligence and espionage, an often-neglected subject in Indian non-fiction as first-person accounts are hard to come by.
The authors also narrate the story of Rameshwar Nath Kao, the father of modern Indian espionage, who helped India liberate Bangladesh, and also gives detailed and vivid accounts of several covert operations and off-the-battlefield wars that the R&AW had to win in the past to save the country from foreign threats.
Tracing the history of Indian espionage, the authors show why Kao is such a pivotal figure in R&AW.
“Kao was a visionary who single handedly put Indian intelligence on the world map. It is said that he was a man of few words and someone who preferred to let his work speak for him,” the authors say.
A far cry from the flamboyant James Bond, Kao lived by the maxim: ‘The life of a spy is to know and not be known.’
The narrative style of the book makes it an easy and captivating read. It runs as interestingly as a novel or a film, with many dramatic moments that keep the readers hooked.
Filled with several anecdotes, the book brings history to life with vivid details, and makes unknown individuals seem familiar and real.
For example, the chapter ‘Kaoboys’, which talks about Kao putting together his core team and bringing R&AW to life and building it from scratch, contains several anecdotes of the team members casually joking, which adds life and colour to the story, making spies more human.
KAO’S TALES OF BRAVERY
At the heart of the storytelling is the handsome, incorruptible, sophisticated and intellectual Kao, shy and humble hero of Indian espionage. The book recounts many tales of his intelligence and bravery.
In one such retelling, Count Alexandre de Marenches — former head of the French External Intelligence Agency, or SDECE (Service For External Documentation And Counter-Intelligence, as it was then known) — names Kao as one of the ‘five great intelligence chiefs of the 1970s’.
“What a fascinating mix of physical and mental elegance! What accomplishments! What friendships! And, yet so shy of talking about himself, his accomplishments and his friends,” the Count’s remarks on Kao.
Kao held the position of secretary (research) in the Cabinet Secretariat of the Government of India, and his first assignment, talked about in the first chapter ‘The Intelligencer’, was the Kashmir Princess probe in 1955, where a chartered Air India plane named ‘Kashmir Princess’ was sabotaged in hopes of assassinating the then Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai, who fortunately did not board the flight.
Kao worked the case so efficiently that to show his appreciation, Enlai awarded Kao with his coveted personal seal, an honour reserved for the most deserving public servants in the Chinese republic.
The second assignment handled by Kao was the setting up of an intelligence agency in Ghana in 1958.
According to the book, “Kao left for Ghana in February 1959. Operating out of Accra, the nation’s capital, he worked there for a year.”
“To begin with, he did not even have an office table, let alone qualified personnel. He had to set everything up from scratch, building up the basic framework and infrastructure of the country’s intelligence apparatus. But the Ghanaians assigned to Kao at Accra were a cheerful lot. They were eager to learn and extremely devoted to Nkrumah and their country,” it adds.
“After a year of dedicated hard work, despite minimal funds and the complete absence of a trained workforce, Kao succeeded in establishing the Foreign Service Research Bureau (FSRB), Ghana’s external and internal intelligence agency. The FSRB was the first foray made by an Indian intelligence officer at a global level.”
The book says Kao saw his “stint in Ghana as an opportunity to use his newly developed methodology and international experience in intelligence and counter-intelligence. This assignment would give him much-valued experience”.
CONTRIBUTION TO 1971 LIBERATION WAR
The chapter indicates that these two assignments tested Kao’s mettle and grit, and helped mould the man, who would shape the future of intelligence-gathering in India.
Kao took over as the director of R&AW in 1968 after then prime minister Indira Gandhi split the Intelligence Bureau to create an intelligence wing solely dedicated to international and external threats.
His aim was singular: to create an intelligence agency capable of playing at the same level as other foreign intelligence agencies of the leading powers to ensure the safety and security of the nation.
The agency’s efficiency and indomitable spirit came to the spotlight during the Bangladesh Liberation War.
From the training of Bangladeshi freedom fighter group Mukti Bahini, getting most of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman’s close aides out of the country before the Pakistani Army cracked down on them to gathering and passing crucial intelligence to the departments concerned, R&AW performed splendidly.
The book contains an epigraph from the famous book ‘The Art of War’ by Sun Tzu that says: “The reason the enlightened prince and the wise general conquer the enemy whenever they move and their achievements surpass those of ordinary men, is foreknowledge.”
One cannot imagine a more apt and suitable quote to use as an epigraph for this book. It summarises the entire point of intelligence-gathering in one single line.
It also gives an apt description of the book as it is filled with the exciting story of R&AW, its conception and creation, to it being transformed into a force respected by its counterparts from different countries.
The literary skills of the authors combined with the historical accounts make the book a great read. Its evocative style, narrative quality, and the wonderful, and humble hero at the heart of the story will undoubtedly appeal to the readers.
I had a dream. I was visiting Whole Foods, Ann Arbor on Friday, March 05, 2021. I witness a huge celebration with roses and fresh, bubbly wine.
