THE EXILED TIBETAN RULER LIVES IN THE HEARTS OF NATIVE TIBETANS

The Official Enthronement Ceremony of the 14th Dalai Lama in Lhasa.
THE EXILED TIBETAN RULER LIVES IN THE HEARTS OF NATIVE TIBETANS

Six decades ago, the Supreme Ruler of Tibet, His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama was forced to live in exile. He still lives in the hearts of native Tibetans of Occupied Tibet.

Rudranarasimham Rebbapragada

SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE

Clipped from: https://www.reuters.com/article/us-china-tibet-idUSKBN1QT32M

After 60 years in exile, Dalai Lama’s still remembered in his homeland

Philip Wen

TAKTSER, China (Reuters) – It may have been six decades since the Dalai Lama fled into exile, but in the isolated mountain hamlet where he was born, he remains very much on the minds of devotees and Chinese authorities alike.

The Exiled Tibetan Ruler lives in the hearts of the Native Tibetans in Occupied Tibet.

Buddhist monks enter a prayer hall at Rongwo Monastery in the largely ethnic Tibetan town of Rebkong, Qinghai province, China March 9, 2019. The picture was taken on March 9, 2019. REUTERS/Thomas Peter

On the northeastern edge of the Tibetan plateau, Taktser, in Qinghai province, where the Dalai Lama was born in 1935 to parents who farmed buckwheat and barley, is a magnet to worshippers and foreign tourists – and security personnel.

During a recent Reuters visit to Taktser, known in Chinese as Hongya, police armed with automatic weapons blocked the winding road leading into the village of some 60 houses.

The Exiled Tibetan Ruler Lives in the hearts of the Native Tibetans in Occupied Tibet.
The Exiled Tibetan Ruler Lives in the hearts of the Native Tibetans in Occupied Tibet.
The Exiled Tibetan Ruler Lives in the hearts of the Native Tibetans in Occupied Tibet.

Police and more than a dozen plain-clothed officials who declined to identify themselves refused Reuters entry, saying the village was private and not open to the public.

The Qinghai government and China’s State Council Information Office, which doubles as the Communist Party’s spokesman’s office, did not respond to requests for comment.

Beijing views the Nobel Peace Prize laureate as a dangerous separatist and has denounced the 83-year-old spiritual leader as a “wolf in monk’s robes”. The Dalai Lama denies espousing violence and says he only wants genuine autonomy for Tibet.

The Exiled Tibetan Ruler Lives in the hearts of the Native Tibetans in Occupied Tibet.

Many of China’s more than 6 million Tibetans still venerate the Dalai Lama, despite government prohibitions on displays of his picture or any public display of devotion.

This Sunday marks 60 years since the Dalai Lama, disguised as a soldier, fled the Potala Palace in Lhasa, the Tibetan capital after rumors that Chinese troops were planning his abduction or assassination fomented an abortive popular uprising.

The Dalai Lama crossed into India two weeks later and has not set foot in Tibet since.

Despite the passage of time, during sensitive political anniversaries, China’s security apparatus routinely restricts access to the village where the Dalai Lama’s old family is located, behind a pair of wooden doors and high concrete walls.

‘IN YOUR HEART’

One 29-year-old Tibetan man in the largely ethnic Tibetan town of Rebkong, set in a precipitous valley in Qinghai with a large monastery adorned in rich colors, enthusiastically recounted to Reuters his pilgrimage to Taktser years ago.

He said Tibetans were well aware of the upcoming 60th anniversary of the Dalai Lama’s exile, even if public commemorations of any sort were banned.

“You can only bury it in your heart, we just don’t speak about it,” he said, declining to be identified due to the sensitivity of the matter.

“We have no ability to go against politics, we can only just go with society.”

Born Lhamo Thondup, the Dalai Lama was just two years old when identified by a search party as the new incarnation of Tibet’s most important spiritual leader, and was whisked from the family home to live in Lhasa.

The anniversary of his escape over the mountains into exile in India is one of several politically sensitive dates in China this year, including the 30th anniversary of the crackdown on pro-democracy demonstrators in Tiananmen Square in June, that the ruling Communist Party wants to ensure passes without controversy.

Speaking on the sidelines of China’s annual meeting of parliament this month, Tibet’s Communist Party chief Wu Yingjie said the Tibetan people felt greater affection toward the government than the Dalai Lama, who “hasn’t done a single good thing for the people of Tibet”.

As the Dalai Lama ages, many Tibetans fear that Beijing will simply appoint its own replacement.

The Dalai Lama has suggested that his incarnation might be found outside Chinese-controlled territory, or that the centuries-old Dalai Lama institution could die with him.

The Exiled Tibetan Ruler Lives in the Hearts of the Native Tibetans in Occupied Tibet.


A Buddhist monk walks outside Rongwo Monastery in the largely ethnic Tibetan town of Rebkong, Qinghai province, China March 9, 2019. The Picture was taken on March 9, 2019. REUTERS/Thomas Peter
The Exiled Tibetan Ruler Lives in the Hearts of the Native Tibetans in Occupied Tibet.


Monks walk in the Tibetan Buddhist Kumbum Monastery outside Xining, Qinghai province, China March 10, 2019. The picture was taken on March 10, 2019. REUTERS/Thomas Peter
The Exiled Tibetan Ruler Lives in the Hearts of the Native Tibetans in Occupied Tibet.


A monk circles the Tibetan Buddhist Kumbum Monastery during a prayer ritual outside Xining, Qinghai province, China March 10, 2019. The picture was taken on March 10, 2019. REUTERS/Thomas Peter

Reporting by Philip Wen; Editing by Tony Munroe, Robert Birsel

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TIBET: THE UNTOLD STORY

TIBET: THE UNTOLD STORY

Tibet: The Untold Story. The Land and its People exploited by the Military Occupier.

While the world pays due attention to the flight of His Holiness the Dalai Lama in 1959, I remind my readers to reflect upon the lives of countless number of innocent Tibetans who lost their lives on account of the brutal and oppressive Communist Regime. Apart from the people, Tibet is ruthlessly exploited and plundered by the military Occupier of Tibet.

Rudranarasimham Rebbapragada

SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE

Pictures: the Tibetan uprising and the Dalai Lama’s exile — Quartz

Clipped from: https://qz.com/1568762/pictures-the-tibetan-uprising-and-the-dalai-lamas-exile/

Today (March 10) marks the 60th anniversary of the 1959 Tibet uprising against Chinese rule. The rebellion ultimately failed, leading to the decades-long exile of the 14th Dalai Lama, the Tibetan Buddhist spiritual leader.

In the six decades since he escaped to India, the Dalai Lama has evolved into an international icon of nonviolence and spiritual aspirations, traveling frequently and being hosted by political and religious leaders as well as celebrities around the world.

