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People’s Republic of China uses secret rituals to select leaders of Communist Party as well as leaders of its government. Chinese Dream will unfold into People’s Nightmare as Beijing sealed its own Fate or Destiny because of her ‘EVIL’ actions. The Aftermath of Evil is called Doom, Catastrophe, Disaster, Cataclysm, and Apocalypse.

Rudranarasimham Rebbapragada



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A poster in Beijing features Chinese President Xi Jinping and a slogan reading "Chinese Dream, People’s Dream." Xi is preparing to embark on a second five-year term this week. Greg Baker/AFP/Getty Images

A poster in Beijing features Chinese President Xi Jinping and a slogan reading "Chinese Dream, People’s Dream." Xi is preparing to embark on a second five-year term this week.

Preparations for a major shakeup of China’s Communist Party leadership are all but complete, ahead of a national congress that begins in Beijing on Wednesday. President Xi Jinping, the party boss, is expected to cement his already considerable power and embark on a second five-year term.

Last Saturday, in an auditorium bedecked with red flags and hammer-and-sickle emblems, the party’s outgoing central committee members raised their hands in unison to approve the congress’s final preparations.

Beijing’s streets are lined with security personnel, and police have hustled dissidents out of town on enforced "vacations" ahead of the country’s most important political event.

Held every five years, the National Congress of the Chinese Communist Party is a piece of political theater that University of Victoria political scientist Wu Guoguang describes as being at once "holy" and "hollow."

When it comes to understanding exactly how the leader of the world’s most populous nation is chosen, "In fact, nobody knows," Wu says. "It’s jungle politics," he adds. "The party does not play the game by its own rules."

According to the Communist Party’s charter, China’s nearly 90 million party members select nearly 2,300 delegates, who in turn vote for a roughly 200-member central committee. That committee then elects a 25-odd-member Politburo, a standing committee having between five and nine members and the party’s general secretary or top leader.

But in fact, "The election is a formality," Wu says. "The positions are decided in advance of the congress." Then they’re given to the delegates to rubber-stamp.

The actual selection of the party leadership, Wu adds, is done "in a black box" behind closed doors.

In other words, while power appears to flow from the bottom up, it actually goes from the top down.

Experts’ best guess, Wu says, is that around 20 people, including serving and retired members of the Politburo standing committee, bargain in secret to decide the next leader several months before the congress.

In theory, the national congress is the party’s highest organ of power. But Wu, the author of China’s Party Congress: Power, Legitimacy, and Institutional Manipulation, who helped draft political reforms for the late Chinese Premier and Communist Party boss Zhao Ziyang, says that the leadership has many ways to manipulate the institution to make sure nobody it dislikes is ever nominated — much less elected.

One such device is a sort of straw poll or dry run ahead of the congress, so that leaders can sniff out and neutralize opposition to their preferred candidates.

The selection process is full of uncertainty, says Wu. This uncertainty may be behind the event’s massive security operations, to which "every blade of grass, every tree looks like an enemy soldier," as the old Chinese saying goes.

Part of the problem is that so many successions under communist rule have ended in failure. Three of Mao Zedong’s anointed heirs, Liu Shaoqi, Lin Biao and Hua Guofeng, were purged or sidelined.

Liu was purged and persecuted during the Cultural Revolution and died in 1969. Lin died in a 1971 plane crash, after an alleged failed coup attempt. Hua served as party chairman for five years until Deng Xiaoping pushed him aside in 1981.

During the 1980s, supreme leader Deng sacked two of his appointed successors in a row, ostensibly because they were soft on dissent.

Experts point out that China has neither a hereditary dynasty nor competitive elections. To restore a semblance of order to the leadership selection process in the years following the June 4, 1989, massacre near Tiananmen Square, the party established some unwritten rules or norms to govern it.

The most important of these is an informal rule that Politburo standing committee members must retire at age 68.

But experts believe that Xi is not satisfied with the informal rules and intends to bend, break or scrap them altogether.

And if there is any unwritten rule experts say Xi cannot tolerate, it is one that could hinder his ability to designate his own successor. In Chinese politics, this is a guarantee of a retired leader’s survival and continuing behind-the-scenes influence.

Years ago, supreme leader Deng is believed to have anointed two of Xi’s predecessors. They in turn apparently designated two men, Sun Zhengcai and Hu Chunhua, as Xi’s possible successors.