I joined the Celebration at Whole Foods, Ann Arbor and tried to inquire as to who won The International Woman of the Year 2021 Award. I was not able to recognize the face of any person.
I tried hard to recognize the faces of people in the crowd. Finally, I saw the angel whom I had met before in my dreams while I visited Whole Foods, Ann Arbor during 2015, and 2017. I asked the angel as to who won The International Woman of the Year 2021 Award. She smilingly responded that the Winner is the Woman whose face I can easily recognize in the entire World Wide Web which hosts the photo images of countless number of Women living across the Whole World.
The Grocery Team at Whole Foods, Ann Arbor initiated a new Holiday Celebration called ‘Happy Women’s Day’ on March 08.
The Grocery Team at Whole Foods, Ann Arbor has fourteen women Team Members. The Grocery Team Leader, the (Dry/Imperishable) Grocery, Dairy, Frozen and Bulk Department Buyers, and ten other crew members are all women. All of them received Whole Foods Market Gift Cards to celebrate Happy Women’s Day on March 08, 2021.
While the US troops fight the biggest battle on February 25, 1972, near Saigon in Vietnam, the US President Richard Nixon spent time in Peking befriending the adversary, giving care and comfort to the Enemy while Americans bled on the battlefield.
At 7 a.m., Guam time, the President and Mrs. Nixon left Guam International Airport for Shanghai, their first stop in the People’s Republic of China. They arrived, after a 4-hour flight, at Hung Chiao (Rainbow Bridge) Airport, Shanghai, at 9 a.m., China time, where they were greeted by officials of the People’s Republic, headed by Vice Minister of Foreign Affairs Ch’iao Kuan-hua. After refreshments and a tour of the terminal, the Presidential party again boarded the Spirit of ’76, accompanied by Vice Minister Ch’iao, Chang Wen Chen and Wang Hai-jun of the Foreign Ministry, a Chinese navigator, radio operator, and three interpreters, for the final leg of the flight to Peking.
At about 11:30 a.m., China time, the party arrived at Capital Airport near Peking. Premier Chou En-lai greeted the President and members of his party, stood with the President for the playing of the national anthems of the two countries, and accompanied the President in a review of the troops.
The Premier then accompanied the President in a motorcade to Peking, to Tiao Yu Tai (Angling Terrace), the guest house where the President and Mrs. Nixon would stay during their visit.
In the afternoon, the President met for an hour with Chairman Mao Tse-tung at the Chairman’s residence and for an hour with Premier Chou and other officials in plenary session at the Great Hall of the People.
The President and Mrs. Nixon were guests of Premier Chou at a banquet in the Great Hall of the People in the evening.
Tuesday, February 22, 1972
After a morning of staff meetings and attention to other White House business, the President met for 4 hours with Premier Chou in the Great Hall.
The First Lady visited the kitchen of the Peking Hotel, where she toured food preparation and cooking areas, and talked with cooks and helpers. She was accompanied by Mme. Lin Chia-mei, wife of Vice Premier Li Hsien Nien, Mme. Chi Peng-fei, wife of the Minister of Foreign Affairs, and Sun Hsin-mang, head of the revolutionary committee of the hotel. During the tour, Mrs. Nixon told reporters of plans for the People’s Republic to present to the people of America two giant pandas, in appreciation for the two musk oxen which were to be given to the Peking Zoo on behalf of the people of the United States.
In the afternoon, Mrs. Nixon visited the Sununer Palace, an imperial residence and garden during the Ching Dynasty. She toured rooms used by the Empress Tzu Hsi and walked in the gardens, viewing the lake Kunming and Longevity Hill. She then went to the Peking Zoo and saw the zoo’s pandas.
In the evening, the President and First Lady attended a cultural program with Premier and Madame Chou and Chiang Ch’ing, the wife of Chairman Mao Tse-tung. They saw a performance of the ballet, “The Red Detachment of Women.”
Wednesday, February 23, 1972
The President and Premier Chou met in the afternoon for four hours of discussions at the guest house where the President was staying.
The First Lady visited the Evergreen People’s Commune on the west edge of Peking. In her hour-long tour, she visited the commune’s clinic, where she observed acupuncture treatments, second- and third-grade classrooms, a commune home, agricultural areas and greenhouses, and a dri goods store.
In the afternoon, Mrs. Nixon visited the Peking Glassware Factory and talked with workers making glass flowers and animals.
In the evening, with Premier Chou En-lai, the President and Mrs. Nixon attended a public exhibition of gymnastics, badminton, and table tennis at the Capital Gymnasium.
Thursday, February 24, 1972
The President and Mrs. Nixon, accompanied by Vice Premier Li Hsien-nien, drove 35 miles north of Peking to visit the Ba Da Ling portion of the Great Wall of China, and then the tombs of the emperors of the Ming Dynasty.
In the afternoon, the President and Premier Chou met again for three hours of discussion. The President and Mrs. Nixon later attended an informal private dinner hosted by Premier Chou in the Great Hall.