Here is a look at his journey from living among his people at age 23 to his status now as an 83-year-old man unable to return home.

Tibet: The Untold Story. The Land and its People exploited by the Military Occupier.

AP Photo

Chinese Red Army troops fire heavy artillery guns in Lhasa Valley, Tibet, on March 17, 1959, crushing a Tibetan uprising against the Chinese occupation.

AFP/Getty Images

Tibetans gather during armed uprising against Chinese rule March 10, 1959, in front of the Potala Palace (former home of the Dalai Lama) in Lhasa.

Tibet: The Land and its People exploited by the Military Occupier.

AP Photo

The 23-year-old Dalai Lama and his escape party is shown on the fourth day of their flight to freedom as they cross the Zsagola pass, in Southern Tibet, while being pursued by Chinese military forces, on March 21, 1959, after fleeing Lhasa.

Tibet: The Untold Story. The Land and its People exploited by the Military Occupier.

AFP/Getty Images

Tibetan monks, surrounded by soldiers of the Chinese Popular Liberation Army, lay down arms in April 1959, somewhere in the Tibetan mountains after an unsuccessful armed uprising against Chinese rule.

Tibet: The Untold Story. The Land and its People exploited by the Military Occupier.

AP Photo

An Indian official greets the Dalai Lama on the latter’s arrival at a military camp on the frontier of Assam April 18, 1959, in India.

Tibet: The Untold Story. The Land and its People exploited by the Military Occupier.

AP Photo


Armed with a sword, a member of the Dalai Lama’s Tibetan bodyguard is shown at Birla House, Missouri, India, April 21, 1959.

AP Photo

The Dalai Lama of Tibet poses with his hosts, the wealthy Indian Birla brothers and their families April 28, 1959, at Birla house, Mussoorie, India.

AP Photo

The Dalai Lama of Tibet, right, sitting under a portrait of the Buddha, inaugurates the 2,503rd birthday of the Buddha at Birla House in Mussoorie, India on May 22, 1959.

AP Photo

The Dalai Lama at a press conference on June 25, 1959.

AP Photo/Fred Waters

The Dalai Lama of Tibet visits the Taj Mahal in Agra, India on Dec. 8, 1959.

AP Photo

Behind rain-spattered window of car bearing him to his Tokyo hotel, the Dalai Lama greets crowd at the city’s International Airport after arrival from India on Sept. 25, 1967.

AP Photo

The Dalai Lama converted about 2,000 Hindu untouchables to Buddhism at a colorful ceremony in New Delhi on March 11, 1973.

AP Photo/Gene Kramer

Tibet’s Dalai Lama in Simla, India on Oct. 24, 1978, as he nears his 20th anniversary in exile from his native homeland of Tibet.

AP Photo/T. Matsumoto

Welcomed in Tokyo in 1978.

AP Photo/Dan Grossi

Television talk show host Tom Snyder shares a joke with the Dalai Lama during the taping of NBC’s “Tomorrow” show in New York, Sept. 5, 1979.

AP Photo/Robert H. Houston

The Dalai Lama met with then-San Francisco Mayor Diane Feinstein and her fiancé Richard Blum at San Francisco City Hall, Sept. 26, 1979.

AP Photo

Pope John Paul II shakes hands with Dalai Lama, exiled spiritual leader of more than 6 million Tibetans, during a private meeting in Vatican City in Oct. 9, 1980.

AP Photo/Sondeep Shankar

Tibetan spiritual and political leader Dalai Lama offers a scarf during a special prayer meeting Oct. 7, 1987, in the Himalayan foothill town Dharmasala for the estimated 14 dead during the unrest in Lhasa, the Tibetan capital.

AP Photo/Neal Ulevich

The ruins of a Tibetan Buddhist monastery sit on a hill outside Lhasa, July 16, 1985. Before the 1959 revolt against China and the subsequent chaos of the 1966-76 Cultural Revolution, Tibet had more than 2,700 monasteries.

AP Photo/Dave Caulkin

Mother Teresa of Calcutta meets with the Dalai Lama, at the Global Survival Conference in Oxford, England April 12, 1988.

AP Photo/Reed Saxon

The Dalai Lama of Tibet is flanked by actor and activist Richard Gere, left, and model and actress Cindy Crawford, at a dinner to benefit the American Himalayan Foundation at the Beverly Wilshire Hotel in Beverly Hills, California on Sept. 17, 1993.

Reuters

The Dalai Lama waves to the crowd at the Smithsonian Folklife Festival on the mall in Washington on July 2, 2000.

Reuters/Mike Segar

The Dalai Lama, speaks to a crowd estimated at over 40,000 in New York’s Central Park on Aug. 15, 1999.

Reuters/David Gray

The Dalai Lama speaks to a large crowd in Sydney on May 26, 2002.

Reuters/Claro Cortes IV

Chinese military police keep watch on the roof of Potala Palace in Lhasa on Aug. 12, 2002.

Reuters/Boris Roessler/Pool

The Dalai Lama salutes a crowd near Frankfurt, Germany on Sept. 22, 2007.

Reuters/Rupak De Chowdhuri

Tibetan monks take part in a candle light rally on the outskirts of the Indian city of Siliguri in support of the protests in Tibet on March 15, 2008.

Reuters/Adnan Abidi

Police arrest a Tibetan exile outside the Chinese embassy in New Delhi on March 17, 2008.

Reuters/Adnan Abidi

Tibetan monks shout slogans during a protest in New Delhi on March 17, 2008.

Reuters/Shannon Stapleton

The Dalai Lama greets Buddhist monks before a teaching session at Radio City Music Hall in New York on May 20, 2010.

Reuters

The Dalai Lama poses for a picture with the students of a Tibetan school after inaugurating its auditorium at Gurupura in the southern Indian state of Karnataka on July 14, 2013.

Reuters

A young Tibetan monk holds a portrait of the Dalai Lama, during celebrations marking his 80th birthday anniversary in the northern hill town of Dharamsala, India on July 6, 2015.

Reuters/Anuwar Hazarika

The Dalai Lama waves to his followers before delivering teachings at the Thupsung Dhargyeling Monastery in Dirang, in the northeastern state of Arunachal Pradesh, India on April 6, 2017.

Tibet: The Untold Story. The Land and its People exploited by the Military Occupier.

Reuters/Arnd Wiegmann

Dalai Lama arrives for his visit to the Tibet Institute Rikon in Rikon, Switzerland on Sept. 21, 2018.

Tibet: The Untold Story. The Land and its People exploited by the Military Occupier.


 

TENTH DAY OF MARCH TRIBUTE TO MARTYRS OF TIBETAN RESISTANCE

TENTH DAY OF MARCH TRIBUTE TO MARTYRS OF TIBETAN RESISTANCE

Tenth Day of March Tribute to all the Martyrs of Tibetan Resistance.