But in July, Sun was sacked for corruption and violating party discipline as party boss of southwest China’s Chongqing city, and Xi signaled that he would not accept anyone else’s choice as his heir. Hu remains in place, at least for now.

Mao, Deng and many Chinese emperors centuries before them essentially ruled until they died. China’s Constitution mandates a two-term limit for its presidents, but there are no term limits for party leaders, who are above the president.

Xi serves as president, party leader and head of the military. During his first term, he outdid his predecessors with tough crackdowns on both dissent and official corruption at home along with a muscular military posture to back up China’s territorial claims in the South China Sea and the China-India border. Experts expect more of the same from a second Xi term.

Xi is not the first to challenge the party’s informal leadership succession rules. Bo Xilai, a flamboyant politician who also served as Chongqing party boss, questioned personnel arrangements for the 18th party congress in 2012, as he sought to enter the leadership’s top ranks. He challenged the leadership lineup — which included Xi — that was decided by Xi’s predecessors. The following year, Bo was sentenced to life in prison on corruption charges.

Hong Kong University of Science and Technology professor Ding Xueliang argues that Xi has wanted to overhaul the succession process for years, especially since Bo’s challenge.

"Even now," Ding says, "Xi still talks about the ‘residual toxic influence’ of Bo Xilai in Chongqing," presumably a reference to the fact that some of Bo’s allies or subordinates remain in positions of power.

Indeed, Xi has spent much of his first term getting rid of the masses of bureaucrats installed by, and still loyal to, his predecessors, lest they rebel or obstruct the implementation of his policies.

This reflects the fact, Ding observes, that personal ties remain paramount in Chinese politics and bureaucrats tend to "obey those who appointed them."

Communist personnel policies, Ding notes, make it hard to sack bureaucrats before they retire, and the bureaucrats are not subject to much independent oversight.

Ding argues that Xi has used his mass anti-corruption campaign as a tool to knock out not just rival politicians and obstinate bureaucrats but also party congress delegates. He notes that Chairman Mao did the same during the 1966-1975 Cultural Revolution.

At the 19th party congress, experts will be looking at several key details. Here are some of the questions they are asking:

· Will Xi show any indication that he might seek a third term as president, beginning in 2022? Or will he retire from his party and government posts but hang on as military chief, as some of his predecessors have done?

· Will Wang Qishan, Xi’s 69-year-old right-hand man and anti-corruption czar, retain his job? He is already past the age after which no party leaders are supposed to be appointed to new positions, according to an informal rule.

· Will Xi change his job title from general secretary of the Communist Party to chairman, the title Mao used?

· Will Xi name a successor during the party congress?

· Will Xi’s ideas be written into the party charter as "Xi Thought" or "Xi Theory," as were the ideas of Mao and Deng? Or will his ideas be written into the charter without Xi’s name, as was the case with Xi’s two less powerful immediate predecessors?

If Xi breaks the informal rules, observes Ding, the Hong Kong professor, it’s not clear what new ones he might replace them with.

And maybe it doesn’t matter. Neither formal nor informal rules have done much to constrain China’s leaders. Deng famously remained paramount leader in retirement with no higher official title than honorary chairman of the China Bridge Association.

Political arrangements in China are rarely explicit, Ding muses. "After thousands of years of Chinese politics, rulers have developed innumerable methods to get what they want," he says. "It’s never so simple."

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At ‘Five Fifty’ Forum on Tibet Equilibrium, His Holiness the Dalai Lama openly shared his concerns about US President Donald Trump’s reluctance to engage him in Cold War Era secret diplomacy.