Friday, February 25, 1972
In the morning, the President and Mrs. Nixon went to the Forbidden City, the site in Peking of the residence of the emperors for some 8oo years prior to the early 20th century. They were accompanied by Marshal Yeh Chien-ying, Vice Chairman of the Military Affairs Commission.
In the afternoon, the President met again with Premier Chou for an hour.
The First Lady toured the Peking Children’s Hospital.
Marking the final evening of their Peking, stay, the President and the First Lady hosted a banquet honoring Premier Chou and other Chinese officials in the Great Hall.
Saturday, February 26, 1972
At the Peking Airport, the President and Premier Chou and other officials of the United States and the People’s Republic met in plenary session for approximately one hour.
The President and the First Lady, with Premier Chou, then boarded the Premier’s plane for the flight to Hangzhou, People’s Republic of China. From Hangzhou Airport, they drove to a guest house on West Lake, a park and recreational site. where they were to spend the night.
In the afternoon, they joined in a walking tour of Flower Fort Park and a boat tour of West Lake, stopping briefly at the Island of Three Towers Reflecting the Moon. Mrs. Nixon also visited the Temple of the Great Buddha.
They were entertained in the evening at a banquet given by the Chekiang Province Revolutionary Committee.
Sunday, February 27, 1972
With Premier Chou, the President and the First Lady flew in the Premier’s plane from Hangzhou Airport to Shanghai. From Shanghai Airport, they motorcaded to the Shanghai Industrial Exhibition, where, with Premier Chou, they toured exhibits of heavy machinery and electronic equipment, handicrafts, surgical techniques, textiles, light industry, musical instruments, toys, and arts and crafts.
Mrs. Nixon also visited the Shanghai Municipal Children’s Palace, where she watched demonstrations of dancing, gymnastics, a puppet show, theatrics, swordplay, and art by students at the center. Her guide was Chang Hong, a fifth-grade student.
In the late afternoon, the joint communique agreed upon by the President and Premier Chou was released.
In the evening, the President and First Lady were guests at a banquet in the Shanghai Exhibition Hall hosted by the Shanghai Municipal Revolutionary Committee. Premier Chou and Committee Chairman Chang Ch’un-ch’iao then accompanied the President and Mrs. Nixon to a cultural program of acrobatics in the Exhibition Hall.
Monday, February 28, 1972
Premier Chou visited with the President for an hour at the Ching Kiang guest house and then accompanied the Presidential party to the airport for official farewells before the takeoff for the return flight at 10 a.m.
Crossing the International Date Line, the Spirit of ’76 arrived at Elmendorf Air Force Base, Anchorage, Alaska, at midnight on Sunday, February 27, Alaska time. The President and the First Lady spent the night at the residence of the Commanding General and left for the final leg of the flight to Washington at 9:40 a.m. on Monday, February 28, Alaska time.
The official party arrived at Andrews Air Force Base near Washington at 9:15 p.m, E.S.T.
U.S. troops fight the biggest battle in nearly a year – HISTORY
U.S. troops clash with North Vietnamese forces in a major battle 42 miles east of Saigon, the biggest single U.S. engagement with an enemy force in nearly a year. The five-hour action around a communist bunker line resulted in four dead and 47 wounded, almost half the U.S. weekly casualties.
Sikyong greets Tibetans on Losar, Tibetan New Year 2148
Sikyong Dr Lobsang Sangay extends Losar greetings to Tibetans inside and outside Tibet on the occasion of traditional Tibetan New Year- Losar 2148- the year of the Iron-Ox. The Tibetan New Year begins from 12-14 February 2021.
On this joyous occasion of Tibetan new year, Losar 2148, the year of Iron-Ox, I on behalf of the Central Tibetan Administration, extend heartfelt greetings and Tashi Delek to His Holiness the Dalai Lama led religious leaders and representatives of Tibetan Buddhism and all the Tibetan brothers and sisters in Tibet and throughout the world celebrating Tibetan new year.
I hope that this new year brings us all good health, positivity and fulfilment of our aspirations.
Meanwhile, the situation Inside Tibet remains grave and although we welcome the news of the recent release of language activist Tashi Wangchuk, we must not forget that he was falsely charged and wrongfully sentenced to five-year imprisonment. Similarly, the case of 19 yr old monk Tenzin Nyima who died of severe beating and torture by the Chinese authorities days after the enactment of the Tibetan Policy and Support Act of 2020 is a clear indication that the situation inside Tibet is worsening particularly after the US passed TPSA into law, which sends a powerful message of hope and justice to Tibetan inside Tibet and reinforces U.S support for religious freedom, the reincarnation system, environmental protection and Tibetan democratic system in exile especially acknowledging the Central Tibetan Administration and Sikyong as the legitimate institution and representative of the Tibetan diaspora around the world is a significant achievement for Tibet’s issue, and thus the Chinese government have intensified their control over the Tibetans in Tibet. Therefore, this new year we must all pledge our solidarity and commitment to promoting Tibet issue till it is not resolved and fulfil the aspirations of Tibetans in Tibet.