On Sunday, March 10, 2019, The Living Tibetan Spirits of Special Frontier Force pay their respectful tribute to all the Martyrs of Tibetan Resistance.

Rudranarasimham Rebbapragada

SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE

Tibet Supporters Mark 60th Anniversary of Failed Uprising Against China

Clipped from: https://www.voanews.com/a/tibet-supporters-mark-60th-anniversary-of-failed-uprising-against-china/4822018.html

Activists hold Tibetan flags during a march to mark the 60th anniversary of Tibetan uprising against Chinese rule, in Taipei, Taiwan, March 10, 2019.

Sunday marks the 60th anniversary of Tibet’s failed uprising against China.

The abortive mission forced the Dalai Lama, Tibet’s traditional Buddhist leader, into exile in mountainous Dharamsala, in India, where he established a Tibetan government-in-exile.

He launched his campaign for a free Tibet from Dharamsala. His efforts earned him worldwide respect and fame as an adherent of non-violence.

He won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1989.

FILE – Tibetan spiritual leader the Dalai Lama wears the ceremonial hat of the Gelug school of the Tibetan Buddhism as he prays during his religious talk at the Tsuglakhang temple in Dharmsala, India, March 2, 2018.

The 83-year-old Dalai Lama continues to live in Dharamsala.

Devotees at the Dalai Lama’s temple in Dharamsala observed the anniversary Sunday with chants and prayers. Some had painted “Free Tibet” on their faces.

A photo exhibit entitled “60 Years of Tibetan Resistance” is on display at the Tibet museum in Dharamsala.

A march, marking the anniversary, was planned in New Delhi, India’s capital.

Under Chinese rule, critics say Tibet’s unique cultural heritage and language are slowly fading away.

China insists that Tibet has been under Chinese rule for centuries, but Tibetans insist they were essentially independent for most of that time.

An editorial in China’s official Xinhua News Agency said Saturday that under China’s rule Tibet has experienced economic growth, increased lifespans and improved education.

Xinhua said “Sixty years since the epoch-making democratic reform in Tibet, people… have enjoyed unprecedented human rights in history.”

Tibet monitoring groups, however, disagree with that assessment.

The International Tibet Network said in a statement that “China has ridden roughshod over the human and political rights of citizens under its rule for far too long.” It added: “With resistance by the Tibetan people so strong and vibrant, it’s time for a response from the international community that matches their courage and conviction.”

Tenth Day of March Tribute to all the Martyrs of Tibetan Resistance.


 

THE SUPREME RULER OF TIBET IS LIVING IN EXILE FOR 60 YEARS

THE SUPREME RULER OF TIBET IS TRAPPED IN EXILE FOR 60 YEARS
The Supreme Ruler of Tibet is Living in Exile for Sixty Years.

On Saturday, March 09, 2019 I want to remind my readers that the Supreme Ruler of Tibet is trapped in exile for sixty years. My concern is not about the Face of Tibetan Buddhism. I am talking about the Face of Tibetan Ruler.

Rudranarasimham Rebbapragada

SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE

The Dalai Lama on Donald Trump, China and His Search for Joy | Time

Clipped from: http://time.com/longform/dalai-lama-60-year-exile/

The Supreme Ruler of Tibet is Living in Exile for Sixty Years.

Morning has broken on the cedar-strewn foothills of the Himalayas. His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama sits in meditation in his private chapel in Dharamsala, a ramshackle town perched on the upper reaches of North India’s Kangra Valley. Rousing slowly, he unfolds his legs with remarkable agility for a man of 83, finds the red felt slippers placed neatly beneath his seat and heads outside to where a crowd has already gathered.

Around 300 people brave the February chill to offer white khata scarves and receive the Dalai Lama’s blessing. There’s a group from Bhutan in traditional checkered dress. A man from Thailand has brought his Liverpool F.C. scarf, seeking divine benediction for the U.K. soccer team’s title bid. Two women lose all control as they approach the Dalai Lama’s throne and are carried away shaking in rapture, clutching prayer beads and muttering incantations.

The Dalai Lama engages each visitor like a big kid: slapping bald pates, grabbing onto one devotee’s single braid, waggling another’s nose. Every conversation is peppered with giggles and guffaws. “We 7 billion human beings — emotionally, mentally, physically — are the same,” he tells TIME in a 90-minute interview. “Everyone wants a joyful life.”

The Supreme Ruler of Tibet is Living in Exile for Sixty Years.

Ruven Afanador for TIME

His own has reached a critical point. The Dalai Lama is considered a living Buddha of compassion, a reincarnation of the bodhisattva Chenrezig, who renounced Nirvana in order to help mankind. The title originally only signified the preeminent Buddhist monk in Tibet, a remote land about twice the size of Texas that sits veiled behind the Himalayas. But starting in the 17th century, the Dalai Lama also wielded full political authority over the secretive kingdom. That changed with Mao Zedong’s conquest of Tibet, which brought the rule of the current Dalai Lama to an end. On March 17, 1959, he was forced to escape to India.

In the six decades since, the leader of the world’s most secluded people has become the most recognizable face of a religion practiced by nearly 500 million people worldwide. But his prominence extends beyond the borders of his own faith, with many practices endorsed by Buddhists, like mindfulness and meditation, permeating the lives of millions more around the world. What’s more, the lowly farmer’s son named as a “God-King” in his childhood has been embraced by the West since his exile. He won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1989 and was heralded in Martin Scorcese’s 1997 biopic. The cause of Tibetan self-rule remains alive in Western minds thanks to admirers ranging from Richard Gere to the Beastie Boys to Democratic House Speaker Nancy Pelosi, who calls him a “messenger of hope for millions of people around the world.”

Yet as old age makes travel more difficult, and as China’s political clout has grown, the Dalai Lama’s influence has waned. Today the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) that drove him out of Tibet is working to co-opt Buddhist principles — as well as the succession process itself. Officially atheist, the party has proved as adaptive to religion as it is to capitalism, claiming a home for faith in the nationalism Beijing has activated under Xi Jinping. In January, the CCP announced it would “Sinicize” Buddhism over the next five years, completing a multimillion-dollar rebranding of the faith as an ancient Chinese religion.

The Supreme Ruler of Tibet is Living in Exile for Sixty Years.

The Dalai Lama delivers a lecture from his throne on Feb. 18 to mark Losar, the Tibetan new year.

Ruven Afanador for TIME

From Pakistan to Myanmar, Chinese money has rejuvenated ancient Buddhist sites and promoted Buddhist studies. Beijing has spent $3 billion transforming the Nepalese town of Lumbini, birthplace of Lord Buddha, into a luxury pilgrimage site, boasting an airport, hotels, convention center, temples and a university. China has hosted World Buddhist Forums since 2006, inviting monks from all over the world.