Rudranarasimham Rebbapragada


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The Dalai Lama during an event at American University last year. (Manuel Balce Ceneta/Associated Press)
The Dalai Lama, the spiritual head of the Tibetan nation, is known worldwide for his advocacy of non-violence, peaceful coexistence, environmental protection and human rights. But the 82-year-old Buddhist monk is worried about the rise of nationalism and selfishness around the world and in the United States.
In wide ranging remarks to a unique conference of Tibet supporters here in northern India, the Dalai Lama said he was concerned about President Trump’s “America first” policy, America’s stance on global warming and the use of military tools to solve international problems. He also praised the United States and expressed hope that the American people will continue to do the right things, including with respect to Tibet.
“Your ancestors really considered the importance of liberty, freedom, democracy, these things,” the Dalai Lama said in response to my question about his current view of the United States. “The present president, in the very beginning he mentioned ‘America first.’ That sounded in my ear not very nice.”
The Dalai Lama is concerned that the United States, despite being “the leader of the free world,” was becoming more “selfish, nationalist,” he said. But the American Congress and people have long supported the cause of Tibet and human rights, and he thinks that will continue, he added.
The Dalai Lama also lamented that Trump doesn’t pay more attention to the issue of global warming, which, he said, knows no borders and no religion.
“The present president is not much paying attention to ecology. So on that, I feel some reservation,” the Dalai Lama said. “But anyway, the American people elected him, so I must respect [that].”
The event, called the Five Fifty Forum, was hosted by the Tibetan government-in-exile, which is based in this northern Indian mountain town. The Dalai Lama has been living in India since he fled Tibet in 1959 and has not been allowed to return.
The forum was held under Chatham House rules, which forbid quoting participants. But the leadership of the Tibetan government-in-exile gave me permission to publish the Dalai Lama’s remarks.
The Tibetan leader, who is believed by followers to be in his 14th reincarnation, criticized the use of military force around the world and called on nations to solve problems through diplomacy and negotiation rather than violence. He said the use of military power, even by the United States, never achieves its goal.
“Every problem on this planet, including our problem, must be solved with respect and mutually acceptable [solutions],” he said.
The Dalai Lama’s commentary on world events was not limited to the United States. He said that the Britain had erred in voting to leave the European Union, and he attributed that decision to nationalism as well.
The European Union should become the model for every region and then, when the world’s countries are all working together, they can demilitarize, the Dalai Lama explained. “That’s my vision. That’s my hope.”
The Dalai Lama said he wants to engage with China to find a mutually acceptable solution for Tibet. He added that the Tibetan people must also be ready to talk to China if there’s an opening. That doesn’t seem likely, considering that the Chinese government cut off dialogue with the Tibetans in 2010 and has pursued a brutal repression campaign in the region ever since.
Nevertheless, “for the last several centuries, praying to Buddha more or less failed,” the Dalai Lama joked. “So I think we need to take a more practical approach.”
He is arguing against current trends for a world based on common interest, global integration, defense of human rights and shared responsibility for the environment. For most of his long life, the United States has agreed with him and led that effort. Will that continue? Even the Dalai Lama doesn’t know.

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China in Africa: South Africa Joins BRICs Summit - Global ...

Communist China’s successful colonization of Egypt and Africa is of special interest to me. I served in Establishment No. 22, Special Frontier Force to defend Freedom, Democracy, and Peace in Occupied Tibet.

During 1971-72, I served under the Command of Lieutenant Colonel B K Narayan who returned from Egypt after serving as Military Attaché in Indian Embassy in Cairo. For he was an Islamic Scholar who mastered Arabic Language as well as Quran, President Nasser, and President Sadat befriended him to seek his interpretation of Quran in the conduct of Egypt’s foreign policy. He performed Hajj pilgrimage while he served in Cairo. In 1971, long before conclusion of Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty of March 26, 1979, Colonel Narayan predicted Peace between Egypt and Israel as that Peace Plan is consistent with preaching of Holy Quran.

No more wars, no more bloodshed. Peace unto you. Shalom ...

Rudranarasimham Rebbapragada

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Filmmaker: Adam Bahgat
The Chinese community in Egypt has grown to over 10,000 people, thanks to a burgeoning commercial relationship between the two countries.
Increasing numbers of Chinese have come to study, work and open businesses in the Arab world’s most populous country, where many have developed an affinity for its life, culture and its people.
For over a quarter century, China and Egypt have steadily been learning how to make money together – through a range of economic and infrastructure projects.
Egypt has awarded several contracts to Chinese companies for the construction of a $20bn administrative and residential city that will be physically linked to Cairo. And China is the lead investor in the construction of a planned multibillion-dollar industrial zone around the Suez Canal.

I love Egypt and I consider it my second home. Egyptians are generally kind and I’ve experienced a lot to confirm this … They also have a sense of humor. They’re always joking even if they’re suffering from life’s hardships … That’s why they’re happy.