We must also keep in mind that the Covid-19 pandemic isn’t over yet given the unpredictable nature of the mutating virus and although vaccines are now available we must not compromise on safety and therefore I appeal everyone to prioritize maximum precautions during Losar festivity.
I also urge Tibetans around the world to advocate clean and fair participation in the upcoming final election 2021 for Sikyong and Parliament candidates. The preliminary election saw about 77% voter turn out, the highest turnout rate till date and I am hoping we see about 80% voter turn out in the final general election.
Once again I wish you all peace, prosperity and happiness and pray for the longevity of His Holiness the Dalai Lama. I also hope that the issue of Tibet is swiftly resolved and the Tibetans inside and outside Tibet reunite soon.
Proclamation of Independence Issued by the 13th Dalai Lama (1913) PROCLAMATION ISSUED BY H.H. THE DALAI LAMA XIII, ON THE EIGHTH DAY OF THE FIRST MONTH OF THE WATER-OX YEAR (February 14th, 1913)
Translation of the Tibetan Text
I, the Dalai Lama, most omniscient possessor of the Buddhist faith, whose title was conferred by the Lord Buddha’s command from the glorious land of India, speak to you as follows:
I am speaking to all classes of Tibetan people. Lord Buddha, from the glorious country of India, prophesied that the reincarnations of Avalokitesvara, through successive rulers from the early religious kings to the present day, would look after the welfare of Tibet.
During the time of Genghis Khan and Altan Khan of the Mongols, the Ming dynasty of the Chinese, and the Ch’ing Dynasty of the Manchus, Tibet and China cooperated on the basis of benefactor and priest relationship. A few years ago, the Chinese authorities in Szechuan and Yunnan endeavored to colonize our territory. They brought large numbers of troops into central Tibet on the pretext of policing the trade marts. I, therefore, left Lhasa with my ministers for the Indo-Tibetan border, hoping to clarify to the Manchu emperor by wire that the existing relationship between Tibet and China had been that of patron and priest and had not been based on the subordination of one to the other. There was no other choice for me but to cross the border, because Chinese troops were following with the intention of taking me alive or dead.
On my arrival in India, I dispatched several telegrams to the Emperor; but his reply to my demands was delayed by corrupt officials at Peking. Meanwhile, the Manchu empire collapsed. The Tibetans were encouraged to expel the Chinese from central Tibet. I, too, returned safely to my rightful and sacred country, and I am now in the course of driving out the remnants of Chinese troops from DoKham in Eastern Tibet. Now, the Chinese intention of colonizing Tibet under the patron-priest relationship has faded like a rainbow in the sky. Having once again achieved for ourselves a period of happiness and peace, I have now allotted to all of you the following duties to be carried out without negligence:
1. Peace and happiness in this world can only be maintained by preserving the faith of Buddhism. It is, therefore, essential to preserve all Buddhist institutions in Tibet, such as the Jokhang temple and Ramoche in Lhasa, Samye, and Traduk in southern Tibet, and the three great monasteries, etc.
2. The various Buddhist sects in Tibet should be kept in a distinct and pure form. Buddhism should be taught, learned, and meditated upon properly. Except for special persons, the administrators of monasteries are forbidden to trade, loan money, deal in any kind of livestock, and/or subjugate another’s subjects.
3. The Tibetan government’s civil and military officials, when collecting taxes or dealing with their subject citizens, should carry out their duties with fair and honest judgment so as to benefit the government without hurting the interests of the subject citizens. Some of the central government officials posted at Ngari Korsum in western Tibet, and Do Kham in eastern Tibet, are coercing their subject citizens to purchase commercial goods at high prices and have imposed transportation rights exceeding the limit permitted by the government. Houses, properties and lands belonging to subject citizens have been confiscated on the pretext of minor breaches of the law. Furthermore, the amputation of citizens’ limbs has been carried out as a form of punishment. Henceforth, such severe punishments are forbidden.
4. Tibet is a country with rich natural resources; but it is not scientifically advanced like other lands. We are a small, religious, and independent nation. To keep up with the rest of the world, we must defend our country. In view of past invasions by foreigners, our people may have to face certain difficulties, which they must disregard. To safeguard and maintain the independence of our country, one and all should voluntarily work hard. Our subject citizens residing near the borders should be alert and keep the government informed by special messenger of any suspicious developments. Our subjects must not create major clashes between two nations because of minor incidents.
5. Tibet, although thinly populated, is an extensive country. Some local officials and landholders are jealously obstructing other people from developing vacant lands, even though they are not doing so themselves. People with such intentions are enemies of the State and our progress. From now on, no one is allowed to obstruct anyone else from cultivating whatever vacant lands are available. Land taxes will not be collected until three years have passed; after that the land cultivator will have to pay taxes to the government and to the landlord every year, proportionate to the rent. The land will belong to the cultivator.