Although not, of course, the world’s most famous. Beijing still sees the Dalai Lama as a dangerous threat and swiftly rebukes any nation that entertains him. That appears to be working too. Once the toast of capitals around the world, the Dalai Lama has not met a world leader since 2016. Even India, which has granted asylum to him as well as to about 100,000 other Tibetans, is not sending senior representatives to the diaspora’s commemoration of his 60th year in exile, citing a “very sensitive time” for bilateral relations with Beijing. Every U.S. President since George H.W. Bush has made a point of meeting the Dalai Lama until Donald Trump, who is in negotiations with China over reforming its state-controlled economy.

Still, the Dalai Lama holds out hope for a return to his birthplace. Despite his renown and celebrity friends, he remains a man aching for home and a leader removed from his people. Having retired from “political responsibility” within the exiled community in 2011, he merely wants “the opportunity to visit some holy places in China for pilgrimage,” he tells TIME. “I sincerely just want to serve Chinese Buddhists.”

Despite that, the CCP still regards the Dalai Lama as a “wolf in monk’s robes” and a dangerous “splittist,” as Chinese officials call him. He has rejected calls for Tibetan independence since 1974 — acknowledging the geopolitical reality that any settlement must keep Tibet within the People’s Republic of China. He instead advocates for greater autonomy and religious and cultural freedom for his people. It matters little.

“It’s hard to believe a return would happen at this point,” says Gray Tuttle, a professor of modern Tibetan studies at Columbia. “China holds all the cards.”

The Supreme Ruler of Tibet is Living in Exile for Sixty Years.

The boy born Lhamo Thondup was identified as the 14th incarnation of the Dalai Lama at just 2 years old, when a retinue of top lamas, or senior Buddhist Tibetan monks, followed a series of oracles and prophecies to his village in northeastern Tibet. The precocious toddler seemed to recognize objects belonging to the 13th Dalai Lama, prompting the lamas to proclaim him the celestial heir. At age 4, he was carried on a golden palanquin into the Tibetan capital, Lhasa, and ensconced in its resplendent Potala Palace. A daily routine of spiritual teaching by top religious scholars followed.

“Sometimes my tutor kept a whip to threaten me,” the Dalai Lama recalls, smiling. “The whip was yellow in color, as it was for a holy person, the Dalai Lama. But I knew that if the whip was used, it made no difference — holy pain!”

It was a lonely childhood. The Dalai Lama rarely saw his parents and had no contact with peers of his own age, save his elder brother Lobsang Samden, who served as head of household. Despite his tutors’ focus on spiritual matters, or perhaps because of it, he was fascinated by science and technology. He would gaze from the Potala’s roof at Lhasa street life through a telescope. He took apart and reassembled a projector and camera to see how they functioned. “He continually astonished me by his powers of comprehension, his pertinacity and his industry,” wrote the Austrian mountaineer Heinrich Harrer, who became the Dalai Lama’s tutor and was one of six Europeans permitted to live in Lhasa at the time. Today the Dalai Lama proudly describes himself as “half Buddhist monk, half scientist.”

The Dalai Lama was only supposed to assume a political role on his 18th birthday, with a regent ruling until then. But the arrival of Mao’s troops to reclaim dominion over Tibet in 1950 caused the Tibetan government to give him full authority at just 15. With no political experience or knowledge of the outside world, he was thrust into negotiations with an invading army while trying to calm his fervent but poorly armed subjects.

Conditions worsened over the next nine years of occupation. Chinese proclamations calling Lord Buddha a “reactionary” enraged a pious populace of 2.7 million. By March 1959, rumors spread that the Dalai Lama would be abducted or assassinated, fomenting a doomed popular uprising that looked likely to spill into serious bloodshed. “Just in front of the Potala [Palace], on the other side of the river, there was a Chinese artillery division,” the Dalai Lama recalls. “Previously all the guns were covered, but around the 15th or 16th, all the covers were removed. So, then we knew it was very serious. On the 17th morning, I decided to escape.”

The two-week journey to India was fraught, as Chinese troops hunted the party across some of the world’s most unforgiving terrain. The Dalai Lama reached India incognito atop a dzo, a cross between a yak and a cow. Every building in which he slept en route was immediately consecrated as a chapel, but the land he left behind was ravaged by Mao’s disastrous Great Leap Forward and Cultural Revolution. Hundreds of thousands died. By some reckonings, 99.9% of the country’s 6,400 monasteries were destroyed.

Tibet’s desire to remain isolated and undisturbed had served it poorly. The kingdom had no useful allies, the government of Lhasa having declined to establish official diplomatic relations with any other nation or join international organizations. The Dalai Lama’s supplications were thus easy to ignore. Tibet had remained staunchly neutral during World War II, and the U.S. was already mired in a fresh conflict on the Korean Peninsula.

“[First Indian Prime Minister] Pandit Nehru told me, ‘America will not fight the Chinese communists in order to liberate Tibet, so sooner or later you have to talk with the Chinese government,'” the Dalai Lama recalls.

The Supreme Ruler of Tibet is Living in Exile for Sixty Years.

Around 300 devotees line up early at Tsuglagkhang temple to offer the Dalai Lama traditional khata scarves and to receive his blessing.

Ruven Afanador for TIME

When Tibetans first followed the Dalai Lama into India, they lived with bags packed and did not build proper houses, believing a glorious return would come at a moment’s notice. It never did.

Four decades of conversations between China and exiled Tibetan leadership have led nowhere. Consolatory talks began in the 1970s between the Dalai Lama’s envoys and reformist Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping and continued under Deng’s successor, Jiang Zemin. The talks stipulated that Tibetan independence was off the table, but even so, the drawn-out process was suspended in 1994 and after briefly resuming in the 2000s is again at a standstill.

Meanwhile, Tibet remains firmly under the thumb of Beijing. The U.N. High Commissioner for Human Rights has lamented that conditions are “fast deteriorating” in the region. In May, Tibetan businessman Tashi Wangchuk was jailed for five years merely for promoting the Tibetan language. In December, the government issued a directive to stop Tibetan language and culture from being taught in monasteries. Once known as the “abode of the gods,” Lhasa has become a warren of neon and concrete like any other Chinese city. Although the U.S. officially recognizes Tibet as part of China, Vice President Mike Pence said in July that the Tibetan people “have been brutally repressed by the Chinese government.”

Many allege their cultural and religious freedom is under attack by the Beijing government. Some in Tibet resort to extreme measures to protest their treatment. Since 2009, more than 150 Tibetans — monks, nuns and ordinary civilians — have set themselves ablaze in protest. Often self-immolators exalt the Dalai Lama with their final breaths. Despite his message of nonviolence, the Dalai Lama has been criticized for refusing to condemn the practice. “It’s a very difficult situation,” he says. “If I criticize [self-immolators], then their family members may feel very sad.” He adds, however, that their sacrifice has “no effect and creates more problems.”

