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When the Struggle for Democracy is shrouded in Secrecy, who will mourn the fallen Freedom Fighters?

The Unknown Soldier of America Pays Tribute to the Unmourned Soldiers of Special Frontier Force

MONDAY, MAY 25, 2020 – THE UNKNOWN SOLDIER OF AMERICA PAYS TRIBUTE TO THE UNMOURNED FREEDOM FIGHTERS OF SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE

When the Struggle for Democracy is shrouded in Secrecy, who will mourn the Fallen Freedom Fighters.

MONDAY, MAY 25, 2020 – THE UNKNOWN SOLDIER OF AMERICA PAYS TRIBUTE TO THE UNMOURNED FREEDOM FIGHTERS OF SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE

When the Struggle for Democracy is Shrouded in Secrecy, who will Remember and Honor the Fallen Soldiers?

On Monday, May 25, 2020, Memorial Day, I, the Unknown Soldier of America pay my tribute to the Unmourned Freedom Fighters of Special Frontier Force. I am the Living Host of ‘The Living Tibetan Spirits, the Tibetan Soldiers who gave their precious lives on the battlefield in the Chittagong Hill Tracts in 1971. The remote, inaccessible, Chittagong Hill Tracts is the kind of place where human skeletons might sink into the soil undisturbed and unmourned.

When the Struggle for Democracy is shrouded in Secrecy, who will mourn the loss of Fallen Soldiers?

I serve in Special Frontier Force as the Unknown Soldier of America to fight a war in occupied Tibet to secure Freedom, Democracy, Peace, and Justice. The service in the military organization called Special Frontier Force qualifies me as ‘Unknown Soldier of America’ for its Secret Mission serves to defend America from Enemy opposed to American Values of Freedom, Democracy, Peace, and Justice. On this Memorial Day, I may not be a Soldier with a Gun, but I am a Soldier for Life.

When the Struggle for Democracy is shrouded in Secrecy, who will mourn the loss of Fallen Freedom Fighters?

While training for this secret US sponsored military mission, Freedom Fighters of Special Frontier Force gave their precious lives. Their mortal remains lie buried in unmarked graves in the Chittagong Hill Tracts with none to pay respects with flowers. Their deaths are Unmourned and I ask my readers to Remember and to Honor their Memory. Dying away from home, away from the soil of your birth and to do so unseen and unmourned is a profound horror.

Rudra Narasimham Rebbapragada

SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE-ESTABLISHMENT NO. 22-VIKAS REGIMENT

When the Struggle for Democracy is shrouded in secrecy, who will mourn the Fallen Freedom Fighters?
Featured

HAPPY WOMEN’S DAY AT WHOLE FOODS, ANN ARBOR

Happy Women’s Day at Whole Foods, Ann Arbor

On Sunday, March 08, 2020 I was at Whole Foods Ann Arbor. I learned about a new holiday tradition in the context of promoting the International Women’s Day on March 08.

Happy Women’s Day at Whole Foods, Ann Arbor

The Grocery Team at Whole Foods, Ann Arbor initiated a new Holiday Celebration called ‘Happy Women’s Day’ on March 08.

Happy Women’s Day at Whole Foods, Ann Arbor

The Grocery Team at Whole Foods, Ann Arbor has eight women Team Members. The Grocery Team Leader, the (Dry/Imperishable) Grocery, Dairy, Frozen and Bulk Department Buyers, and four other crew members (including two who work the overnight shift) are all women. All of them received $10.00 Whole Foods Market Gift Cards to have a Happy Women’s Day by enjoying a Treat of their choice.

Happy Women’s Day at Whole Foods, Ann Arbor.

What is China’s Status in Tibet?

What is China’s Status in Tibet?

Recent events in Tibet have intensified the dispute over its legal status. The People’s Republic of China (PRC) claims that Tibet is an integral part of China. The Tibetan government-in-exile maintains that Tibet is an independent state under unlawful occupation.

India asks China to pull back troops, arms in Ladakh region

By ASHOK SHARMA, Associated Press  


NEW DELHI (AP) — India’s defense minister said Thursday the country faces challenges in its border dispute with China and urged Beijing to sincerely implement an understanding they reached previously to completely disengage forces from the Ladakh region.

What is China’s Status in Tibet? An Indian army convoy moves on the Srinagar- Ladakh highway at Gagangeer, northeast of Srinagar, Indian-controlled Kashmir, Wednesday, Sept. 9, 2020. India’s defense minister said Thursday, Sept. 17, the country faces challenges in its border dispute with China and urged Beijing to sincerely implement an understanding they reached previously to completely disengage forces in the Ladakh region. Rajnath Singh said in a statement in the upper house of Parliament that China has amassed troops and armaments in Ladakh in violation of bilateral agreements reached in 1990s and it was creating friction by trying unilaterally to alter the status quo in the region through aggressive postures. (AP Photo/ Dar Yasin)
What is China’s Status in Tibet? In this Sept. 14, 2017, file photo, a banner erected by the Indian army stands near Pangong Tso lake near the India-China border in India’s Ladakh area. India’s defense minister said Thursday, Sept. 17, 2020, the country faces challenges in its border dispute with China and urged Beijing to sincerely implement an understanding they reached previously to completely disengage forces in the Ladakh region. Rajnath Singh said in a statement in the upper house of Parliament that China has amassed troops and armaments in Ladakh in violation of bilateral agreements reached in 1990s and it was creating friction by trying unilaterally to alter the status quo in the region through aggressive postures. (AP Photo/Manish Swarup, File)

Rajnath Singh told the upper house of Parliament that China has amassed troops and weapons in Ladakh in violation of agreements reached in the 1990s and is trying to alter the status quo in the region through aggressive actions.

He said that was not acceptable and that India is seeking a peaceful resolution through talks.

The two countries’ foreign ministers met in Moscow a week ago and agreed to deescalate tensions in Ladakh, but Singh’s words to Parliament suggested they have not significantly declined and that settling the impasse will be a long process.

He also said India has counter-deployed troops that have foiled “transgression attempts by China.”

“We should be confident that our armed forces will handle the situation successfully,” Singh said.

He said it was “apparent from Chinese activities that their words don’t match their actions.”

In Beijing, Chinese foreign ministry spokesperson Wang Wenbin again laid the onus on India to relieve the tensions and said Chinese border troops have “always strictly abide by the (agreements) between the two countries and are committed to safeguarding China’s territorial sovereignty and maintaining peace and tranquility in the border areas.”

“What is pressing now is that the Indian side should immediately correct its mistake, disengage on the ground as soon as possible and take concrete actions to ease the tension and lower the temperature along the border,” Wang said at a daily briefing.

Relations between the two countries have often been strained, partly due to their undemarcated border.

They fought a border war in 1962 that spilled into Ladakh and ended in an uneasy truce. Since then, troops have guarded the undefined border area, occasionally brawling. The standoff escalated to a deadly clash on a high ridge on June 15 that left 20 Indian soldiers dead.

Singh said India inflicted “heavy” casualties on Chinese forces, but did not provide any numbers. China has not given any details on its casualties.

After that clash, the two countries partially disengaged from the site in the Galwan Valley and at least two other places, but the crisis has continued in at least three other areas, including glacial Pangong Lake.

He said the impasse was due to differing perceptions of the fiercely contested Line of Actual Control that separates Chinese and Indian-held territories from Ladakh in the west to India’s eastern state of Arunachal Pradesh.

Singh said India has doubled its budget on building roads, bridges and other infrastructure along the border to match the Chinese infrastructure to accelerate mobility of forces.

“We are fully prepared to protect the sovereignty and territorial integrity of our country,” he said, adding that China continued to occupy nearly 38,000 square kilometres (14,670 square miles) of Indian land in Ladakh.

What is China’s Status in Tibet?

India-China Standoff is driven by the illegal military occupation of Tibet

India-China Standoff is driven by the illegal military occupation of Tibet.

AP Explains: What’s driving India-China military standoff

By AIJAZ HUSSAIN, Associated Press  

SRINAGAR, India (AP) — Tensions along the disputed India-China border seem to be getting worse, three months after their deadliest confrontation in decades.

India-China Standoff is driven by the illegal military occupation of Tibet. In this July 20, 2011 file photo, tourists ride double hump camels at Nubra valley, in Ladakh, India. Tensions along the disputed India-China border seem to be getting worse rather than better, three months after their deadliest confrontation in decades in June. The Asian giants accused each other this week of sending soldiers into each other’s territory and fired warning shots for the first time in 45 years, raising the specter of full-scale military conflict. (AP Photo/Channi Anand, File)

The Asian giants accused each other this week of sending soldiers into the other’s territory and fired warning shots fired for the first time in 45 years, raising the specter of full-scale military conflict.