Saleh Machyanj, Chinese businessman

Each new collaboration is an opportunity for the Chinese diaspora to grow their businesses.
South of Cairo, the Shaqel Thoben area is one of the world’s major production centers for marble and granite.
“The equipment and machines used here are from China,” says Zhaou Ping, a marble and granite factory worker who has been in Egypt for three years.
“My boss in China asked me to come with the equipment and be a consultant … Before I came to Egypt, I worked in the same field in China. When an Egyptian manufacturer visited my factory, he asked me to work with him. I now have many Muslim friends in the factory where I work. They treat me like a brother and a friend, so I don’t feel like a stranger or foreigner in Egypt. I feel I’m in my country, with my family.”
The Chinese have quite quickly helped diversify Egypt’s economy. In 1999, there were only a few hundred but their numbers continue to grow as the two countries build stronger economic ties.
Some who started out as small traders are now successful business owners, like restaurant owner Po Wein Zhoun. Po cleverly opened a Chinese restaurant when she realized there was a growing demand for it.
“I realized many Chinese in Egypt have problems finding Chinese food … So I opened a small Chinese restaurant six years ago. After two years, the restaurant started becoming successful. For a year and a half, I bought this restaurant from another Chinese,” says Po, who is married to an Egyptian.
Business is the main but attraction for Chinese who come to Egypt; but some are also drawn to the country’s ancient heritage, like blogger Ali who studied Arabic and Egyptian history back in China. Fascinated, “I read an essay about Egypt and its pyramids and loved it. It’s about [the] mystery of the pyramids going back thousands of years. No one knows how they were actually built,” says Ali.
For some, their love of Egypt becomes profound, forming friendships that touch them and make them want to stay permanently.
WATCH: King Cobra and the Dragon: As China increases its economic ties in Africa, has the continent entered a new era of colonialism?
Chinese businessman Saleh Machyanj has been in Egypt since the 1990s.
“I love Egypt and I consider it my second home. Egyptians are generally kind and I’ve experienced a lot to confirm this … They also have a sense of humor. They’re always joking even if they’re suffering from life’s hardships. In China, the pressure and pace of life doesn’t allow time for joking … But in Egypt, friends meet in cafes for tea or juice. They chat until the evening. That’s why they’re happy.”
The Chinese want peace and stability in Egypt and across the region, for business and personal reasons.
Many investors withdrew after the 2011 Arab Spring revolution – but today, China and Egypt are redoubling efforts to strengthen their trade relationship.
The Egyptian trade minister recently said he expects China to emerge as Egypt’s fastest growing investment partner in the coming years.
If projects like the new administrative capital, and its rail link, worth billions of dollars, materialize, commercial ties between the two countries will continue to grow, as will the Chinese community in Egypt.
Source: Al Jazeera

Imperialism in Africa – NEW POWER


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Bishop’s news | Movement Online

In my opinion, Peace, Harmony, and Tranquility will get reestablished in Tibet when Kingdom of Heaven replaces Communist rule over Tibet.

Rudranarasimham Rebbapragada


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While The Division of Heaven and Earth by Shokdung is about resistance within Tibet, A Life Unforeseen by Rinchen Sadutshang is about the author’s work for the government in exile

Thubten Samphel
Hindustan Times

Soldiers of the Chinese People’s Liberation Army (PLA) patrol through the streets of Lhasa in this picture taken on March 14, 2008.(AFP)
Shokdung is the pen name for Tra-gya. It means the “morning conch.” The translator, Matthew Akester, thinks it is meant as a wake-up call for Tibet, a call for a peaceful revolution against Beijing’s iron-fisted rule on the Tibetan Plateau. Indeed, the message of Shokdung takes the readers back to the 19th century when a powerful West confronted and encroached upon a weakened Manchu China. This humiliating encounter between East and West resulted in agonized soul searching among Chinese scholars on how to forge an effective response. Some scholars blamed the dead weight of tradition and Confucianism for China’s inability to confront the Western challenge. They pointed to two gentlemen, Mr. Science and Mr. Democracy, who could save China from further humiliation.
The argument Shokdung advances in his brave book is that Tibet is similarly weighed down by tradition and Buddhism. These two forces prevent Tibetans from developing an effective response to Beijing’s rule. His is a brave book because Shokdung writes from Tibet. It is a brave book in another sense because Shokdung targets the most cherished tradition of Tibet, its spiritual heritage, to the consternation of the spiritual establishment in Tibet. The American Chinese scholar, Dan Smyer Yu, calls Shokdung’s views on Tibetan culture “an anti-traditionalist imagining of modern Tibet.”