Beijing vehemently refutes accusations of human-rights violations in Tibet, insisting that it fully respects the religious and cultural rights of the Tibetan people, and highlights how development has raised living standards in the previously isolated and impoverished land. China has spent more than $450 million renovating Tibet’s major monasteries and religious sites since the 1980s, according to official figures, with $290 million more budgeted through 2023. The world’s No. 2 economy has also greenlighted massive infrastructure projects worth $97 billion, with new airports and highways carving through the world’s highest mountains, nominally to boost the prosperity of the 6 million ethnic Tibetans.

This level of investment presents a dilemma to Tibetans stranded in exile. The majority live in India, under a special “guest” arrangement by which they can work and receive an education but, crucially, not buy property. Many toil as roadside laborers or make trinkets to sell to tourists. And so large numbers of young Tibetans are making the choice to return, lured to a homeland they have never known. “If you want a safe and secure future for your children, then either you go back to Tibet or some other country where you can get citizenship,” says Dorji Kyi, director of the Lha NGO in Dharamsala, which supports Tibetan exiles.

The Supreme Ruler of Tibet is Living in Exile for Sixty Years.

At 83, the Buddhist leader reflects on a life spent away from his native Tibet.

Ruven Afanador for TIME

Many of the returnees are armed with better education and world experience than their peers who grew up in Tibet. “Some of them do well,” says Thupten Dorjee, president of Tibetan Children’s Village, a network of five orphanages and eight schools that has cared for 52,000 young Tibetans in India. “But if they get involved in political things then they land into trouble.”

Tibet still has a government-in-exile, the Central Tibetan Administration (CTA) in Dharamsala, but it is dogged by infighting and scandal. Exiles are instead forging their own path. Last September, the Dalai Lama himself was filmed at his temple telling young Tibetans that it was better to live under Beijing’s rule than stay as “beggars” in exile. Speaking to TIME, he said it was “no problem” if exiled Tibetans chose to return to China.

Even those who have achieved prosperity elsewhere are opting to return. Songtsen Gyalzur, 45, sold his real estate business in Switzerland, where his Tibet-born parents immigrated after first fleeing to India, to start China’s Shangri-La Highland Craft Brewery in 2014. Today his award-winning brewery has an annual capacity of 2.6 million gallons of lagers, ales and porters. He recruits 80% of the staff from orphanages his mother set up in Tibetan areas in the 1990s. “Tibet has so many well-educated, well-trained professionals abroad who a real impact on people’s lives could have here,” he says.

Despite the “Lost Horizon” legend, the kingdom was never a spiritual and agrarian utopia. Most residents lived a Hobbesian existence. Nobles were strictly ranked in seven classes, with only the Dalai Lama belonging to the first. Few commoners had any sort of education. Modern medicine was forbidden, especially surgery, meaning even minor ailments were fatal. The sick was typically treated with a gruel of barley meal, butter and the urine of a holy monk. Life expectancy was 36 years. Criminals had limbs amputated and cauterized in boiling butter. Even the wheel wasn’t commonly employed, given the dearth of passable roads.

The Dalai Lama has admitted that Tibet was “very, very backward” and insists he would have enacted reforms. But he also emphasizes that traditional Tibetan life was more in communion with nature than the present. Tibet hosts the largest store of fresh water outside the Arctic and Antarctic, leading some environmentalists to term its frozen plateau the “third pole,” and especially vulnerable to the choking development unleashed by the Beijing government.

“Global warming does not make any sort of exception — just this continent or that continent, or this nation or that nation,” the Dalai Lama says. Asked who is responsible for fixing the crisis, he points not to Beijing but to Washington. “America, as a leading nation of the free world, should take more serious consideration about global issues.”

The Supreme Ruler of Tibet is Living in Exile for Sixty Years.

The Dalai Lama meditates in his private chapel inside his residence on Feb. 18.

Ruven Afanador for TIME

The Dalai Lama is a refreshingly unabashed figure in person. His frequent laughter and protuberant ears make him seem cuddly and inoffensive, and it’s difficult to overstate how tactile he is. He appears equally at home with both the physical and the spiritual, tradition and modernity. He meditated within reach of an iPad tuned to an image of a babbling brook and mountains and a few minutes later turned to Tibetan scriptures written on wide, single sheets, unbound. He retires at 6 p.m. and rises at 4 a.m. and spends the first hours of his day in meditation.

“Western civilization, including America, is very much oriented toward materialistic life,” he says. “But that culture generates too much stress, anxiety and jealousy, all these things. So, my No. 1 commitment is to try to promote awareness of our inner values.” From kindergarten onward, he says, children should be taught about “taking care of emotion.”

“Whether religious or not, as a human being we should learn more about our system of emotion so that we can tackle destructive emotion, in order to become calmer, have more inner peace.”

The Dalai Lama said his second commitment is to religious harmony. Conflicts in the Middle East tend to involve sectarian strife within Islam. “Iran is mainly Shi’ite. Saudi Arabia, plus their money, is Sunni. So, this is a problem,” he says, lamenting “too much narrow-mindedness” and urging people of all faiths to “broaden” their thinking.

Buddhism has its own extremists. The themes of Buddhism, as a nontheistic religion with no single creator deity, are more accessible to followers of other faiths and even ardent atheists, emphasizing harmony and mental cleanliness. But the Dalai Lama says he is “very sad” about the situation in Myanmar, where firebrand Buddhist monks have incited the genocide of Rohingya Muslims. “All religions have within them a tradition of human loving kindness,” he says, “but instead are causing violence, division.”

He keeps a sharp eye on global affairs and is happy to weigh in. Trump’s “America first” foreign policy and obsession with a wall on the southern U.S. border make him feel “uncomfortable,” he says, calling Mexico “a good neighbor” of the U.S. Britain’s impending exit from the European Union also warrants a rebuke, as he has “always admired” the E.U.

The Supreme Ruler of Tibet is Living in Exile for Sixty Years.

Six decades on, the Dalai Lama still hopes he will visit his birthplace again.

Ruven Afanador for TIME

In his ninth decade and moving with the help of assistants, the Dalai Lama continues to explore human consciousness and question long-held shibboleths. During a series of lectures in February to mark the Tibetan new year, he pontificates on everything from artificial intelligence — it can never compete with the human mind, he says — to blind deference to religious dogma. “Buddha himself told us, ‘Do not believe my teaching on faith, but rather through thorough investigation and experiment,'” he says. “So, if some teaching goes against reason, we should not accept it.”