India-China Standoff is driven by the illegal military occupation of Tibet. In this June 18, 2020 file photo, Indian army officers walk past the pyre of their colleague Colonel B. Santosh Babu, who was killed during a clash with Chinese soldiers in Ladakh region, during his funeral at Suryapet, about 140 kilometres (87.5 miles) from Hyderabad, India. Tensions along the disputed India-China border seem to be getting worse rather than better, three months after their deadliest confrontation in decades in June. The Asian giants accused each other this week of sending soldiers into each other’s territory and fired warning shots for the first time in 45 years, raising the specter of full-scale military conflict. (AP Photo/Mahesh Kumar A, File)

Their foreign ministers are expected to discuss the simmering dispute in Moscow on Thursday on the sidelines of a regional security and economic meeting.

The high-altitude standoff along the eastern section of what’s known as the Line of Actual Control — a loose demarcation — risks dramatically altering the already fraught relationship between the nuclear-armed neighbors.

India-China Standoff is driven by the illegal military occupation of Tibet. In this June 22, 2020 file photo, Indian traders burn Chinese products and a poster president Xi Jinping during a protest in New Delhi, India. Tensions along the disputed India-China border seem to be getting worse rather than better, three months after their deadliest confrontation in decades in June. The Asian giants accused each other this week of sending soldiers into each other’s territory and fired warning shots for the first time in 45 years, raising the specter of full-scale military conflict. (AP Photo/Manish Swarup, File)

The face-off began in early May with a fierce brawl before exploding into hand-to-hand combat with clubs, stones and fists on June 15 that left 20 Indian soldiers dead. China is believed to have taken casualties, but has given no numbers.

DECADES OF MISTRUST

India and China inherited their territorial disputes from the period of British colonial rule.

Three years after India’s independence in 1947 and a year after the communists came to power in China, the new government in Beijing began strongly asserting its claims and repudiating earlier treaties it says were signed under duress, but which India says are fixed.

Beijing’s approach has strengthened under Xi Jinping, China’s most powerful leader in decades who has sworn not to surrender even an inch of territory.

In the 1950s, China started building a strategic road on the uninhabited Aksai Chin Plateau to connect its restive regions of Tibet and Xinjiang. India objected and claimed Aksai Chin as part of Ladakh, itself belonging to the former principality of Kashmir now divided between India and Pakistan.

India-China Standoff is driven by the illegal military occupation of Tibet. In this July 10, 2020 file photo, members of the Tibetan Youth Congress participate in a street protest calling for the boycott of Chinese goods in Dharmsala, India. Tensions along the disputed India-China border seem to be getting worse rather than better, three months after their deadliest confrontation in decades in June. The Asian giants accused each other this week of sending soldiers into each other’s territory and fired warning shots for the first time in 45 years, raising the specter of full-scale military conflict. (AP Photo/Ashwini Bhatia, File)

Relations were further strained after India allowed Tibet’s spiritual leader, the Dalai Lama, to establish a self-declared government-in-exile in the northern Indian town of Dharmsala after he fled his homeland in 1959 during an abortive uprising against Chinese rule.

India-China Standoff is driven by the illegal military occupation of Tibet. An Indian army convoy moves on the Srinagar- Ladakh highway at Gagangeer, northeast of Srinagar, Indian-controlled Kashmir, Wednesday, Sept. 9, 2020. Tensions along the disputed India-China border seem to be getting worse rather than better, three months after their deadliest confrontation in decades in June. The Asian giants accused each other this week of sending soldiers into each other’s territory and fired warning shots for the first time in 45 years, raising the specter of full-scale military conflict. (AP Photo/ Dar Yasin)

The differences led to a bitter month-long war in 1962. Firefights broke out again in 1967 and 1975, leading to more deaths on both sides. They’ve since adopted protocols, including an agreement not to use firearms, but those protocols have fractured in this year’s clashes.

China, in the meantime, began cementing its relations with India’s arch-rival Pakistan and backing it on the issue of Kashmir.

India-China Standoff is driven by the illegal military occupation of Tibet. In this file photo taken Friday, Sept. 4, 2020, China’s Minister of National Defence Wei Fenghe, left, Russian Defense Minister Sergei Shoigu, center, and Indian Defense Minister, Rajnath Singh, right, pose for a photo with their colleagues at a Joint Meeting of Defense Ministers of Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, Commonwealth of Independent States and Collective Security Treaty Organization Member States in Moscow, Russia. India and China are accusing each other of violating agreements along their disputed mountain border, even as they engage in talks to end increasing military tensions. (Host Photo Agency sco-russia2020.ru via AP, File)

THE LINE OF ACTUAL CONTROL

The fiercely contested LAC separates Chinese and Indian held territories from Ladakh in the west to India’s eastern state of Arunachal Pradesh, which China claims in its entirety. It is broken in parts where the Himalayan nations of Nepal and Bhutan border China.

India-China Standoff is driven by the illegal military occupation of Tibet. Map shows Ladakh region in disputed area between India and China, where the countries accused each other of firing warning shots;

According to India, the de facto border is 3,488 kilometres (2,167-mile) long, although China promotes a considerably shorter figure. As its name suggests, it divides the areas of physical control rather than territorial claims.

In all, China claims some 90,000 square kilometres (35,000 square miles) of territory in India’s northeast, including Arunachal Pradesh with its mainly Buddhist population.

India says China occupies 38,000 square kilometres (15,000 square miles) of its territory in the Aksai Chin Plateau, which India considers part of Ladakh, where the current face-off is happening.

Despite more than three dozen rounds of talks over the years, and multiple meetings between Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi and Chinese President Xi Jinping, they are nowhere near settling their dispute.

ECONOMIC AND STRATEGIC RIVALRY

Since the 1962 war, both economies have grown substantially, but China has far outpaced India while enjoying a large trade surplus with its neighbor.

The growing economic rivalry has added to territorial and geostrategic differences. India has tried to capitalize on China’s rising labor costs, and deteriorating ties with the United States and Europe, to become a new base for foreign manufacturers.

India grew concerned after China recently built a road through Pakistani-controlled Kashmir as part of Xi’s signature foreign policy push, the multi billion-dollar Belt and Road Initiative, which India has vehemently opposed.

Meanwhile, India’s growing strategic alliance with the U.S. has ruffled feathers in Beijing, which sees the relationship as a counterweight against China’s rise. Indian fears of Chinese territorial expansion are bolstered by the growing presence of the Chinese navy in the Indian Ocean and Beijing’s efforts to strengthen ties with not only Pakistan but also Sri Lanka and Nepal.

India is jockeying for strategic parity with China, massively ramping up its military infrastructure along the LAC. China for its part has been building roads and defensive positions in the disputed Doklam region and in recent weeks has conducted high-altitude parachute drops and stationed strategic bombers in Tibet.

Adding to the tension, India unilaterally declared Ladakh a federal territory and separated it from disputed Kashmir in August 2019, ending its semi-autonomous status.

Shortly after, lawmakers in India’s ruling party began advocating taking control of some China-run areas, alarming Beijing.

FEARS OF WIDER CONFLICT

Border tensions have persisted despite talks at military, diplomatic and political levels. With strong nationalists leading both countries, the border has taken on a prominence not seen in years.

Having emerged relatively unscathed from the COVID-19 pandemic, China is also perceived regionally as ramping up military ambitions against its neighbors, particularly through the use of “salami slicing” tactics to incrementally gain territory.

While Chinese soldiers remain in what India says is its territory in Ladakh, India occupied at least one unmanned mountain top last week, leading Beijing to furiously demand that New Delhi vacate the area.

Experts warn that if military hostilities are not stopped, war could be next.

“If diplomacy fails, guns talk. That is the natural culmination of what we have been witnessing during last four months,” said Lt. Gen. D.S. Hooda, who was head of the Indian military’s Northern Command from 2014 to 2016. “Things are fast escalating out of control unless there is a breakthrough in talks.”

Wang Lian of Peking University’s international relations department considers the possibility of a wider conflict less likely, despite preparations being made on both sides.

“China has shown restraint in bilateral relations with India, and India may restrain itself from overdoing it in the future,” Wang said.

India-China Standoff is driven by the illegal military occupation of Tibet.The Indian Army will continue to sit it out along the 1,597 km Line of Actual Control in East Ladakh till China restores status quo ante. The PLA, a senior army officer said, wants India to move back from its traditional points where it has had an advantage before it vacates locations where it had moved in April-May.(HT Photo)

Special Frontier Force Begins the Eviction of the military occupier of Tibet

Special Frontier Force personnel were used  by Indian Army to occupy these strategic peaks in the Southern banks of Pangong Tso. This took the Chinese army by surprise. The occupation of these heights has shown Indian resolve to take the fight to the Chinese side. 

Special Frontier Force begins the eviction of the military occupier of Tibet with action in the Pangong Tso Lake Sector, Ladakh, Kashmir, India.