Shokdung shot to fame in Tibet and around the world in 2009 when his book The Division of Heaven and Earth was published. According to Tibet scholar, Francoise Robin, who provides a foreword to the English translation, “The book, with an initial print run of 1,000 copies, circulated unhindered in Xining and all over Tibet for six months, until the author was arrested on 23 April 2010.” Shokdung anticipated his arrest when he said, “I may lose my head because of my mouth.”
Shokdung’s comments on the nature of the party state in Tibet are brutal and unrelenting. That is why he got into trouble with the authorities. Shokdung writes, “We can see that there is no greater terrorist than the totalitarian regime… In particular, the terrorism of sealing down the bodies of the common Tibetan people, sealing up the mouths of the eminent ones, and sealing off the minds of the unthinking population, and the methods of state terrorism are something they have been practicing for the last half century, so who can deny that it is their basic character?”
Shokdung writes that Tibet’s salvation lies in organizing a coordinated non-violent civil disobedience movement. “Whether or not there will be a Tibetan Gandhi, whether or not Satyagraha has any foundation there, whether or not non-violent non-cooperation will produce results, this we cannot know without an unfailing prophecy; but if the answer is to be affirmative, that prophecy is something that each Tibetan must keep in their heart. This is my belief.”
While Shokdung is a rebel and dissident who is fortunately now out of prison, the late Rinchen Sadutshang life was one of service to Tibet both within the country and in exile. He belonged to the fabulous Sadutshang family, which once dominated the wool trade ferried on the mule train between Tibet and India for final export to America and Britain. The family had a huge wool godown in Kalimpong, which was later transformed into a school for Tibetan refugee children.

Rinchen Sadutshang career in the service of the Tibetan government began in 1948 and spanned what his daughter calls “the defining moments of Tibet’s modern history.” This included the loss of Tibet and its labored and painful reconstruction in exile. Because he enjoyed the benefit of a modern education at St Joseph’s College in Darjeeling, the author was involved in all the critical events to prevent Tibet’s current fate. As His Holiness the Dalai Lama writes in his foreword to the memoir, “He accompanied the Tibetan delegation to Beijing in 1951 when the Seventeen-Point Agreement was signed. Later, he was a member of the Tibetan delegation to the United Nations in 1959 and 1961.”
The Tibetan representation at the world body resulted in the UN General Assembly passing three separate resolutions on Tibet, the last being in 1965, that called on China to respect the fundamental human rights of the Tibetan people and their right to self-determination. The Tibetan lobby at the UN, against all odds, managed to raise the issue of Tibet for discussion and debate at the highest international level. Given the Tibetan exiles’ lack of firepower both in resources and manpower, this is an achievement to be proud of.
Later, the author was inducted into the Kashag, the highest executive body of the Central Tibetan Administration. He rounded off his career as the representative of His Holiness the Dalai Lama in New Delhi who liaises with the government of India.
As for his career in the service of the Tibetan people, Rinchen Sadutshang had this to say. “By the early 1980s, I had given the prime years of my life to the service of the Dalai Lama and my government. When I first started to work in Dharamsala, my salary was seventy-five rupees a month, barely enough to meet my own personal needs, let alone the needs of my family. Although my salary gradually increased, if I hadn’t had some money of my own, my family would have suffered. I had a wife and six children, but I put the needs of the exile government before theirs. As I mentioned, the government of Bhutan had offered me a potentially lucrative position, and the Indian Central Bureau of Investigation also offered me a good job. But I declined both opportunities because of my loyalty to my country and the Tibetan government in exile, which was sorely in need of officials who were familiar with India and who could communicate in English.”
Thubten Samphel is the director of the Tibet Policy Institute and author of Falling Through the Roof.

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On October 01, Special Frontier Force celebrates 39th US President’s birthday. President Jimmy Carter, in 1977, lifted Visa and Travel Restrictions imposed upon His Holiness the Dalai Lama by 37th and 38th US Presidents.