Your duties to the government and to the people will have been achieved when you have executed all that I have said here. This letter must be posted and proclaimed in every district of Tibet, and a copy kept in the records of the offices in every district.
The Special Frontier Force which represents The Tibetan Resistance Movement to contain, to resist, to engage, to counteract, to “Roll-Back” the Spread of Communism, asks Americans to define their Mission on February 06, 2021 to restore Tibetan Equilibrium using the guidance provided by ‘The Reagan Doctrine of 1985’. Using President Reagan’s words, I ask Americans to do what is “Morally Right.”
The “Reagan Doctrine” was used to characterize the Reagan administration’s (1981-1988) policy of supporting anti-Communist insurgents wherever they might be. In his 1985 State of the Union address, President Ronald Reagan called upon Congress and the American people to stand up to the Soviet Union, what he had previously called the “Evil Empire”:
Reagan began his foreign policy comments with the dramatic pronouncement that, “Freedom is not the sole prerogative of a chosen few; it is the universal right of all God’s children.” America’s “mission” was to “nourish and defend freedom and democracy.” More specifically, Reagan declared that, “We must stand by our democratic allies. And we must not break faith with those who are risking their lives—on every continent, from Afghanistan to Nicaragua—to defy Soviet-supported aggression and secure rights which have been ours from birth.” He concluded, “Support for freedom fighters is self-defense.”
“We must stand by all our democratic allies. And we must not break faith with those who are risking their lives—on every continent, from Afghanistan to Nicaragua—to defy Soviet-supported aggression and secure rights which have been ours from birth.”
Breaking with the doctrine of “Containment,” established during the Truman administration—President Ronald Reagan’s foreign policy was based on John Foster Dulles’ “Roll-Back” strategy from the 1950s in which the United States would actively push back the influence of the Soviet Union. Reagan’s policy differed, however, in the sense that he relied primarily on the overt support of those fighting Soviet dominance. This strategy was perhaps best encapsulated in NSC National Security Decision Directive 75. This 1983 directive stated that a central priority of the U.S. in its policy toward the Soviet Union would be “to contain and over time reverse Soviet expansionism,” particularly in the developing world. As the directive noted:
“The U.S. must rebuild the credibility of its commitment to resist Soviet encroachment on U.S. interests and those of its Allies and friends, and to support effectively those Third World states that are willing to resist Soviet pressures or oppose Soviet initiatives hostile to the United States, or are special targets of Soviet policy.”
To that end, the Reagan administration focused much of its energy on supporting proxy armies to curtail Soviet influence. Among the more prominent examples of the Reagan Doctrine’s application, in Nicaragua, the United States sponsored the contra movement in an effort to force the leftist Sandinista government from power. And in Afghanistan, the United States provided material support to Afghan rebels—known as the mujahadeen—helping them end Soviet occupation of their country.
The 13th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, ratified in 1865 in the aftermath of the Civil War, abolished slavery in the United States. The 13th Amendment states: “Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.”
On January 31, 1865, the House of Representatives passed the proposed amendment with a vote of 119-56, just over the required two-thirds majority. The following day, President Lincoln approved a joint resolution of Congress submitting it to the state legislatures for ratification.
But President Lincoln would not see final ratification: Lincoln was assassinated on April 14, 1865, and the necessary number of states did not ratify the 13th Amendment until December 6, 1865.
Social Security Act, Section. 202 (y), VIOLATES THE 13th Amendment to the US Constitution
At a ceremony held in Emancipation Hall of the United States Capitol Visitor Center on Wednesday, December 09, 2015, President Barack Obama and leaders of Congress commemorated the 150th Anniversary of the 13th Amendment to the US Constitution. House Speaker Paul Ryan in his remarks stated that the Constitution is Supreme Law of the Land. The 13th Amendment is just 43 words long. I want to examine if those 43 words govern, rule, and operate the lives of all inhabitants of this Land.
My readers should not be surprised if I describe the US Congress as “Slave Driver.” The reason for my claim is based on a law enacted by the US Congress in 1996 that amended the US Social Security Act of 1935. This legal provision enacted by Congress is incorporated as Section 202(y) of the Social Security Act:
OLD-AGE AND SURVIVORS INSURANCE BENEFIT PAYMENTS:(y) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, no monthly benefit under this title shall be payable to any alien in the United States for any month during which such alien is not lawfully present in the United States as determined by the Attorney General.
It mandates that no benefits shall be payable to any alien in the United States without showing proof of lawful residency as determined by the Attorney General. This law violates the principle enshrined in those 43 words called the 13th Amendment. US Congress enacted legislation amending Social Security Act and that amended Social Security Act is fundamentally flawed for it is unconstitutional. It takes away the property rights of individuals residing in this country. The government can impose taxes on citizens and aliens residing in the country. The Old Age Insurance Monthly Benefit paid by the Social Security Administration is not a tax; the Monthly Benefit constitutes income or property of the individual who contributed to the Insurance Plan.