India thwarts another Chinese incursion in Ladakh

DECCAN CHRONICLE | PAWAN BALI

PublishedSep 1, 2020.

Pre-emptive move by Indian Army to secure another LAC position signals its intent to dig in for the winter.

Special Frontier Force Begins the Eviction of the military occupier of Tibet

The Pangong Tso lake in Ladakh on the banks of which India and China have been engaged in a standoff for four months. India claimed on Monday that it pre-empted a move by the Chinese army to occupy Indian territory at a new point in the region. (AP file photo)

New Delhi: The Indian army said on Monday that it “pre-empted” an attempt by Chinese troops to transgress and grab land on the southern banks of Pangong Tso on the intervening night of 29-30 August 2020.

This was an attempt by the Chinese to open a new front in the Ladakh sector. India and China were until now in a standoff  in the “Finger area” on the northern banks of the Pangong Tso. But now they are also looking to infiltrate in the Chushul sector.

In a statement issued on Monday, the Indian Army said PLA troops carried out provocative military movements to change the status quo on the night of 29-30 August 2020. “Indian troops pre-empted this PLA activity on the Southern Bank of Pangong Tso Lake, undertook measures to strengthen our positions and thwart Chinese intentions to unilaterally change facts on the ground,” it said.

The statement added that the Indian Army is committed to maintaining peace and tranquility through dialogue, but is also equally determined to protect India’s territorial integrity.

 A brigade commander level flag meeting was held at Chushul to resolve the issue.

As per initial reports, the Army had received information that the Chinese started building up forces to occupy Indian territory on the southern banks of Pangong Tso. The Indian Army physically occupied the area as soon as the PLA tried its transgression. There was no physical clash between the troops.

The Indian Army’s “pre-emptive” move comes days after Chief of Defense staff (CDS) Gen. Bipin Rawat warned that India has “military options” to deal with Chinese transgression in Ladakh if talks between the countries at the military and diplomatic level don’t yield any result.

The Chinese army’s Western Theater Command accused India of crossing the Line of Actual Control and deliberately launching provocations. “China strongly opposes the acts and urges India to immediately withdraw the troops that have illegally crossed the LAC,” it said.

It said that Chinese troops are taking necessary measures in response to Indian troops provocations and will closely follow the situation and resolutely safeguard national sovereignty, peace and stability at the border area.

The military standoff between India and China in Ladakh will complete four months this week. The two armies are involved in a standoff in Pangong Tso, Hot Springs area and Despang-DBO sector in Ladakh.

A series of military and diplomatic talks between India and China have failed to persuade China to disengage. Instead China has used this time of negotiations with India to bring in more forces at the LAC, position heavy weaponry, construct helipads, build air defense systems, and deploy missiles at new positions.

In the Northern Bank of Pangong Tso, China has illegally occupied 8 km of Indian territory between finger 4 and 8. Despite a series of diplomatic and military dialogues China has refused to vacate the area between finger 5 and 8 which it had illegally occupied in May 2020. China has built up bunkers, gun positions and brought heavy artillery in the finger area.     

The Chinese attempt to occupy new areas comes despite a series of engagements at the diplomatic and military level to disengage and deescalate the situation in the Ladakh sector.  The latest confrontation means that the situation is unlikely to deescalate any time soon and will continue in the winter too. India has already started preparations for winter and is stocking up supplies required for thousands of new troops deployed in the area. 

Special Frontier Force personnel were used  by Indian Army to occupy these strategic peaks in the Southern banks of Pangong Tso. This took the Chinese army by surprise. The occupation of these heights has shown Indian resolve to take the fight to the Chinese side. 

Special Frontier Force Begins the Eviction of the military occupier of Tibet. The 1962 India-China War Memorial, Chushul, Ladakh, Kashmir, India.

September 05 – Dr Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s Birthday – Reflections on my Mylapore, Madras, Chennai Family Connections

September 05 – Dr Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s Birthday – Reflections on my Mylapore, Madras, Chennai Family Connections

September 05. Dr Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday. My reflections on Madras – Tibet – US Family Connections.

September 05, Dr Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday is celebrated as Teacher’s Day in India. On Saturday, September 05, 2020, I want to share my reflections on my Mylapore, Madras, Chennai Family Connections. This relationship connects several important events of my life’s journey. For I believe in the doctrine of predestination, I can trace my life’s journey as a series of predetermined events.

September 05, Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday.

In my analysis, time and the place are of equal importance in the formulation of predetermined events. I shall discuss the role of time and place in the context of three issues; 1. Birth Place, 2. Relationships, for example, Radhakrishnan worked in Presidency College, Madras where my father studied and worked, and 3. Final Destination.

My Birthplace

September 05. Dr Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday. My reflections on Madras – Tibet – US Family Connections.

Mylapore, Madras, Chennai, my birthplace predetermined my connection to Radhakrishnan as well as my connection to my wife who is also born on the fifth day of September.

September 05. Dr Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday. My reflections on Madras – Tibet – US Family Connections.

Radhakrishnan studied in Madras Christian College and later worked in Presidency College, Madras. My wife talks about Madras Christian College for her father, and four of her brothers studied there. In February 1973, just after I got married, I visited Madras Christian College along with my wife to meet her younger brother who was studying there for his Master of Science degree.

September 05. Dr Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday. My reflections on Madras – Tibet – US Family Connections.

My father studied in Presidency College, Madras and later worked there during my early childhood years spent in Mylapore. Apart from Radhakrishnan, his son, Sarvepalli Gopal also worked in Presidency College

My Relationships

In October 1962, my connection to Radhakrishnan was shaped by Communist China’s attack on India across the Himalayan Frontier. On one hand the Spirit of Nationalism inspired me to serve in the Indian Army, and on the other hand, it profoundly influenced my thinking about choosing a life partner. At the same time, the 1962 India-China War prepared a very special place to render my military service while I am still a college student. In September 1969, I was granted the Short Service Regular Commission to serve in the Indian Army Medical Corps. My educational career prepared me for this role as well as giving me the opportunity to find a partner who accepted my passion to serve in the Olive-Green military uniform. I got married in January 1973 while I was serving at Doom Dooma, Tinsukia District, Assam in SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE – ESTABLISHMENT NO. 22, a special military organization founded in 1962.

September 05. Dr Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday. My reflections on Madras – Tibet – US Family Connections.

The history of Special Frontier Force – Establishment No. 22: “AHIMSA PARAMO DHARMAH; DHARMA HIMSA TATHIVA CHA.” Both India and Tibet recognize Non-Violence or Ahimsa as the highest principle. The military organization, Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22 represents the second part of the statement; Violence or Himsa is equally the highest principle when it is necessary to defend the righteous.

The military organization is known as Special Frontier Force – Establishment No. 22 came into its existence during the presidency of Dr Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, the second President of the Republic of India, 13 May 1962 to 13 May 1967. While Special Frontier Force is a product of Cold War Era secret diplomacy, I would like to share my personal story, the events from early childhood, that shaped the rest of my life and has formulated my bonding with this Organization and my desire to accomplish its military mission.

September 05. Dr Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday. My reflections on my Madras – Tibet – US Family Connections.

Dr Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan (05 September 1888 to 17 April 1975), the second President of the Republic of India is known to me from my early childhood. His daughter (Rukmini) was married to my maternal grandfather’s younger brother who had also lived in Mylapore.

My maternal grandfather, Dr Kasturi. Narayana Murthy, M.D., who worked as Professor of Medicine in Madras Medical College lived at 2/37 Kutchery Road, Mylapore. I was born at my grandfather’s residence. While I lived in Mylapore and later during my summer vacations spent in Madras City, I used to visit Radhakrishnan’s daughter’s residence daily.  At that time, Radhakrishnan served as the first Vice President of India (1952-1962). I clearly remember the celebration of 2500th Birth Anniversary of Gautama Buddha on May 24, 1956. In India’s Capital City of New Delhi, the celebration was attended by His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama and the 10th Panchen Lama Rinpoche. The Institution of the Dalai Lama is the central focus of Tibetan Cultural Identity and Tibetan national character.

September 05. Dr Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday. My reflections on Madras – Tibet – US Family Connections.

Since 1962, India instituted Radhakrishnan’s birthday (05 September) as Teacher’s Day. Since that time, every year that I spent as a student, I had a special reason to remember my family connection with his daughter and my father who belonged to the teaching profession. Radhakrishnan correctly predicted the need for military action to fight injustice. In 1962, during his Presidency, India bravely resisted the Chinese aggression and thousands of Indian Army soldiers gave their precious lives to defend India. It inspired me to serve in Indian Armed Forces to continue the task of opposing and resisting the threat posed by Communist China.

INDIA – TIBET RELATIONS FROM 1950 to 1962:

September 05. Dr Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday. My reflections on Madras – Tibet – US Family Connections.