Rudranarasimham Rebbapragada


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On this day in 1924, future President James Earl Carter is born in Plains, Georgia. Carter, who preferred to be called “Jimmy,” was the son of a peanut farmer and was the first president to be born in a hospital. Carter was raised a devoted Southern Baptist and graduated from the Naval Academy in Annapolis, Maryland, in 1946. He married Rosalynn Smith later that year.
After graduation, Carter served in the Navy’s new nuclear submarine program and was looking forward to a career in the Navy when his father passed away in 1953. The Carters dutifully returned to Georgia and took over the family farm. Back in Plains, Carter became involved in local politics, serving first on the school board and working his way up to a seat on the George State Planning Commission. In 1962, he was elected to the George Senate and, nine years later, he became governor.
A liberal Democrat, Carter launched a campaign against Republican presidential incumbent Gerald Ford in 1974, when the American electorate was still reeling from the Vietnam War, which ended in 1973, and former President Richard Nixon’s involvement in the Watergate scandal. Ford, who assumed office immediately upon Nixon’s resignation in 1974, pardoned his former boss, enraging many who thought Nixon should have had to stand trial. Carter’s “Washington outsider” persona helped him win the White House in 1976.
Carter’s tenure as president was most notable for his alternative-energy policies, racial-equality programs and friendly overtures toward Russia. He was instrumental in brokering a peace treaty between Israel and Egypt and signed an arms-reduction treaty with the Soviet Union (SALT II). These triumphs, however, were overshadowed by his inability to lead the nation out of a crippling energy crunch caused by the OPEC oil embargo of 1973.
On top of his administration’s failure to effectively combat the energy crisis, which in turn contributed to rapidly rising inflation, Carter’s administration was forced to deal with another crisis. In 1979, an Islamist student group in Iran stormed the U.S. embassy in Teheran, holding 70 Americans hostage for 444 days. Carter’s failure to secure the release of the hostages, the ongoing recession and a growing movement toward conservatism in America contributed to Carter’s loss to Ronald Reagan in the 1980 presidential campaign.
The Carters have since stayed active in national and international affairs. In 1982, they founded the Carter Center in Atlanta to advocate for human rights and to alleviate “unnecessary human suffering” around the world. Since 1984, the Carters have given their time each year to build homes and raise awareness of homelessness with the international charitable organization Habitat for Humanity. In 2002, Carter won the prestigious Nobel Prize for his efforts to find peaceful solutions to international conflicts, to advance democracy and human rights and to promote economic and social development.
Jimmy and Rosalynn Carter live in Plains, Georgia, where the former president can still sometimes be found teaching a Sunday School class at Maranatha Baptist Church.

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On ‘This Day in History’, October 01, 1949, Communist Party Chairman Mao Zedong proclaimed the founding of People’s Republic of China with profound consequences of lives of individuals as well as nations of Asia and World.

Rudranarasimham Rebbapragada


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Cold War


Naming himself head of state, communist revolutionary Mao Zedong officially proclaims the existence of the People’s Republic of China; Zhou Enlai is named premier. The proclamation was the climax of years of battle between Mao’s communist forces and the regime of Nationalist Chinese leader Chiang Kai-Shek, who had been supported with money and arms from the American government. The loss of China, the largest nation in Asia, to communism was a severe blow to the United States, which was still reeling from the Soviet Union’s detonation of a nuclear device one month earlier.

State Department officials in President Harry S. Truman’s administration tried to prepare the American public for the worst when they released a “white paper” in August 1949. The report argued that Chiang’s regime was so corrupt, inefficient, and unpopular that no amount of U.S. aid could save it. Nevertheless, the communist victory in China brought forth a wave of criticism from Republicans who charged that the Truman administration lost China through gross mishandling of the situation. Other Republicans, notably Senator Joseph McCarthy, went further, claiming that the State Department had gone “soft” on communism; more recklessly, McCarthy suggested that there were procommunist sympathizers in the department.

The United States withheld recognition from the new communist government in China. The outbreak of the Korean War in 1950, during which communist Chinese and U.S. forces did battle, drove an even deeper wedge between the two nations. In the ensuing years, continued U.S. support of Chiang’s Republic of China, which had been established on the island of Taiwan, and the refusal to seat the People’s Republic of China at the United Nations made diplomatic relations impossible. President Richard Nixon broke the impasse with his stunning visit to communist China in February 1972. The United States extended formal diplomatic recognition in 1979.