This includes the institution of the Dalai Lama itself. Even as a young boy, his scientific mind led him to question the idea that he was the 14th incarnation of a deity king. His former tutor recalled that he found it odd that the prior Dalai Lama “was so fond of horses and that they mean so little to me.” Today the Dalai Lama says the institution he embodies appears “feudal” in nature. Leaving the spiritual element aside, he says he doesn’t believe any political authority should be conferred when he dies. “On one occasion the Dalai Lama institution started,” he says. “That means there must be one occasion when the institution is no longer relevant. Stop. No problem. This is not my concern. China’s communists, I think, are showing more concern.”

Indeed, they are. In a blow to the Tibetan exile community, China has set about bringing the leadership of Tibetan Buddhism into the party fold. When the Dalai Lama named a Tibetan child as the reincarnation of the previous Panchen Lama in 1995 — the second highest position in Tibetan Buddhism after himself — China put the boy into “protective custody” and installed a more pliant figure instead. The whereabouts of the Dalai Lama’s choice remain unknown.

So, when the Dalai Lama leaves this plane of existence, it’s highly likely a 15th incarnation will be chosen by the godless CCP. “It’s pretty obvious the Chinese state is preparing for it, which is absurd,” Tuttle says. Tibetan Buddhists will be forced to choose between the party’s Dalai Lama and the selection of Tibetan exiles. On this point, at least, the incumbent is very clear. Any decision on the next Dalai Lama, he says, should be “up to the Tibetan people.”

No doubt the party’s desire to name a Dalai Lama stems from the fact that there are 244 million Buddhists in China — a cohort that dwarfs the CCP membership by 3 to 1. The party craves legitimizing its power above all else and believes yoking it to the institution of the Dalai Lama will provide that. But Beijing clearly also hopes it will be a symbolic final nail in the coffin of Tibetan self-rule, completing the absorption of Tibet into the People’s Republic of China that began seven decades ago.

So, in a twist of irony, it seems the incumbent God-King’s wish will eventually be granted. One day a Dalai Lama will return to China — in this body or the next, with his blessing or without.

Correction, Mar. 7

A photo caption in the original version of this story misidentified a group of people waiting to see the Dalai Lama. They are devotees, not Buddhist monks.

Write to Charlie Campbell at charlie.campbell@time.com.

CHINA CAN’T HANDLE THE HEIGHTS OF TIBETAN UPRISING

CHINA CAN’T HANDLE THE HEIGHTS OF TIBETAN UPRISING

60th Anniversary of Tibetan National Uprising Day. China Can’t Handle the Heights of Tibetan Uprising.

In my analysis, China imposed travel restrictions for China can’t handle the Heights of Tibetan Uprising which is climbing to a new peak after 60-Years of pent up resentment opposing the military occupation of Tibet.

Rudranarasimham Rebbapragada

SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE

No head for heights: China defends Tibet travel restrictions | Reuters

Clipped from: https://www.reuters.com/article/us-china-parliament-tibet-idUSKCN1QN1AW

BEIJING (Reuters) – Foreigners can’t handle Tibet’s high altitude so China needs to restrict access, the top Chinese official in charge of the remote and mountainous region said on Wednesday, defending tough government restrictions on who can go there.

60th Anniversary of Tibetan National Uprising Day. China Can’t Handle the Heights of Tibetan Uprising.

Communist Party Secretary of Tibet Autonomous Region Wu Yingjie and Governor of Tibet Autonomous Region Qizhala attend a news conference during the National People’s Congress (NPC) in Beijing, China, March 6, 2019. REUTERS/Thomas Peter

Access to Tibet, which China says it “peacefully liberated” in 1950, has become another irritant in ties with the United States after President Donald Trump signed into law a Reciprocal Access to Tibet Act in December.

That seeks to press China to open the region by denying U.S. entry to officials deemed responsible for restricting access to Tibet. China has denounced the law.

Speaking on the sidelines of China’s annual meeting of parliament, Tibet’s Communist Party boss Wu Yingjie said many Americans visit Tibet, especially older ones, and some foreign tourists “meet with mishap” at high altitude.

Tibetans have been finding foreigners who have died because of the harsh conditions, he said.

“The ordinary people tell us, there’s a tent, the people inside have been dead for many days, with the lack of oxygen,” Wu said. It was not clear what he was referring to and he did not elaborate.

“After considering the special geographical and climatic conditions, we adopted a series of regulations on foreigners entering Tibet in accordance with the law. This is not only for Americans. Other foreigners also have to complete these procedures.”

Tibet’s main city, Lhasa, is at about 3,650 meters (nearly 12,000 feet). Altitude sickness can affect some people at that height.

While some foreigners thank the government for the concern and help given them, only Americans “brood” about it, Wu said.

“This is really odd. If you have the opportunity go tell this to the American people.”

Non-Chinese visitors must apply for a special permit to travel to Tibet, which is usually granted for tourists provided they travel with approved tour companies but rarely for journalists and diplomats.

The government pledged in January to make access easier for foreign tourists.

60th Anniversary of Tibetan National Uprising Day. China Can’t Handle the Heights of Tibetan Uprising.

Rights groups and overseas activists say ethnic Tibetans face widespread restrictions under Chinese rule and the U.N. High Commissioner for Human Rights said in June conditions were “fast deteriorating”.

China routinely denies such accusations and says its rule of Tibet ended serfdom and brought prosperity to what was a backward region, and that it fully respects the rights of the Tibetan people.

This year marks the 60th anniversary of a failed Tibetan uprising against Chinese rule in 1959, which resulted in Tibet’s Buddhist spiritual leader, the Dalai Lama, fleeing into exile in India.

China views the Nobel Peace laureate as a dangerous separatist. The Dalai Lama denies espousing violence and says he only wants genuine autonomy for Tibet.

Many Tibetans in China still deeply venerate the Dalai Lama, despite government restrictions on displays of his picture, especially in what China calls the Tibet Autonomous Region.

Wu said the Dalai Lama was not popular in Tibet.

“Since defecting, the Dalai Lama hasn’t done a single good thing for the people of Tibet,” he said.

“The people of Tibet have weighed things up, and really thank the Communist Party for the happy life they have brought them.”

Reporting by Michael Martina and Gao Liangping; Writing by Ben Blanchard; Editing by Robert Birsel

TIBET AWARENESS. RED CHINA A LIAR

TIBET AWARENESS. RED CHINA A LIAR

Tibet Awareness. Red China a Liar.

Red China’s military invasion and occupation of Tibet is illegal, and it has nothing to do with Tibetans support for the Dalai Lama. Red China has no justification for her Tyranny, Oppression, and Suppression of Tibetan Freedom.

Rudranarasimham Rebbapragada

SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE

Tibet Awareness. Red China a Liar.

China denies Tibet support for Dalai Lama | Daily Mail Online

Clipped from: https://www.dailymail.co.uk/wires/afp/article-6777709/China-denies-Tibet-support-Dalai-Lama.html

Tibet Awareness. Red China a Liar.