The Celebration of 2500th Anniversary of the birth of Gautama Buddha (Buddha Jayanti) in New Delhi on May 24, 1956 displays the historical connection between India, and Tibet. Prime Minister Nehru, President Rajendra Prasad, the 14th Dalai Lama, and the 10th Panchen Lama, Rinpoche are seen in this photo image.

Because of Gautama Buddha, India, and Tibet are natural allies. But, the complex, political, and military relationship developed as a reaction to the People’s Republic of China’s invasion of Tibet in 1950.

September 05. Dr Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday. My reflections on Madras – Tibet – US Family Connections.

The President of India, Dr Babu Rajendra Prasad with the visiting His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama, and Panchen Lama Rinpoche.

September 05. Dr Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday. My reflections on Madras – Tibet – US Family Connections.

The military occupation of Tibet by Communist China makes a great impact upon the historical, cultural, religious relationship between India, and Tibet. It commenced an entirely new era in which both India and Tibet are driven by the same kind of security concerns. Prime Minister Chou En-Lai represents the face of that danger that forced Prime Minister Nehru to know and appreciate the nature of Tibetan Nation as represented by the 14th Dalai Lama and the 10th Panchen Lama Rinpoche.

India achieved its full independence from the British rule on August 15, 1947. India became the Republic of India on January 26, 1950. Dr Babu Rajendra Prasad became the first President of the Republic of India. The first general elections were held in 1952, and Radhakrishnan, who was at that time-serving as India’s Ambassador to the Soviet Union, was elected as the first Vice President. He served a second term as the Vice President from 1957 to 1962.

India witnessed a major military threat to its Himalayan frontier when the People’s Republic of China sent its army during October 1950 to occupy Tibet while Tibetans had no ability to resist such a massive, military invasion of their territory. Tibet tried to resolve the issue using diplomacy. Tibet requested India to bring the issue to the attention of the United Nations to adopt a resolution against the Communist invasion. At that time Tibet was still following the policy of political isolationism, and neutralism and was not recognized by the United Nations as a member nation. The United States was fighting the Korean War to contain the spread of Communism in Asia. However, Tibet did not obtain direct, US military intervention. India did not have the necessary military force of its own to intervene inside Tibet. At the same time, India also actively pursued its own policy of political neutralism that is known as the Nonaligned Movement to reduce the political tensions caused by the Cold War. India thought that the crisis in Tibet could be resolved by directly negotiating with China without involving the United Nations. During 1951, Communist China imposed a 17-Point Agreement on Tibet while Tibetans had no capacity to defend their rights; the Agreement of the Central People’s Government and the Local Government of Tibet on 23rd May 1951 to take measures for the “Peaceful Liberation of Tibet.” China started quoting this agreement to justify its illegal and unjust military occupation of Tibet.

It must be clearly understood that the Great Fifth Dalai Lama founded the “Ganden Phodrang” Government of Tibet in 1642. The successive Dalai Lamas have headed the Tibetan State for nearly four centuries. Towards the end of the Qing Dynasty or Ch’ing Dynasty, the Great 13th Dalai Lama declared Tibet’s full Independence from Manchu China. From 1911 to 1950 – 49-Years, Tibet was an independent Nation before the founding of this political entity called The People’s Republic of China.

September 05. Dr Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday. My reflections on Madras – Tibet – US Family Connections.

The photo image of His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama in Peking meeting with Chairman Mao Tse-Tung.

Tibet tried its very best to appease the Communist Party Chairman Mao Tse-Tung until 1954-1955. China took full political, and military advantage of Tibet’s isolationism and took every possible measure to deny the freedom that Tibetans had enjoyed for several centuries despite sporadic foreign invasions by the Mongols, and later by the Manchus. In the past, the foreign rulers of Tibet did not intervene in Tibet’s internal affairs. Tibetans retained their traditional style of governance through the Institution of the Dalai Lama or the “Ganden Phodrang” Government which ruled Tibet for four centuries.

September 05. Dr Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birth day. My reflections on Madras – Tibet – US Family Connections.

His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama with India’s President and Vice President.

Both India and Tibet strongly desired to resolve the conflict with communist China using diplomacy. The existence of autonomous Tibetan nation serves the best interests of Indian national security.

September 05. Dr Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday. My reflections on Madras – Tibet – US Family Connections.

A banquet held in Ashoka Hotel, New Delhi in 1956 to honor the visiting Head of State, the 14th Dalai Lama of Tibet who is seen seated between Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru and his daughter Ms Indira Gandhi.

September 05. Dr Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday. My reflections on Madras – Tibet – US Connections.

Both India and Tibet desired friendly and peaceful relations with China. Prime Minister Chou En-Lai is seen here with the 14th Dalai Lama, Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, and his daughter Ms Indira Gandhi. These efforts towards peaceful co-existence with Communist China had utterly failed during 1957-58.

September 05. Dr Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday. My reflections on Madras – Tibet – US Family Connections.

India and Tibet tried to cultivate a friendly relationship with China and its failure was caused by China’s policy of Expansionism.

September 05. Dr Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday. My reflections on Madras – Tibet – US Family Connections.

India desired to promote international peace and tried to avoid armed conflicts. The burden imposed by China’s military occupation of Tibet was viewed with concern, but India tried the use of diplomacy and avoid war. A ceremony to honor Prime Minister Chou En-Lai, and the 14th Dalai Lama during their visit to New Delhi in 1956.

September 05. Dr Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday. My reflections on Madras – Tibet – US Family Connections.

This photo image of Prime Minister Chou En-Lai, Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, and the 14th Dalai Lama demonstrates the desire of India to promote peaceful co-existence. Establishment No. 22 represents the failure of India’s peace initiative. The military occupation of Tibet is not a friendly posture and China could not be trusted as a friend.

While Tibet tried its very best to please the Communist leaders of China, India had also pursued a similar policy to befriend China to address the problem of the military threat posed by the military occupation of Tibet. The “Panchsheel” Agreement of 1954 between India and People’s Republic of China had recognized Chinese sovereignty over Tibet, and India had agreed to withdraw its very small, military presence in Tibet. India believed that China would grant full autonomy to Tibet and preserve the political, and cultural institutions of Tibet. It must be noted that Tibet had not recognized or endorsed the agreement made by India and China.

September 05. Dr Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday. Reflections on my Madras – Tibet – US Family Connections.

Chinese Prime Minister Zhou Enlai visited New Delhi, India in June 1954 after his initiative called the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence (PANCHSHEEL). The first President of India, Dr Rajendra Prasad (first right), Vice President Radhakrishnan third right, and India’s Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru is at the far left.

September 05. Dr Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday. Reflections on my Madras – Tibet – US Family Connections.

Indian Vice President Dr Radhakrishnan made an unsuccessful attempt to resolve the problem of the military occupation of Tibet. He had visited Peking during September 1957 and met with various Communist Party leaders including Chairman Mao Tse-Tung, and President Liu Shao-Chi(Liu Shaoqi), and Party General Secretary Teng Hsiao-Ping(Deng Xiaoping). 

September 05. Dr Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday. My reflections on Madras – Tibet – US Family Connections.

Indian Vice President Radhakrishnan visited Peking during September/October 1957 and could not get any concessions from the Communist leaders. China had determined to pursue a policy of Expansionism and had tripled the size of its country using its superior military power.

THE ORIGIN OF SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE – ESTABLISHMENT NO. 22:

The need for the use of military force became inevitable after China made it abundantly clear that it would not negotiate its military occupation of Tibet and would not allow the traditional form of Tibetan Government as represented by the Institution of the Dalai Lama. The Tibetan Resistance Movement began with a very modest attempt to train some Tibetan nationals to fight the Chinese People’s Liberation Army that occupied Tibet.

September 05. Dr Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday. Reflections on my Madras – Tibet – US Family Connections.

The history of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: 1957 was a turning point. India recognized that its foreign policy of political neutralism was of no use and started depending upon the United States to address the military threat posed by China’s occupation of Tibet. But, the effort was too modest and both India and the United States had grossly underestimated the strength of the People’s Liberation Army. Camp Hale at Colorado represents one aspect of CIA operation called ST CIRCUS.

September 05. Dr Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday. Reflections on my Madras – Tibet – US Family Connections.

The history of Special Frontier Force – Establishment No. 22 can be traced back to 1957-58 when the CIA launched Operation ST CIRCUS. This Commemoration on September 10, 2010, was the first time that US had officially acknowledge the CIA operation with the Tibetans and it includes the Mustang (Nepal) Operation.

During 1957 it became very clear that Communist China would not relax its military grip over Tibet, and the hopes for limited Tibetan autonomy evaporated. Both India, and Tibet had agreed to seek American military intervention, and it must be believed that India had only wanted a covert, military operation to build and establish a Tibetan Resistance Movement to challenge and overthrow the Chinese military regime in Tibet. The climax of this Tibetan Resistance was during March 1959, and China using its vastly superior military power had easily crushed this Tibetan Uprising. His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama had no choice; he and his close followers fled Tibet to seek political asylum in India.