Also on this day


Yosemite National Park established

On this day in 1890, an act of Congress creates Yosemite National Park, home of such natural wonders as Half Dome and the giant sequoia trees. Environmental trailblazer John Muir (1838-1914) and his colleagues campaigned for the congressional action, which was signed into law by President Benjamin Harrison.

Congress creates Yosemite National Park

On this day in 1890, the United States Congress decrees that about 1,500 square miles of public land in the California Sierra Nevada will be preserved forever as Yosemite National Park. Once the home to Indians whose battle cry Yo-che-ma-te (“some among them are killers”) gave the park its name.

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Goddess Sarasvati is known as the Goddess of Speech or Vag Devi and She symbolizes importance of Speech Etiquette and Speech Discipline.




Richard Lovelace(1618-1657),English Poet and Soldier


Richard Lovelace, a romantic poet was confined within the walls of Gate House, a prison in Westminster, London. From the prison, in 1642 he wrote the poem, “To Althea, from Prison.” The poem has the following famous lines:     

Stone walls do not a prison make,     

Nor iron bars a cage;     

Minds innocent and quiet take     

That for a hermitage;     

If I have freedom in my love     

And in my soul, am free,     

Angels alone, that soar above,     

Enjoy such liberty.     

Those who had confined him could not stop him from exercising his ability to think and dream. No one can imprison or enslave the human mind. A human being essentially seeks to exist in a free state and when imprisoned, the man can still set his mind free to think and dream. A mind that is free, expresses its freedom in speech, in writing, in songs and music. Speech in all of its forms conveys the ability of a man to communicate his thoughts. Fluent and coherent speech requires the formulations of propositions, which are translated into conventional symbols, earlier acquired and readily accessible, which then reach external expression by means of an efficient vocalizing apparatus. The sequences involved in efficient speech production could be interrupted at various levels to produce different types of speech defects.     


Intellectual impairment due to drugs, disease, and old age cause Speech Disorders.

Broca’s Area – Brain’s Speech Center

Co-ordination of sensory and motor functions is vital for normal Speech.

Since speech is an attribute of a free mind, it is important to understand the problems of disturbances of speech:     

1. Intellectual impairment: Speech is deranged as a result of a deficit of intellectual function which prevents organization of meaningful propositions. A person who is intoxicated cannot speak well. There are several medical conditions associated with cognitive impairment, and the level of consciousness. Apart from these problems, a person, who is uneducated as he is unwilling to learn, cannot deliver good speech. In Sanskrit language such ignorant persons are identified as ‘MOORKHA’.     

2. Dysarthria and Dysphonia: Precise enunciation of words with good volume requires normal function and co-ordination of lips, tongue, palate, and the vocal apparatus called larynx. Several medical conditions could cause a defect in motor output involved in speaking and contribute to slurring and distortion of speech.     

3. Aphasias: These are speech difficulties or absence of speech where the person has no motor disorder and the articulatory system is intact. Three major varieties of aphasias are described. a. Broca’s, motor/expressive/Non-fluent aphasia: Broca’s area of brain produces verbs, builds sentences and predicts what people are going to say. Problems in this area makes the person’s speech non-fluent as the person has profound word finding difficulties. The person speaks slowly and with great effort. The speech is described as ‘telegraphic’ because it has no grammatic structure and small connecting words (e.g., and, or, but), are missing. The person comprehends well. The person can formulate thoughts in appropriate words i.e. internal speech is preserved, but is unable to translate them into corresponding sounds. b. Wernicke’s/Sensory/Receptive/fluent aphasia: Wernicke’s area of brain is involved in learning patterns corresponding to different types of auditory stimulation. It attaches meanings, images, and feelings to sounds and to individual words. Problems in this area would result in severe impairment in comprehension of language (both spoken and written). The person speaks fluently with ease and often in large amounts. However, the speech often goes in circles(circumlocutory) and contains incorrect word usages(paraphasia). The person fails to understand or carry out spoken instructions. Internal speech is disturbed and hence there is impairment of external speech. The person cannot understand what he hears. c. Conductive aphasia:  The nerve fibers between Broca’s and Wernicke’s areas are involved in this type of problem. The person has trouble converting auditory input to verbal output. It is characterized by a marked inability to repeat words or phrases spoken to the person. d. Dyslexia and Alexia:  Impairment of reading ability in individuals with normal intelligence either due to a developmental disorder or due to acquired brain lesions.     