There is no widespread support for the Dalai Lama in Tibet and ordinary people are grateful to the Communist Party for “bringing them a happy life”, Chinese officials insisted Wednesday.

This week marks the 60th anniversary of a failed uprising which led to Tibet’s Buddhist spiritual leader, the Dalai Lama, fleeing into exile in India.

Beijing — which claims it “peacefully liberated” the Himalayan area — stands accused of political and religious repression in the region.

But China insists that Tibetans enjoy extensive freedoms and argues it has brought economic growth.

“Since defecting, the Dalai Lama has not done a single good thing for the Tibetan people,” Tibet party boss Wu Yingjie said during a meeting at the sidelines of China’s annual parliamentary meeting.

“Tibetan people have gratitude in their hearts. They are grateful to the Communist Party for bringing them a happy life.”

At least 150 Tibetans have set themselves on fire since 2009 to protest Beijing’s presence in Tibet, most of whom have died from their injuries.

Tibet Awareness. Red China a Liar.

China had reached out to the Dalai Lama in 2002 to negotiate but after nine rounds of dialogue that lasted through till 2010, many believed that Beijing was intentionally dragging on pointless talks, hoping international pressure over Tibet would end with the passing of the Dalai Lama.

At 83, the Nobel Peace Prize winner enjoys rapturous crowds around the world.

Many Tibetan Buddhists fear Beijing may seek to impose their choice of spiritual leader after the Dalai Lama’s death.

It is unclear how, or even whether, his successor will be named — the centuries-old practice requires senior monks to interview sometimes hundreds of young boys to see whether they recognize items that belonged to the Dalai Lama and pick one as a reincarnation.

But the 14th Dalai Lama announced in 2011 that he may be the last, seeking to preempt any attempt by China to name its own successor.

China’s officially atheist Communist Party has repeatedly said it has the right to control the process of reincarnation.

Tibet Awareness. Red China a Liar.


 

LIFE IN SHADOWS OF THE US, INDIA, AND TIBET RELATIONS

LIFE IN SHADOWS OF THE US, INDIA, AND TIBET RELATIONS

Life in Shadows of the US, India, and Tibet Relations.

I profoundly regret living my life in Shadows of the US, India, and Tibet Relations. I cherish the values of Freedom and Democracy. However, it will be an utter mistake to promote these values using undercover operations. Freedom is not about living life under the dark Shadows of Secrecy. If Democracy is about Transparency and Public Accountability, no democratically elected government should make use of Covert Operations to oppose the Tyranny and Despotism of the One-Party Communist Rule.

Rudranarasimham Rebbapragada

SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE

Life in Shadows of the US, India, and Tibet Relations.

The Shadow Circus: The CIA in Tibet

Clipped from: https://www.msn.com/en-sg/news/other/the-shadow-circus-the-cia-in-tibet/vi-BBUcMij

Duration: 48:28

The Shadow Circus: The CIA in Tibet

Life in Shadows of the US, India, and Tibet Relations.

Between 1957 and 1969 the CIA armed, financed, and helped train Tibetan guerrillas who operated first inside Tibet, and later — after the Dalai Lama’s escape to India in 1959 — from a base in Mustang, a remote corner of northwestern Nepal. This project, code-named ST Circus, was one of the CIA’s longest-running covert operations. The withdrawal of the CIA’s support in 1969 was as abrupt as its initial involvement was unexpected.

Life in Shadows of the US, India, and Tibet Relations.



 

THE MOST UNFORGETTABLE WEEK IN US HISTORY – FEBRUARY 21-27, 1972

THE MOST UNFORGETTABLE WEEK IN US HISTORY – FEBRUARY 21-27, 1972

While the US troops fight the biggest battle on February 25, 1972, near Saigon in Vietnam, the US President Richard Nixon spent time in Peking befriending the adversary, giving care and comfort to the Enemy while Americans bled on the battlefield.

Rudranarasimham Rebbapragada

SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE

U.S. troops fight the biggest battle in nearly a year – HISTORY

Clipped from: https://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/u-s-troops-fight-biggest-battle-in-nearly-a-year

U.S. troops clash with North Vietnamese forces in a major battle 42 miles east of Saigon, the biggest single U.S. engagement with an enemy force in nearly a year. The five-hour action around a communist bunker line resulted in four dead and 47 wounded, almost half the U.S. weekly casualties.



 

RICHARD NIXON VISITS CHINA. THE WEEK THAT DOOMED MY LIFE.

RICHARD NIXON VISITS CHINA. THE WEEK THAT DOOMED MY LIFE.

Richard Nixon Visits China. The Week that Doomed My Life.

My arrival in Doom Dooma, Tinsukia District, Assam, India during the Week of February 1972 marks an event that Doomed My Life.

Richard Nixon Visits China. The Week that Doomed My Life.
Richard Nixon Visits China. The Week that Doomed My Life.

I live in the United States, the Leader of the Free World, a Free Nation without any sense of hope for my future Life. I constantly experience the Misery, the Despair, the Frustration, the Disappointment, the Pain, and the Feelings of Hopelessness that describe the lives of Tibetans living in Occupied Tibet.

Rudranarasimham Rebbapragada

DOOM DOOMA DOOMSAYER

Richard Nixon visits China – HISTORY

Year1972

Richard Nixon visits China

President Richard Nixon visits the People’s Republic of China. After arriving in Beijing, the president announced that his breakthrough visit
to China is “The week that changed the world.” In meeting with Nixon, Prime Minister Zhou Enlai urged early peace in Vietnam but did not endorse North Vietnam’s political demands. North Vietnamese officials and peace negotiators took a dim view of Nixon’s trip, fearing that China and the United States would make a deal behind their backs. Nixon’s promise to reduce the U.S. military presence on Taiwan seemed to confirm North Vietnam’s fears of a Chinese-American sellout-trading U.S. military reduction in Taiwan for peace in Vietnam. Despite Hanoi’s fears, China continued to supply North Vietnam levels of aid that had increased significantly in late 1971. This aid permitted the North Vietnamese to launch a major new offensive in March 1972.

1972

Richard Nixon makes the first U.S. presidential visit to China

President Richard M. Nixon arrives in Beijing, the capital of the People’s Republic of China, on the first presidential visit to the world’s most populous nation. The U.S. federal government had formally opposed China’s communist government since it took power in 1949,

1848

Karl Marx publishes the Communist Manifesto

On February 21, 1848, The Communist Manifesto, written by Karl Marx with the assistance of Friedrich Engels, is published in London by a group of German-born revolutionary socialists known as the Communist League.

Vietnam War

1970

Kissinger begins secret negotiations with North Vietnamese

National Security Advisor Henry Kissinger begins secret peace talks with North Vietnamese representative Le Duc Tho, the fifth-ranking member of the Hanoi Politburo, at a villa outside Paris.