September 05. Dr Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday. Reflections on my Madras – Tibet – US Family Connections.

The history of Special Frontier Force – Establishment No. 22: The arrival of His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama in India to seek political asylum represents the failure of CIA’s covert operation inside Tibet. CIA had grossly underestimated the intelligence capabilities of Communist China.

September 05. Dr Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday. Reflections on my Madras – Tibet – US Family Connections.

The history of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: The Journey of a political refugee. His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama arrived in India on 31 March 1959 and was presented a Guard of Honor by the Assam Rifles in the Tawang Sector of the North East Frontier Agency which is renamed as Arunachal Pradesh.

September 05. Dr Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday. Reflections on my Madras – Tibet – US Family Connections.

The history of Special Frontier Force – Establishment No. 22: Indian President Dr Babu Rajendra Prasad received His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama with due dignity reflecting India’s belief that the Dalai Lama is the traditional Head of Tibet, an autonomous nation.

September 05. Dr Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday. Reflections on my Madras – Tibet – US Family Connections.

The history of Special Frontier Force – Establishment No. 22: The military tyranny imposed by Communist China’s occupation forced Tibet to break-free from its traditional policy of political isolationism and it is not a big surprise to find India as its natural ally. Vice President Radhakrishnan is seen with His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama.

THE 1962 INDIA – CHINA WAR:

I must admit that the Chinese brutal attacks across the Himalayan frontier during October 1962 came as a shocking surprise to me and to most people all over India. To some extent, India, Tibet, and the United States had lacked the intelligence capabilities to know the intentions and the capabilities of their enemy. The costs of this 1962 War would be known if China takes courage and openly admits the numbers of its soldiers wounded or killed in action. China paid a heavy price and utterly failed to obtain legitimacy for its military occupation of Tibet.

September 05. Dr Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday. Reflections on my Madras – Tibet – US Family Connections.

The history of Special Frontier Force – Establishment No. 22: The 1962 War between India and China paved the way towards a better understanding of India’s security concerns and the need for military alliance/pact with a friendly power like the United States to meet the challenge posed by Communist China. I appreciate Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru for his idealistic views and aspiration to be known as a peacemaker. He finally recognized the need for a strong, well-equipped Army.

September 05. Dr Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday. Reflections on my Madras – Tibet – US Family Connections.

The history of Special Frontier Force – Establishment No. 22: Prior to the 1962 India-China War, the Tibetan Resistance Movement had no permanent base in India. The War had forced India to strengthen the Tibetan Resistance Movement and provide it with a permanent base within Indian territory. Indian Armed Forces played a major role in training the members of Special Frontier Force with financial, and technical assistance provided by the United States.

The 1962 War of Aggression launched by Communist China had a decisive influence on my personal life. I was a college student, and I was in the first year of my 3-year Bachelor of Science degree course. I felt a strong urge to join India’s Armed Forces to specifically address the military threat posed by China. The 1962 War was a conflict imposed by China to teach India a lesson. Later, official documents released by China describe that Chairman Mao Tse-Tung took punitive action to teach a lesson to India when it launched a massive war of retribution attacking Indian Army positions across the entire Himalayan frontier in October 1962. Chairman Mao Tse-Tung was angered by the support extended by India to Tibet to counter the military occupation. Chairman Mao had resented India’s role in helping the covert operation of the Central Intelligence Agency and had called it an “Imperialist” conspiracy or plot against China. China had utterly failed to achieve its objectives and the War ended when China declared a unilateral ceasefire on November 21, 1962, and withdrew from the captured Himalayan territory. It should be noted that India did not request China to declare this ceasefire. India did not promise that it will withhold the support that it extends to the Tibetan Government-in-Exile. The Secret White House Recordings of the US President John F Kennedy reveal that Kennedy had threatened to nuke China in 1962 and I must say that the threat achieved its purpose and had forced China to stop its military aggression and withdraw unilaterally without demanding any concessions from India, or Tibet.

THE BIRTH OF SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE-ESTABLISHMENT No. 22:

President John F. Kennedy had immediately responded to the Chinese attack on India. Apart from delivery of arms and ammunition, and other military supplies, American aircraft carried out photo missions over the Indo-Tibetan border. In a meeting held on November 19, 1962 at the White House, President Kennedy, Dean David Rusk(Secretary of State), Averell Harriman(Assistant Secretary of State for Far Eastern Affairs), Robert McNamara(Secretary of Defense), General Paul Adams(Chief of the US Strike Command), John Kenneth Galbraith(US Ambassador to India), John A McCone(Director of Central Intelligence Agency), Desmond Fitzgerald(the Far Eastern CIA Chief), James Critchfield(the Near East CIA Chief), John Kenneth Knaus(CIA’s Tibet Task Force), and David Blee(CIA Station Chief in New Delhi) decided upon a military aid package in support of the newly created military organization in India which was initially named as Establishment No. 22 and later the name Special Frontier Force was added to describe the location of its headquarters in New Delhi.

September 05. Dr Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday. Reflections on my Madras – Tibet – US Family Connections.

The history of Special Frontier Force – Establishment No. 22: In the Cold War Era of Silence and Secrecy, India was fortunate to find the Assistant Secretary of State for Far Eastern Affairs, Averell Harriman who played a crucial role in developing the military response to the 1962 War.

September 05. Dr Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday. Reflections on my Madras – Tibet – US Family Connections.

The history of Special Frontier Force – Establishment No. 22: John Kenneth Galbraith, the US Ambassador to India played a very helpful role to bring India, and the United States to come together on mutual security concerns and to build a personal relationship between the leaders. This photo image is from 1961 taken during Prime Minister Nehru’s visit to Washington D.C.

September 05. Dr Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday. Reflections on my Madras – Tibet – US Family Connections.

The History of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: The People’s Republic of China could not alter the course of India’s foreign policy. The 1962 War launched by China ended very abruptly when China declared a unilateral ceasefire and withdrew from the captured territory on November 21, 1962. President Kennedy played a decisive role by threatening to “NUKE” China.

The 1962 India-China War, a military conflict that was initiated by China had accomplished the exact opposite of what China had planned to accomplish.

1. India became more firmly aligned with the United States discarding its original policy of political neutralism.

2. The level of cooperation between the Central Intelligence Agency and India’s Research and Analysis Wing (RAW-The Intelligence Bureau of India) became greatly enhanced.

3. India started increasing its own defence-preparedness and strengthened its military capabilities to fight a future war with China.

4. India was not deterred by the Chinese attack and decided to substantially increase its involvement with the Tibetan Resistance Movement. India made the commitment to provide a permanent base to the Tibetan Resistance Movement apart from hosting the Tibetan Government-in-Exile.

5. India, Tibet, and the United States joined together in a military alliance/pact leading to the creation of the military organization called the Establishment No. 22 which has come to be known as the Special Frontier Force with its official Headquarters in New Delhi.

September 05. Dr Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday. Reflections on my Madras – Tibet – US Family Connections.

The history of Special Frontier Force – Establishment No. 22: President Radhakrishnan visiting Indian Army units during the 1962 India-China War. India withstood the attack by Communist China and it soon recovered from its wounds and regained its full confidence to engage China on the battlefield.

September 05. Dr Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday. Reflections on my Madras – Tibet – US family Connections.

The history of Special Frontier Force – Establishment No. 22: President Radhakrishnan with Officers of Indian Army during the 1962 India-China War. India understood the need for better preparedness to fight future wars and had decided to maintain its support to His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama, the Head of Tibetan nation who was granted political asylum in India.

September 05. Dr Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday. Reflections on my Madras – Tibet – US Family Connections.

The History of Special Frontier Force – Establishment No. 22: President Radhakrishnan is seen speaking to news reporters during the 1962 War. India was not deterred by Chinese aggression and had boldly continued the support it extended to the Tibetan Government-in-Exile.

PRESIDENT RADHAKRISHNAN’S HISTORIC VISIT TO THE UNITED STATES ON JUNE 03/04, 1963:

After the conclusion of the 1962 War with China, Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru’s personal health demanded a serious attention and President Radhakrishnan performed the historical journey to the United States on June 03/04 to meet the US President John F. Kennedy to express India’s solidarity with the United States in promoting Peace and Democracy, and the visit displays the trust, and confidence placed by India in the future of their mutual military assistance, and cooperation. I am happy to share several photo images of that visit.

September 05. Dr Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday. Reflections on my Madras – Tibet – US Family Connections.

The history of Special Frontier Force – Establishment No. 22: June 03/04, 1963. The historic visit by President Radhakrishnan to affirm India’s friendly relationship with the United States in their policy towards China.

September 05. Dr Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday. Reflections on my Madras – Tibet – US Family Connections.