The Emancipation Proclamation issued by President Abraham Lincoln in September 1862 came into effect on January 01, 1863 freeing slaves in all territory still at War with the Union. These slaves are not citizens of the Land and had no political rights or citizenship rights of their own. For all practical purposes, the slaves who lived in the US were aliens for they were not citizens of the US.
In Law, Servitude or Slavery refers to the burden imposed upon property of a person by a specified right another has in its use. Servitude involves labor in which the person who performs labor has no right to his earnings from labor. The amended Social Security Act unconstitutionally gives power to the Social Security Administration to withhold property(wage, earnings, monthly retirement income benefits) of alien workers without obtaining formal approval by the US Court of Law. This amended Social Security Act does not uphold the Constitution as the Supreme Law of this Land.
WASHINGTON – Earlier today, at a ceremony in Emancipation Hall of the United States Capitol Visitor Center, President Obama and leaders of Congress commemorated the 150th anniversary of the 13th amendment to the Constitution. Following are House Speaker Paul Ryan’s (R-WI) remarks at the ceremony, as prepared for delivery: The Thirteenth Amendment is just 43 words long. It is so short that, when you read it, you can almost miss the whole significance. You have to stop and remind yourself that 600,000 people died in the Civil War—600,000 died over 43 words. Or to be more precise, they died in a war that decided whether those 43 words would ever be written.
And not everyone supported the Thirteenth Amendment. There was fierce opposition. But I think it is telling that when the state of Maryland held a referendum to abolish slavery, it was the votes of Union soldiers that put it over the top. It was the men who had been in the field and heard the battle cries and seen heroic deeds. They knew, better than most, that everyone in that field was an American.
A private in the 89th Illinois put it best. He wrote, “I have often [heard] of men say that they would not fight beside a negro soldier but . . . the whites and blacks charged together and they fell just as well as [we] did. . . . I have seen a great [many] fighting for our country. Then why should they not be free[?]”
It took a war for us to answer that question. We should be honest with ourselves. It took centuries of cruelty and injustice. But today we celebrate the moment when our country decided: Yes, they should be free. They would be free. And we thought this decision was so important that for the first time in half a century, we amended the Constitution. From then on, it would be the supreme law of the land.
And so today we celebrate this 43-word amendment, this “new birth of freedom.” “It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this.” And we should remember all that it took: the historic battles, the great generals, yes—but also the men in the ranks, the names we have forgotten, especially the men who had once been enslaved: men like William H. Carney and Andrew Jackson Smith.
These men were segregated. They were mistreated. And yet they still fought. They fought for a country that had denied them their freedom. They fought for all of us. And so when we read those 43 short and simple words, we should remember these men and what they did. We should realize those words, like their acts, are gallant, noble, profound. We have witnessed true greatness in this country. And when we ratified the Thirteenth Amendment, we committed ourselves to build a country just as great.
That is what those 43 words mean. That is what they represent. And that is more than worthy of celebration. Thank you.
SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE AT BIKANER HOUSE ANNEXE SHAHJAHAN ROAD, NEW DELHI
My grievance application submitted to Department of Administrative Reforms & Public Grievances had reached Shri. Basant Swaroop, Director & Grievance Officer, Cabinet Secretariat(SR), Bikaner House Annexe, Shahjahan Road, New Delhi on 26 May 2012. Director Basant Swaroop has not contacted my Unit(Special Frontier Force) to verify my Service Information and my Record of Service to ascertain my role during Bangladesh Ops of 1971. I request my readers to speak to Grievance Officer Swaroop(Phone Number. 23387030) and ask him to process my petition at an early date.
Brought to you by Department of Administrative Reforms & Public Grievances
Government of India
Status as on 11 Jul 2015
Registration Number : CABST/E/2012/00154
Name Of Complainant : R.Rudra Narasimham
Date of Receipt : 26 May 2012
Received by : Cabinet Secretariat(SR)
Officer name : Mr Basant Swaroop
Officer Designation : Director & Grievance Officer
Contact Address : Bikaner House (Annexe), Shahjahan Road, New Delhi
Contact Number : 23387030
I served in the capacity of Medical Officer in the rank of Captain in Special Frontier Force from 22 September 1971 to 18 December 1974.
I was posted at Headquarters Establishment Number. 22 C/O 56 APO. Brigadier T S Oberoi was the Commandant at Hq Establishment No. 22.
Under the plans approved by the Prime Minister of India (PMO), Cabinet Secretariat, I was issued a Movement Order and was dispatched to serve in the South Column Unit under the Command of Lieutenant Colonel B K Narayan for the execution of Operation Eagle which during 1971 had initiated the Liberation of Bangladesh with military action conducted in the Chittagong Hill Tracts.
Lieutenant Colonel B K Narayan in a written communication dated 13 May, 1972 had stated that I have displayed a great sense of devotion to duty, maturity, physical toughness, and bravery beyond call of duty during Operation Eagle. The South Column Unit Commander had also stated that he had recommended my name for a gallantry award and had submitted a citation to the Director of Medical Services(Army) for his further action. In his written remarks, Lieutenant Colonel B K Narayan gave his appreciation and commended me and said:”A very conscientious and Tough MO who worked hard during the Bangladesh Ops. He did very well and showed Maturity, which was beyond the call of duty. I have recommended this Officer for a gallantry award for which he deserves eminently. He is physically Tough and cheerful. Is a fresh entrant with less than 2 years of Service and yet he displayed capability and confidence.”