1972

Nixon arrives in China for talks

In an amazing turn of events, President Richard Nixon takes a dramatic first step toward normalizing relations with the communist People’s Republic of China (PRC) by traveling to Beijing for a week of talks.

© 2019 A&E Television Networks, LLC. All Rights Reserved.

Richard Nixon Visits China. The Week that Doomed My Life.

PAKISTAN – A ROGUE STATE SPONSORING TERRORISM

PAKISTAN – A ROGUE STATE SPONSORING TERRORISM

PAKISTAN IS A ROGUE STATE SPONSORING TERRORISM.

I ask the global community to join hands to condemn Pakistan, a rogue State sponsoring Terrorism. Pakistan must be held fully accountable for this terrorist attack on India on Thursday, February 14, 2019.

Rudranarasimham Rebbapragada

SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE

India’s Modi warns Pakistan of strong response to Kashmir attack – bdnews24.com

Clipped from: https://bdnews24.com/neighbours/2019/02/16/india-s-modi-warns-pakistan-of-strong-response-to-kashmir-attack

  • India’s Prime Minister Narendra Modi pays tribute as he stands next to the coffins containing the remains of Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) personnel who were killed after a suicide bomber rammed a car into a bus carrying them in south Kashmir on Thursday, at Palam airport in New Delhi, India, February 15, 2019. India’s Press Information Bureau/Handout via REUTERS

India’s Prime Minister Narendra Modi warned Pakistan on Friday to expect a strong response to a suicide attack that killed 44 paramilitary policemen in Kashmir, ratcheting up tension between the nuclear-armed neighbours.

The car bomb attack on a security convoy on Thursday was the worst in decades of insurgency in the disputed region. India said it had “incontrovertible evidence” of Pakistani involvement, a statement quickly rejected by Islamabad.

“We will give a befitting reply, our neighbor will not be allowed to destabilize us,” Modi said in a speech, after meeting security advisers to discuss options.

The attack comes months before national elections in India.

The Pakistan-based Islamist militant group Jaish-e-Mohammad (JeM) claimed responsibility soon after a suicide bomber rammed an explosives-laden car into a bus carrying police personnel.

India has for years accused Muslim Pakistan of backing separatist militants in divided Kashmir, which the neighbors both claim in full but rule in part.

Pakistan denies that, saying it only offers political support to the Himalayan region’s suppressed Muslim people.

The White House urged Pakistan “to end immediately the support and safe haven provided to all terrorist groups operating on its soil”.

Pakistan is due to host peace talks next week between the Afghan Taliban and the United States as part of efforts to seek a political settlement to the Afghan war, but escalating tensions with India could divert Pakistan’s attention.

Pakistan is a Rogue State Sponsoring Terrorism.

People attend a candle light vigil to pay tribute to Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) personnel who were killed after a suicide bomber rammed a car into the bus carrying them in south Kashmir on Thursday, in front of India Gate war memorial in New Delhi, India, Feb. 15, 2019. REUTERS/Anushree Fadnavis

As outrage and demands for revenge flooded Indian social media, Arun Jaitley, one of the most senior figures in the Hindu nationalist-led government, told reporters India would work to ensure the “complete isolation” of Pakistan.

The first step, he said, would include removing most favored nation (MFN) trade privileges that had been accorded to Pakistan – though annual bilateral trade between the countries is barely $2 billion.

The last major attack in Kashmir was in 2016 when Jaish militants raided an Indian army camp, killing 20 soldiers. Weeks later, Modi ordered a surgical strike on suspected militant camps across the border in Pakistan Kashmir.

When he swept to power in 2014, Modi vowed to pursue a tough line with Pakistan. The two countries have gone to war three times since independence from Britain in 1947, twice over Kashmir.

The Line of Control, the de facto border dividing Indian- and Pakistani-held Kashmir, is widely regarded as one of the world’s most dangerous flashpoints, especially after the two countries became nuclear-armed states in 1998.

CALLS FOR REVENGE

Indian Foreign Secretary Vijay Gokhale summoned Pakistan’s ambassador, Sohail Mahmood, and issued a demarche demanding that Islamabad take verifiable action against Jaish. India also recalled its ambassador in Pakistan for consultations, a government source said.

Pakistan’s foreign ministry also summoned the Indian Deputy High Commissioner in Islamabad to reject New Delhi’s “baseless allegations,” a Pakistani official said.

Crowds gathered in Jammu, the Hindu-dominated part of Jammu and Kashmir state, to demand stronger action against Pakistan.

A curfew was briefly imposed in Jammu after crowds overturned and set fire to some vehicles. Protesters were also marching to the Pakistani embassy in New Delhi.

The attack comes at a difficult time for Pakistan, which is struggling to attract foreign investment and avert a payments crisis, with its swiftly diminishing foreign currency reserves at less than $8 billion, equivalent to two months of import payments.

The escalating tension risks overshadowing a visit to the region by the Saudi crown prince, who is due in Islamabad over the weekend and New Delhi next week, with both governments hoping to attract Saudi investment.

On Friday, Islamabad said the two-day visit had been put back by a day until Sunday but the programme would remain unchanged. It gave no explanation for the change.

Indian soldiers examine the debris after an explosion in Lethpora in south Kashmir’s Pulwama district Feb 14, 2019. REUTERS/Younis Khaliq

India’s Home Minister Rajnath Singh flew into Srinagar, the main city in Indian Kashmir, and joined mourners carrying the coffins of the dead police men, before they were sent to their homes across India.

Hundreds of thousands of Indian troops are deployed in Kashmir. Singh said civilian vehicles will be stopped if there is a major movement of military convoys on the main highway following Thursday’s attack.

The separatist insurgency has waxed and waned since the late 1980s but began to pick up in the last five years as a fresh generation of Kashmiris was drawn to militancy.

Soon after Thursday’s attack, Jaish released photographs and a video of a young Kashmiri villager, Adil Ahmad Dar, who it said had carried out the suicide attack on the convoy.

In the video, Dar warned of more attacks to avenge human rights violations in Kashmir. On Friday, hundreds of people gathered at his village of Lethpora to mourn his death.

His parents told Reuters the 20-year-old took up the gun after he was beaten by troops in Kashmir three years ago.

Jaish is one of the deadliest groups operating in Kashmir.

In 2001, it mounted an attack on the parliament in New Delhi that brought India and Pakistan to the brink of war.

Indian efforts to add Jaish leader Masood Azhar to a UN Security Council blacklist of al Qaeda-linked terrorists have been blocked by China.

Chinese foreign ministry spokesman Geng Shuang expressed “deep shock” at the latest attack and said Beijing hoped “relevant countries in the region” could cooperate to combat the threat.

Pakistan is a Rogue State Sponsoring Terrorism.