The history of Special Frontier Force – Establishment No. 22: June 03/04, 1963. President Radhakrishnan’s visit affirms the appreciation for American support during the 1962 India-China War.

September 05. Dr Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday. Reflections on my Madras – Tibet – US Family Connections.

The history of Special Frontier Force, Establishment No. 22: June 03, 1963, Indian President Radhakrishnan by his visit acknowledges the India-Tibet-US military alliance/pact to oppose the military threat posed by China.

September 05. Dr Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday. Reflections on my Madras – Tibet – US Family Connections.
September 05. Dr Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday. Reflections on my Madras – Tibet – US Family Connections.

The history of Special Frontier Force, Establishment No. 22 is linked to the presidency of John F. Kennedy and Radhakrishnan.

September 05. Dr Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday. Reflections on my Madras – Tibet – US Family Connections.
September 05. Dr Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday. Reflections on my Madras – Tibet – US Family Connections.
September 05. Dr Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday. Reflections on my Madras – Tibet – US Family Connections.
September 05. Dr Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday. Reflections on my Madras – Tibet – US Family Connections.
September 05. Dr Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday. Reflections on my Madras – Tibet – US Family Connections.
September 05. Dr Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday. Reflections on my Madras – Tibet – US Family Connections.
September 05. Dr Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday. Reflections on my Madras – Tibet – US Family Connections.

I met Radhakrishnan at his Mylapore residence after his retirement in May 1967. At that time, both of us were not aware that the very first posting of my career in Indian Armed Forces would take me to Special Frontier Force, Establishment No. 22 that was created during his presidency.

In India, Radhakrishnan is recognized as a teacher, philosopher, and a statesman. He is never described as the Supreme Commander of the Indian Armed Forces. I was granted Commission to serve in the Indian Army at the pleasure of the President of India, and my posting order to serve as a Medical Officer in Establishment No. 22, Special Frontier Force was issued under the authority of the Ministry of Defence which functions under the powers sanctioned by the President of India.

September 05. Dr Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday. Reflections on my Madras – Tibet – US Family Connections.

The history of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: This photo image shows Vice President Radhakrishnan at his New Delhi residence during 1960. The events from 1957 to 1962 had shaped Indian foreign policy and it paved the way for alignment with the United States to oppose the military threat posed by the People’s Republic of China. I met President Radhakrishnan at his Mylapore, Madras (Chennai) residence after completion of his term of presidency in 1967. He prefers to read while relaxing in his bed. This is the image, I still carry in my memory.

September 05. Dr Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday. My reflections on Madras – Tibet – US Family Connections.

The history of Special Frontier Force – Establishment No. 22: This is a photo image taken at Sarasawa airfield that proudly displays the National Flag of Tibet. Special Frontier Force is a living military organization that is facing its future with hope and encouragement from the United States, India, and Tibet.

Rudra Narasimham Rebbapragada

SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE

September 05. Dr Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday. Reflections on my Madras – Tibet – US Family Connections.

 

Communist China’s Sinister Plan of Sinicization of Tibet

Communist China’s Sinister Plan of Sinicization of Tibet.

India is facing the inevitable consequences of Communist China’s Sinister Plan of Sinicization of Tibet using its military power since 1950.

Rudra Narasimham Rebbapragada

Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment

Special Frontier Force personnel were used  by Indian Army to occupy these strategic peaks in the Southern banks of Pangong Tso. This took the Chinese army by surprise. The occupation of these heights has shown Indian resolve to take the fight to the Chinese side. 

The Pangong Tso lake in Ladakh on the banks of which India and China have been engaged in a standoff for four months. India claimed on Monday that it pre-empted a move by the Chinese army to occupy Indian territory at a new point in the region. (AP file photo)

India says troops hold Himalayan hilltops after face-off with Chinese forces

By Devjyot Ghoshal  

Communist China’s Sinister Plan of Sinicization of Tibet. Reuters/Mukesh Gupta FILE PHOTO: A view of Pangong Tso lake in Ladakh region

NEW DELHI (Reuters) – A senior Indian official said on Tuesday Indian troops had deployed on four strategic hilltops after what New Delhi called an attempted Chinese incursion along the disputed Himalayan border, underlining simmering tensions between the Asian giants.

China denied that it had moved first, with an embassy spokeswoman in New Delhi accusing Indian troops of trespassing across the Line of Actual Control (LAC) – the de facto border – and conducting “flagrant provocations”.

Indian and Chinese troops have been locked in a high-altitude border confrontation for months in the western Himalayan region of Ladakh. The two sides have disputed the course of the frontier for more than half a century.

The Indian official, who was briefed on the latest incident, said the Indian troop move responded to an attempt by a large number of Chinese infantry to push through a key mountain pass late on Saturday.

“We mobilized and occupied the four heights,” the official said, adding all four hilltops were on India’s side of the LAC.

The Indian official said the Chinese soldiers were backed up by military vehicles and drew close enough to engage Indian troops in verbal arguments, but there were no clashes.

He said the incident occurred on the southern bank of Pangong Tso, a picturesque lake in the snow desert region where Indian and Chinese troops have been facing off since April.

The Indian official said the Chinese had also been consolidating positions on the northern bank of the lake with what appeared to be new defensive positions.

But Ji Rong, a spokeswoman for the Chinese embassy in New Delhi, said Indian troops had violated the LAC at Pangong Tso’s southern bank and near another mountain pass.

“What India has done runs counter to the efforts made by both sides for a period of time to ease and cool down the situation on the ground, and China is resolutely opposed to this,” she said.

“India … said it pre-empted Chinese military activity,” China’s state-backed Global Times said in an editorial. “The word ‘pre-empt’ shows it was Indian troops that first took destructive action, and the Indian troops initiated the stand-off this time.”

In June, 20 Indian soldiers were killed in hand-to-hand combat with Chinese troops in Ladakh’s Galwan area, the most serious clash between the two countries in 50 years.

Both sides then agreed to pull back with military chiefs in the region holding five rounds of talks. But the Indian military said this week Beijing had reneged on the deal by carrying out “provocative military movements to change the status quo”.

(Reporting by Devjyot Ghoshal; Editing by Sanjeev Miglani and Mark Heinrich)

In this June 17, 2020, file photo, an Indian army convoy moves on the Srinagar- Ladakh highway at Gagangeer, north-east of Srinagar.
AP
An Indian Army truck crosses Chang la pass near Pangong Lake in Ladakh region, India. (AP File Photo)
Indian Army thwarts fresh attempts by China’s PLA to change status quo in Pangong lake area in Ladakh
Indian Army thwarts fresh attempts by China’s PLA to change status quo in Pangong lake area in Ladakh
Indian Army is committed to maintaining peace and tranquility through dialogue, but is also equally determined to protect India’s territorial integrity: Spokesperson
PTI
Chinese troops carried out fresh “provocative action” in Pangong Tso Lake areas in Eastern Ladakh on Monday
Chinese armoured vehicles and battle tanks are positioned near the foothills of ‘Kala Top’, which is occupied by Indian forces
China took provocative action 31 August as talks were on, says India
Ladakh Clash: A Brigade Commander level flag meeting is in progress at Chushul. (File)

https://www.indiatoday.in/video/India/embed/MTcxNzA5NA==

The latest skirmish between the two sides took place along the Southern bank of the Pangong Tso, a glacial lake at 14,000 feet. This photo taken on September 14, 2018, shows a general view of Pangong Lake from the Indian-controlled side.
Indian Border Security Force (BSF) soldiers guard a highway leading towards Leh, bordering China, in Gagangir on June 17, 2020.
Communist China’s Sinister Plan of Sinicization of Tibet.

President Xi Jinping’s Plan for Tibet vs Nature’s Plan for Tibet

President Xi Jinping’s Plan for Tibet vs Nature’s Plan for Tibet

In my analysis, President Xi Jinping’s Plan for Tibet is not consistent with Mother Nature’s Plan for Tibet. Besides geographical isolation, Mother Nature nurtured a sense of Freedom giving the Tibetan people the experience of Peace, Harmony, and Tranquility in their daily lives. The military occupation of Tibet is fundamentally inconsistent with the Nature’s Plan for Tibet.

Rudra Narasimham Rebbapragada

Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment

Sinicize Tibetan Buddhism, build fortress around Tibet, says Xi Jinping

Exiled Tibetan groups, led by exiled spiritual leader the Dalai Lama, and rights groups say Beijing’s rule amounts to “cultural genocide”.

Sutirtho Patranobis | Edited by Sohini Sarkar
Hindustan Times, Beijing

President Xi Jinping’s Plan for Tibet vs Nature’s Plan for Tibet. Chinese President Xi Jinping was addressing the country’s top leadership at a two-day forum on future governance in Tibet in Beijing, which concluded on Saturday.(REUTERS PHOTO.)