These remarks were duly reviewed by Commandant Brigadier T S Oberoi and the Annual Confidential Report(Officers) for the year 197-72 was duly forwarded to Military Secretary’s Branch, MS Branch 4(CR) MoD(Army).
In a written testimonial given by Lieutenant General T S Oberoi, PVSM, Vrc, General Officer Commanding-in-Chief, Headquarters Southern Command Pune-411001, dated 14th February, 1983, he states that I deserve befitting recognition for the Service that I had rendered to the Nation during the time of a crisis. The Southern Army Commander had categorically stated that I was recommended for a gallantry award for display of gallant qualities in the face of the enemy.
It is not known as to why the Director of Medical Services (Army) had failed to take action to forward the citation for gallantry award to the MS Branch(Army), MoD in a timely manner. However, the DMS (Army) has no authority to reject the citation or to deny the grant of military award duly recommended by my Unit.
Justice and fairness demand that action must be completed to grant the gallantry award as recommended by my Unit Commander Lieutenant Colonel B K Narayan, Brigade Commander T S Oberoi and Major General Sujan Singh Uban, Inspector General Special Frontier Force who had commanded the task force that executed Operation Eagle during 1971-72.
As per the decision made by the Prime Minister of India, the Battle Plan of Operation Eagle includes the eligibility criteria for receiving Service Medals, Decorations, and Awards. The Prime Minister of India did not impose any restrictions or time limits and as such I am still entitled to receive the gallantry award that was duly recommended following the rules and procedures given to us after approval by the Prime Minister of India (PMO) and the Cabinet Secretariat.
On September 22, 1971, I was Taken on Strength (TOS) of Establishment No.22, Special Frontier Force, Vikas Regiment, a military organization created in response to ‘The Cold War in Asia.’
On Tuesday, September 22, 2020, I live in Ann Arbor, Michigan to welcome the first day of Fall Season. Today, I claim that my Quest for Freedom in Occupied Tibet transformed into an ordeal of Slavery in a nation which abolished Slavery with a presidential proclamation on September 22. On September 22, 1971, I had the freedom to reject my posting to Establishment No.22. I was given the choice to choose or decline rendering military service in support of Freedom in Occupied Tibet. The choice to serve in Establishment No.22 comes with risks for its military mission differs from the military mission of the Indian Army which I joined to defend India from attacks by foreign aggressors. It may appear that I am making my own choices in accepting calculated risks to my life. On September 22, 2020, I am still struggling to reconcile with the choices I made in the past. Now, I must reconcile with the reality of my Slavery while living in a country which sponsored my quest for Freedom in Occupied Tibet. On September 22, 2020, I have no hope that I may arrive at the final destination of my life. Chakrata in Uttarakhand, India represents the struggle ahead, a struggle waiting for me before I can arrive at the final destination of my life.
On this day in 1862, President Abraham Lincoln issues a preliminary Emancipation Proclamation, which sets a date for the freedom of more than 3 million black slaves in the United States and recasts the Civil War as a fight against slavery. When the Civil War broke out in 1861, shortly after Lincoln’s inauguration as America’s 16th president, he maintained that the war was about restoring the Union and not about slavery. He avoided issuing an anti-slavery proclamation immediately, despite the urgings of abolitionists and radical Republicans, as well as his personal belief that slavery was morally repugnant. Instead, Lincoln chose to move cautiously until he could gain wide support from the public for such a measure. In July 1862, Lincoln informed his cabinet that he would issue an emancipation proclamation but that it would exempt the so-called border states, which had slaveholders but remained loyal to the Union. His cabinet persuaded him not to make the announcement until after a Union victory. Lincoln’s opportunity came following the Union win at the Battle of Antietam in September 1862. On September 22, the president announced that slaves in areas still in rebellion within 100 days would be free. On January 1, 1863, Lincoln issued the final Emancipation Proclamation, which declared “that all persons held as slaves” within the rebel states “are, and henceforward shall be free.” The proclamation also called for the recruitment and establishment of black military units among the Union forces. An estimated 180,000 African-Americans went on to serve in the army, while another 18,000 served in the navy. After the Emancipation Proclamation, backing the Confederacy was seen as favoring slavery. It became impossible for anti-slavery nations such as Great Britain and France, who had been friendly to the Confederacy, to get involved on behalf of the South.