Eloquent Speech is comparable to free-flowing water, the words come out continuously without any apparent effort.


A normal healthy person with normal intelligence and abilities to speak, write, read, and sing may not automatically become a fluent speaker. Human mind needs to exist in a ‘fluid’ state to maintain and sustain a high state of alertness and activity. Mental lethargy is described in Sanskrit language as “JYAADYAA”. The mental lethargy could be due to disease (‘ROGA’), ignorance (‘MOORKHA’), or could be due to a depressed condition or state of mental activity which is described in Sanskrit language as “JADATHA”. This condition of mental weakness or diminished energy is characterized by intellectual sluggishness. The mind is dull, lazy or indifferent. Whatever term is used, mental inertia, lack of interest or energy or lassitude is an important issue, and the man’s speech lacks the fluency and the mind lacks the ‘fluidity’ that is needed for coordinating activities. Very often, man creates ‘mental barriers’, and erects ‘mental fences’ and impedes his own intellect from generating creative thoughts and in expressing such thoughts through creative forms of speech and music. There should be no obstacles to the flow of thoughts and to its physical expression. In its natural state, a river flows without any impediments and that ‘fluid’ flowing state is important for effective human communications.     

The Concept of ‘Mental Fluidity’ is very important to appreciate Eloquent Speech. Eloquence has a charming quality of its own, it is pleasing to the ears of the listeners and captivates the minds of the members of the audience. Speech should make the same impact in terms of its appeal like a scenic picture.

Kunda’s whiteness symbolizes Purity. White Lotus symbolizes Purity.  White and radiant personality symbolizes Purity.

Indian Traditions about Letters, Speech, Arts and Music:     

Mind if it is responding slowly, a condition of ‘mental lethargy’ described as ‘Buddhi Mandhyam’, the man cannot realize his creative potential in the field of letters, speech, arts, and music. The Vedic River of Sarasvati is personified as the patron Goddess of Speech (‘VAC or VAK’). Sarasvati enjoys a unique autonomous position and apart from man, the entire Hindu pantheon of Gods pay obeisance to Her and seek Her protection to destroy and dissolve the problem of mental lethargy which impairs mental activity. The mind of man cannot be set free unless the mental barriers and mental fences are totally eradicated and Sarasvati can flow in its natural state without impediments.     


Jasminum multiflorum, ‘KUNDA’, Star Jasmine, Native of India.

Moon, ‘INDU’ and the radiant personality of Sarasvati.

‘TUSHAAR’, Snow clad peaks of Himalayas, the abode of Snow and Ice.

‘VEENA’, stringed musical instrument, native to South India.

Nelumbo nucifera, White Lotus flower, ‘Shwetha Padma’, Native of India.

The Divine Trinity, Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva join to worship the Goddess of Knowledge and Wisdom.

The Rig Vedic River Sarasvati, the source of pure, nourishing waters. The Sanskrit language and the Devanagari script originated here.

Sarasvati, the destroyer of Mental Inertia and Lethargy.

Bhagavatee, Facilitator of man’s journey from Reality to Ultimate Reality.

‘AUM’, the Sound Invocation for Sarasvati Vandana.




Ya Kundendu Tushar hara dhavala,     

Ya Shubhra vastraavritha,     

Ya Veena vara danda manditakara,     

Ya Shwetha Padma Sanaa,     

Ya Brahma Achyutha Sankara prabhrithi bhih     

Devai sadaa poojitha(Vanditha)     

Saa Maam patu Sarasvati, Bhagavatee     

Nihshyesha jyaadyaapaha.     

Sarasvati is defined as “Saaram vaati iti Sarasvati”, She who flows towards the Absolute is Sarasvati. For river-like streaming and fluent speech the blessings of Sarasvati would help and the mind is set free by the fluid motion of River.     

Shevata Padma  – Symbolizes Purity, Creativity, and Nourishing Qualities

Rudranarasimham Rebbapragada   

Ann Arbor, Michigan, U.S.A.,


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