It is important to promote the “sinicization” of Tibetan Buddhism and build an “impregnable fortress” to maintain stability in Tibet, President Xi Jinping said on Saturday.

Xi added it was necessary to strengthen border defense and frontier security of the Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR), which borders India and Bhutan, adding it was necessary to educate Tibetans to strengthen the struggle against separatism.

The Chinese President was addressing the country’s top leadership at a two-day forum on future governance in Tibet in Beijing, which concluded on Saturday.

Beijing seized control over Tibet in 1950, in what is described in the Chinese narrative as a “peaceful liberation”, which aided the high-altitude Himalayan region to throw off its “feudalistic” past.

Exiled Tibetan groups, led by exiled spiritual leader the Dalai Lama, and rights groups say Beijing’s rule amounts to “cultural genocide”.

Political and ideological education needed to be strengthened in Tibet’s schools in order to “plant the seeds of loving China in the depths of the hearts of every youth”, Xi said in remarks published by state news agency Xinhua.

Xi was quoted as calling for efforts to ensure national security and enduring peace and stability, steadily improve people’s lives, maintain a good environment, solidify border defense and ensure frontier security.

“It is necessary to strengthen the education and guidance of the masses, extensively mobilize the masses to participate in the struggle against separatism, and form a copper wall and iron wall (which translates as ‘impregnable fortress” in Mandarin) for maintaining stability,” he said.

“Efforts must be made to build a new modern socialist Tibet that is united, prosperous, culturally advanced, harmonious and beautiful,” Xi said.

“It is necessary to actively guide Tibetan Buddhism to adapt to the socialist society and promote the Sinicization of Tibetan Buddhism,” he said.

Sinicization of religion could be broadly defined as an effort to mold religious beliefs and doctrine to bring them in line with the Communist Party of China’s principles and objectives, and with the culture of the majority Han community. Xi in 2015 spoke about sinicising the five major religions practiced in China: Catholicism, Protestantism, Islam, Buddhism and Daoism.

In 2019, Chinese state media announced that China had drawn up an outline to sinicize Islam by 2022 in an effort to redefine the practice of the religion and align the beliefs of Muslims with the CPC.

China’s policies towards Tibet have come under the spotlight again this year amid Beijing’s deteriorating ties with Washington.

In July, US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo said the US would restrict visas for some Chinese officials involved in blocking diplomatic access to Tibet and engaging in “human rights abuses”, adding that Washington supported “meaningful autonomy” for Tibet.

In a retaliatory move, China said it would impose visa restrictions on US citizens who have engaged in what it called “egregious” behavior over Tibet.

President Xi Jinping’s Plan for Tibet vs Nature’s Plan for Tibet

India vs China Dispute. Tibet is not a part of China

India vs China Dispute. Tibet is not a part of China.TIBET EQUILIBRIUM.

In my analysis, the dispute between India and China relates to the status of Tibet. China is in Tibet. But, Tibet is not a part of China. The dispute can be resolved by the eviction of the military occupier of Tibet.

Rudra Narasimham Rebbapragada

Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment

A border dispute with China may push India closer to some of Beijing’s top rivals

CNN June 18, 2020, 12:59 AM EDT

Relations between China and India have always been complicated.

During British colonialism, India was the source of opium foreign traders forced onto Chinese markets, sparking war between the UK and the Qing Empire that ended in humiliation for China. Since independence, India’s relations with its largest neighbor have been tested by issues such as Tibet, Pakistan and the countries’ shared Himalayan border.

This week, that border blew up into renewed conflict, in the bloodiest engagement in 40 years, which left more than 20 soldiers dead after a brutal fight with fists and clubs high in the mountains amid freezing temperatures and scant oxygen.

While both governments are now scrambling to deescalate, the conflict could provide the final push for a pivot already begun by New Delhi, away from Beijing and towards China’s traditional rivals, the United States and Japan, as well as a growing regional one, Australia. As India seeks to push back against what many in the country view as Chinese aggression, it will rely on these allies more than ever.

“The sacrifice made by our soldiers will not go in vain,” Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi said Wednesday. “India’s integrity and sovereignty is supreme for us, and no one can stop us from defending it. Nobody should have an iota of doubt about this. India wants peace. But when provoked, India will give a befitting reply.”

Rahul Gandhi, leader of the main opposition Congress Party, put it more bluntly: “How dare China kill our soldiers? How dare they take our land?”

India vs China Dispute. Tibet is not a part of China. Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi (L) and Chinese President Xi Jinping wave to journalists before they hold a meeting in Xian, Shaanxi province, China, May 14, 2015. REUTERS/Kim Kyung-Hoon

Encircling China

In an editorial Wednesday, the influential Hindustan Times said that “China wants to limit New Delhi’s power and ambition; it wants India to accept Beijing’s primacy in Asia and beyond.”

In response, the newspaper urged, New Delhi should “double down on its partnership with the US, make Quad … a more permanent arrangement, and be a part of any club that seeks to contain Chinese power.”

The Quad, or Quadrilateral Security Dialogue, is an informal strategic forum for the US, Japan, Australia and India, featuring semi-regular summits, information exchanges and military drills. While not a formal military alliance like NATO, it is seen by some as a potential counterweight to growing Chinese influence and alleged aggression in Asia-Pacific.

While members have emphasized the more benign aspects of the relationship, such as recent cooperation on the coronavirus pandemic, the potential for military encirclement by countries has not gone unnoticed by Beijing.

As early as 2007, when the first Quad meetings were proposed, China issued formal diplomatic protests to all parties involved, and later that year Australia pulled out over fears of offending Beijing, and the alliance was put on hold until 2017, when meetings resumed, in large part due to growing concerns over Chinese advances in the South China Sea.

Potentially, an anti-China bloc led by the US could be far larger than the Quad. During a telephone call earlier this month between Modi and US President Donald Trump, the American leader invited India to join the next G7 summit. They also, according to White House spokeswoman Kayleigh McEnany, discussed “the situation on the India-China border.”

Trump has previously spoken of wanting to expand the traditional grouping of mostly European and North American states to include Washington’s allies Australia and South Korea, as well use this year’s planned meeting to “discuss China’s future.”

India has traditionally been wary of getting too close to the US, seeking to balance that relationship with strong economic — if not always diplomatic — ties to Beijing. Amid growing pressure on its border, however, and what appears to be a strong personal bond between Trump and Modi, this could be the perfect time for such a pivot.

Greater Indian participation in both the Quad and other military alliances with the US would have benefits for Washington, according to foreign affairs analyst Amrita Jash, who wrote this week that “India’s strong foothold in the Indo-Pacific provides a counterbalance to China’s growing footprint in the Indian Ocean.”

Not without cost

Both Delhi and Beijing have spoken of the desire to deescalate and preserve a peaceful relationship following this week’s clash in the Himalayas, but many experts are skeptical about how feasible, or sustainable this is.

Aidan Milliff, an expert on political violence and South Asia at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, predicted this month that the latest conflict could “portend the development of a Sino-Indian situation that reflects an ‘ugly stability’ between India and Pakistan: persistent low-level conflicts and political-military crises that simmer below the threshold of conventional war.”

Already shaky ties between Beijing and Delhi had already been harmed by the coronavirus pandemic, with many in India blaming China for its initial mishandling of the crisis and Chinese officials frustrated by their Indian counterparts’ perceived failure to express support for Beijing at the World Health Organization and other international forums.

Any major shift towards the Quad or Washington alone would likely only take place if Delhi believes relations with Beijing are beyond repair, however, as they could come with high costs for both India and China.

Under Modi, India’s economic engagement with China has been increasing. Together, the two countries account for 17.6% of the global economy. But although China is India’s largest trading partner, their estimated $84 billion bilateral trade in 2017/18 was a mere fraction of the US-China trade volume, which stood at almost $600 billion.

Before the coronavirus pandemic, China was gradually emerging as a major foreign investor in the growing Indian market, but that trend has been halted by new investment rules passed by Delhi widely seen as aimed at Chinese firms.

Economic pain is not the only thing that will be jointly shared. While Beijing may be loathe to see India cosying up to the US and Japan, it can respond by increasing support for Delhi’s major rival: Pakistan.

China has close economic, diplomatic and military ties with Pakistan, making it one of the nation’s closest allies in the region. Between 2008 and 2017, Islamabad purchased more than $6 billion of Chinese arms, according to think tank CSIS. China has also invested billions in the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor, an integral part of Xi’s Belt and Road trade and infrastructure mega-project.

Protecting that corridor was seen by some analysts as a driving factor behind the recent spat in the Himalayas, another factor in which was recent Indian moves over Kashmir, in which China supported Pakistan in a failed attempt to censure Delhi at the United Nations.

Similarly, China has made diplomatic and economic inroads in countries traditionally considered as within Delhi’s sphere of influence, including Nepal, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh.