The proclamation also unified and strengthened Lincoln’s party, the Republicans, helping them stay in power for the next two decades. The proclamation was a presidential order and not a law passed by Congress, so Lincoln then pushed for an antislavery amendment to the U.S. Constitution to ensure its permanence. With the passage of the 13th Amendment in 1865, slavery was eliminated throughout America (although blacks would face another century of struggle before they truly began to gain equal rights). Lincoln’s handwritten draft of the final Emancipation Proclamation was destroyed in the Chicago Fire of 1871. Today, the original official version of the document is housed in the National Archives in Washington, D.C. 1862 Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation is announced Motivated by his growing concern for the inhumanity of slavery as well as practical political concerns, President Abraham Lincoln changes the course of the war and American history by issuing the preliminary Emancipation Proclamation. Announced a week after the nominal Union victory at the Battle of Antietam, near Sharpsburg, Maryland.
TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 22, 2020. MY PASSION FOR FREEDOM IN TIBET WHICH BEGAN AT CHAKRATA DOES NOT RECONCILE WITH MY SLAVERY OF TODAY. THE SCENIC BEAUTY OF CHAKRATA PLAYED NO ROLE IN THE CHOICE I MADE ON SEPTEMBER 22, 1971.
Chakrata is not the final destination of my life. It is just the beginning of a struggle that remains ahead, both in terms of time and location.
In a news story released on September 18, 2020, the Voice of America for the very first time acknowledges my CIA Connection. In my analysis, covert military operations are not the right choice to serve the cause of Democracy.
Death of Tibetan Commando Offers Insight Into Little-Known Elite Indian Force
By Yang Ming September 18, 2020
The violent death of a Tibetan commando soldier who belonged to an Indian special forces unit near the China-India border has provided the public with rare insight into the operations of a little-known elite force.
Tibetan soldier Nyima Tenzin, 53, a company leader in the Special Frontier Force (SFF) under the Indian army, died in a land mine blast in late August, near the site of border tensions with Chinese troops. Another junior soldier was critically injured in the same explosion.
Few details are publicly known about the covert force that was set up soon after a war between India and China in 1962. The Indian government hasn’t published any official count of the size of the force, although some experts estimate its strength at around 5,000 to 10,000 men.
Tibetan historian Jianglin Li said the Special Frontier Force consists mostly of Tibetans, who were born and raised in high plateau climate.
“For India, an important lesson from the 1962 war with China is to find the right soldiers,” she told VOA.
According to Li, the Indian government then realized soldiers with special physical attributes and fitness were needed for any potential conflict at the Sino-Indian border, a high plateau area.
The government led by Jawaharlal Nehru subsequently formed a special force, recruiting mostly Tibetans in exile, who fled to India in 1959 with the 14th Dalai Lama after the Chinese People’s Liberation Army (PLA) invaded Tibet in 1950. These Tibetans have lived at high altitudes for generations; for them, walking on high land 5,000 meters above the sea level is like walking on the ground, experts say.
Considered an elite force in the India army, the SFF takes its orders directly from the Indian Prime Minister ( the Prime Minister’s Office and the Cabinet Secretariat). It is based in Chakrata, nearly 700 kilometres from Ladakh, a key friction point in the current India-China border conflict.
Tenzin Tsundue, a Tibetan writer and activist in Dharamshala, told VOA that the force was trained by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) in the 1960s.
“At that time, the main purpose of the group was to fight the PLA across the border,” he said. The Tibetan troops obtained weapons and equipment as well as training from the CIA, he said.
The U.S. government pulled the CIA out of the training program following then-Republican President Richard M. Nixon’s visit to China in 1972. Yet the SFF kept receiving training from the Indian army to prepare for any potential conflict in the region. Over the years, the Indian government has deployed the SFF in various military operations.
SFF soldiers have successfully waged wars for India starting with the 1971 Liberation War of Bangladesh against Pakistan. During the Kargil War in 1999, SFF soldiers captured Tiger Hill from the rival Pakistani soldiers, leading to India’s victory.
The Reuters news agency quoted Amitabh Mathur, a former Indian government adviser on Tibetan affairs, as saying he wasn’t surprised the Indian government decided to deploy the SFF troops this time, as they were “crack troops, especially in the context of mountain climbing and high-altitude warfare.”
‘Ultimate dream of Tibetan soldiers’
Within the Tibetan community, grieving has begun over Nyima’s death. His coffin has been draped with Indian and Tibetan flags in a refugee colony in Choglamsar, a village in India’s Ladakh region. According to Tsundue, many of the soldiers mourning the loss of Nyima simply want to return to their remote Himalayan homeland.
“With the current border conflict, they might have a chance to fight against China and drive Chinese troops out of Tibet,” he explained. “This is the ultimate dream of Tibetan soldiers. They hope to fight the Chinese and play an important role in the fight for Tibet’s independence.”
VOA reached out to the Tibetan Government in Exile for comments. Karma Choeying, spokesperson for the Central Tibetan Administration, said the administration “does not comment on this matter.”
Chinese Foreign Ministry spokesperson Hua Chunying on Wednesday said she did not know whether Tibetans were fighting for India, but urged caution.
“We are firmly opposed to any country, including India, supporting the secession activities of Tibetan pro-independence forces or providing them with any assistance or physical space,” she said.