India’s South Asian neighbors have also increasingly looked to China for assistance during the coronavirus pandemic, accelerating a trend that seen Beijing invest heavily in the region.

The willingness of Nepal, in particular, to work with Beijing has led to concerns in Delhi of potential geopolitical realignment. Nepal, which is sandwiched between India and China, and has recently butted heads with its southern neighbor over a decision to approve a revised map that includes areas claimed by Delhi.

Part of the problem in the region are the messy, widely disputed borders that many of the countries share. If relations continue to worsen between Beijing and Delhi, however, they may seem like nothing compared to the nightmare of geopolitical complications that could arise across all of Asia-Pacific.

India vs China Dispute. Tibet is not a part of China.

THE CLINTON CURSE KNOCKS ON AMERICAN HEGEMONY

The Clinton Curse Knocks on American Hegemony.

In my analysis, the American Supremacy on the world stage is threatened by the COVID-19 pandemic. I want to provide a Biblical perspective on the economic fallout due to the new Coronavirus Disease. America cannot recover its place of pride in the world without healing described in the Bible. America is on a dangerous slippery slope for God has given the people a spirit of stupor, eyes that they should not see and ears that they should not hear, to this very day since the time the US President Bill Clinton transgressed the LORD’s Commandments.

Romans 11:8

The Clinton Curse Knocks on American Hegemony.

Just as it is written:

“God has given them a spirit of stupor,
Eyes that they should not see
And ears that they should not hear,
To this very day.”

Acts 28:27 

The Clinton Curse Knocks on American Hegemony.

27 For the hearts of this people have grown dull.
Their ears are hard of hearing,
And their eyes they have closed,
Lest they should see with their eyes and hear with their ears,
Lest they should understand with their hearts and turn,
So that I should heal them.” ’

Matthew 13:15

The Clinton Curse Knocks on American Hegemony.

15 For the hearts of this people have grown dull.
Their ears are hard of hearing,
And their eyes they have closed,
Lest they should see with their eyes and hear with their ears,
Lest they should understand with their hearts and turn,
So that I [a]should heal them.’

Ezekiel 12:2

The Clinton Curse Knocks on American Hegemony.

“Son of man, you dwell in the midst of a rebellious house, which has eyes to see but does not see, and ears to hear but does not hear; for they are a rebellious house.

Jeremiah 5:21

The Clinton Curse Knocks on American Hegemony.

21 ‘Hear this now, O foolish people,
Without [a]understanding,
Who have eyes and see not,
And who have ears and hear not:

Isaiah 6:10

The Clinton Curse Knocks on American Hegemony.

10 “Make the heart of this people dull,
And their ears heavy,
And shut their eyes;
Lest they see with their eyes,
And hear with their ears,
And understand with their heart,
And return and be healed.”

COVID-19 KNOCKS ON AMERICAN HEGEMONY

By Ashley J. Tellis

May 4, 2020

The Clinton Curse Knocks on American Hegemony.

Ashley J. Tellis holds the Tata Chair for Strategic Affairs and is a senior fellow at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, specializing in international security and U.S. foreign and defense policy with a special focus on Asia and the Indian subcontinent. He is
also a counselor at the National Bureau of Asian Research and the
research director of the Strategic Asia Program.

After almost two decades of conflicted hesitancy, the United States finally acknowledged that it is involved in a
long-term strategic competition with China. This rivalry, almost by definition, is not merely a wrangle between two major
states. Rather, it involves a struggle for dominance in the international system, even if China as the rising power disavows any such ambition. China’s very ascendancy—if sustained—could over time threaten the U.S. hegemony that has been in place
since the end of World War II. It is this reality of unequal growth—which has nourished China’s expanding influence and
military capabilities—that lies at
the root of the evolving rivalry.

Although the term sometimes has unsettling connotations, the United States is a genuine hegemon, understood in the original Greek sense as a leader in the competitive international system. This hegemony derives from the fact that the United States is the world’s single most powerful state. First, it remains the largest economy in real terms, a foundation that underwrites its capacity to project military power globally in ways unmatched by any peers. Second, it possesses a sufficiently effective state that presides over a remarkably productive society. And, third, in partnership with strong allies in North America, Western Europe, East Asia, and Oceania, who share both values and interests, the United States has created an international order that buttresses its primacy materially, institutionally, and ideationally, thereby allowing it to advance diverse interests while economizing on its use of force. Although these foundations have been stressed in recent times, the Covid-19 pandemic now threatens them in deadly ways.

What is certain…is that the U.S. economy will face significant transitions in the aftermath of this pandemic in at least two directions that bear on the future of its national power.

But if the country is in fact now trapped in a period of low productivity growth and persistent weaknesses in aggregate demand…the net result may be a diminished capacity to sustain both the increasing domestic obligations and its extant
international interests simultaneously.

While the damage caused to the U.S. economy and the human losses will make the task of preserving U.S. hegemony after the pandemic harder—at a time when most assessments suggest that countries like China are likely to recover faster than the United States—the reputational damage to Washington is just as serious.

Washington must double down on its alliances and partnerships. Only this U.S.-led confederation contains the preponderance
of the global product that will durably immunize the liberal international order against any future challenges emanating
from China or other rivals.

Preserving American hegemony over the long term
thus must begin with consolidating Washington’s
leadership within the largest single bloc of material power
in order that it may be effective beyond. Ensuring this
outcome requires the United States to take seriously—and
deepen meaningfully—the special geopolitical ties it has
nurtured throughout the postwar period, which would
among other things enable it to better shape the world’s
engagement with China to advance its own interests.
The management of the global pandemic thus far raises
doubts about the United States’ ability to sensibly expand
its power and to manage the evolving rivalry with China
intelligently and in league with the nations that will be
most needed for success. This is unfortunate given this
administration’s otherwise astute recognition of the
return of strategic competition.

The Clinton Curse Knocks on American Hegemony.

The Clinton Curse. The staggering Budget Deficit in 2020

The Clinton Curse. The Staggering Budget Deficit in 2020.- In 1996, President Clinton reintroduced Slavery, “A New Beginning” to balance the budget by undermining the protections offered by the Social Security Act.

In my analysis, the Economic Policy of President Bill Clinton is fundamentally flawed for it violated the principles of Natural Law that make America a proud and prosperous nation in the world. The economic downfall of the United States is relentless and is almost unstoppable. There can be no healing and no recovery without the Blessings promised by God and living up to the Official Motto “IN GOD WE TRUST.”

Rudra Narasimham Rebbapragada

Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment

The Clinton Curse. The Staggering Budget Deficit in 2020. There are Curses and serious consequences for the Disobedience of LORD’s Commandments.

U.S. deficit to soar to record $3.8 trillion in 2020, budget watchdog group says

The Clinton Curse. The Staggering Budget Deficit in 2020.:

WASHINGTON (Reuters) – A steep economic downturn and massive Coronavirus rescue spending will nearly quadruple the fiscal 2020 U.S. budget deficit to a record $3.8 trillion, a staggering 18.7% of U.S. economic output, a Washington-based watchdog group said on Monday.

Releasing new budget estimates based on spending mandated by law, the Committee for a Responsible Federal Budget (CRFB) also projected that the fiscal 2021 deficit would reach $2.1 trillion in 2021, and average $1.3 trillion through 2025 as the economy recovers from damage caused by Coronavirus-related shutdowns.

The estimates follow the U.S. Treasury’s report on Friday of a $744 billion budget deficit in the six months through March 30, which included minimal impact from the outbreak of the new Coronavirus. Officials said significant budget impacts from spending and reduced revenues would appear in April’s budget results.

The CRFB, a coalition of former U.S. lawmakers, government officials and economists that has advocated for reducing deficits, said U.S. public debt by the Sept. 30 fiscal year-end would exceed 100% of U.S. GDP, from just under 80% prior to the Coronavirus crisis.

“These projections almost certainly underestimate deficits, since they assume no further legislation is enacted to address the crisis and that policymakers stick to current law when it comes to other tax and spending policies,” the group said in a statement.

CRFB’s projections also assume the economy experiences a strong recovery in 2021 and fully returns to its pre-crisis trajectory by 2025.

If that recovery is achieved, public debt would reach 107% of GDP that year, exceeding levels at the end of World War Two. A slower recovery could cause debt to reach 117% of GDP by 2025, the group said.

The record for a fiscal year deficit was $1.41 billion, set in 2009. Deficits exceeding $1 trillion followed for three subsequent years before subsiding as the economy recovered. But the deficit reached $984 billion in 2019 and the Congressional Budget Office had projected a $1.07 trillion deficit for 2020.

The CRFB started with that pre-crisis CBO estimate and added about $2.2 trillion in spending while subtracting $570 billion in revenue due to reduced economic activity.

Reporting by David Lawder; Editing by Paul Simao and Lisa Shumaker

The Clinton Curse. The Staggering Budget Deficit in 2020.