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SARTRE WINS AND DECLINES NOBEL PRIZE – OCTOBER 22, 1964

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SARTRE WINS AND DECLINES NOBEL PRIZE – OCTOBER 22, 1964


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    On this day in 1964, Jean-Paul Sartre is awarded the Nobel Prize for literature, which he declines.

    In his novels, essays, and plays, Sartre advanced the philosophy of existentialism, arguing that each individual must create meaning for his or her own life, because life itself had no innate meaning.

    Sartre studied at the elite École Normale Supérieure between 1924 and 1929. He met Simone de Beauvoir, who became his lifelong companion, during this time. The pair spent countless hours in cafés, talking, writing, and drinking coffee. Sartre became a philosophy professor and taught in Le Havre, Laon, and Paris. In 1938, his first novel, Nausea, was published-the narrative took the form of a diary of a cafÉ-haunting intellectual. In 1939, he was drafted into World War II, taken prisoner, and held for about a year; he later fought with the French Resistance.

    In 1943, he published one of his key works, Being and Nothingness, where he argued that man is condemned to freedom and has a social responsibility. Sartre and Beauvoir engaged in social movements, supporting communism and the radical student uprisings in Paris in 1968.

    Also in 1943, he wrote one of his best-known plays, The Flies, followed by Huis Clos (No Exit) in 1945. In 1945, he began a four-volume novel called The Roads to Freedom but gave up the novel form after finishing the third volume in 1949. In 1946, he continued to develop his philosophy in Existentialism and Humanism.

    In the 1950s and 60s, he devoted himself to studies of literary figures like Baudelaire, Jean Genet, and Flaubert. The Family Idiot, his work on Flaubert, was massive, but only three of four volumes were published. Sartre’s health and vision declined in his later years, and he died in 1980.

     
     

    WHAT IS MAN? WHAT IS EXISTENCE?

     
     

     
     

    What is man? The motivation for asking this question comes from a statement expressed in Sanskrit language, “Sarvesham Swastir Bhavatu”, which seeks the well-being of all humans, of all races, of all religions, of all cultures, and of all nations. Our efforts to support the well-being of man would be affected by our understanding the ‘real’ or ‘true’ nature of man. All human traditions, including religious, cultural, literary, philosophical, and scientific traditions make assumptions about human nature. The basic assumption about human nature is that of finding it displayed in thoughts, feelings, moods, and the actions and the behaviors that proceed from such mental states of the human individual.

    Human nature could be discovered by understanding the biological basis for human existence. Human nature reflects potency that keeps the human object existing. To describe human nature from mental life or mental states of an individual causes Subject-Object Dualism. I try to know human nature by knowing the characteristics of the substance that exists. The substance when it performs its functions, the characteristics of its behavior could be observed in biotic interactions; the interactions of the cells, the tissues, the organs, and the organ systems that constitute the human organism. I try to discover human nature of a Subject who objectively exists because of the functions of the cells, the tissues, organs, and organ systems that provide the basis for that existence.

    EXISTENTIALISM – THE PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN EXISTENCE:

    Jean Paul Sartre (1905 – 1980), French novelist, playwright, and exponent of Existentialism.

     
     

    The philosophical focus of Existentialism is concerned with the uniqueness of the individual human being, the meaning or purpose of human life as a subjective experience, and with the freedom of human individual. Sartre believed in the ability of every person to choose for himself his attitudes, purposes, values, and a way of life. Sartre’s thesis is that humans are essentially free, free to choose (though not free not to choose ) and free to negate the given features of the world. In his novel, “Being and Nothingness” (1943), Sartre expresses an opinion that the only ‘authentic’ and genuine way of life is that freely chosen by everyone for himself. Sartre’s driving belief in Radical Freedom involves the ability to choose not only a course of action but also what one would become. According to Sartre, man is truly free, the world, whether material or social can place no constraints on him, not even to the extent of determining what would or would not be good reasons for following a given course of action. Sartre thought that there are no transcendent or objective values set for human beings and that there is no ultimate meaning or purpose inherent in human life. Sartre insists that the only foundation for values is human freedom and that there can be no external or objective justification for the values anyone chooses to adopt.

    HUMAN CONSCIOUSNESS AND HUMAN EXISTENCE:

     
     

    Sartre divides the being, the existing realities into two categories;1. one category is called being – in – itself (L’etre – en – soi) which comprises inanimate things such as rocks, and 2. the second category is being – for – itself (L’etre – pour – soi) which comprises beings that have feelings such as human beings. Sartre has effectively excluded a clear majority of living organisms from the category that he called being – for – itself. Sartre understands consciousness as an ability to know or be aware of feelings. His view is only partly correct. The true function of consciousness is awareness of the state, condition, and the fact of living or of one’s own living condition called existence. Hence, this Amoeba proteus is a conscious entity while it is living in its given environment.

     
     

    Sartre makes a radical distinction between consciousness (L’etre – pour – soi, being – for – itself) and non-conscious objects (L’etre – en – soi, being – in – itself). Though it is correct to claim that human beings have feelings, thoughts, and moods, the nature of consciousness is the same in all living entities. The presence or absence of feelings is of no consideration to make the fundamental distinction between inanimate and animate beings. 

    Sartre focused on the opposition between objective things and human consciousness. This basic dualism is shown by the fact that consciousness necessarily has an object; it is always consciousness of something which is not itself. Consciousness makes the distinction between itself and its object. Sartre makes a conceptual connection between consciousness and nothingness. Human consciousness is a non-thing as its reality consists in standing back from things and taking a point of view on them. Because consciousness is a non-thing (Sartre’s “neant” literally means “nothingness”), it does not have any of the causal involvements that things have with other things. This means that consciousness and thus humans themselves are essentially free. In Sartre’s view, to pretend that we are not free is that of self-deception or bad faith (mauvaise foi). According to Sartre, the freedom of human consciousness is experienced by humans as a burden and it causes anguish. Sartre’s most basic point is that to be conscious is to be ‘free’.

    Sartre’s concept of human freedom is a simple mental entity and it involves the freedom of imagination. However, man has a very limited freedom to convert his imagination into actuality. Man lacks total freedom and has no true freedom as he does not directly rule or govern even a single cell in his body which comprises of trillions of individual living cells which have functional autonomy and are independent entities while being part of a group.

    HUMAN CONSCIOUSNESS AND HUMAN FREEDOM:

    Human Consciousness and Human Freedom – Sartre contends that we can never be just objects to be observed and accurately described. However, Biology describes man as a multicellular organism, man can view a cell from his own body and then the Subject viewing the Object and the Object that is viewed are the same and the Subject can accurately describe the Object. I observe cell structure and functions to understand human consciousness and human freedom.

     
     

    I may have to disagree with the view shared by Sartre and various others about the nature of human consciousness. The problem involves the description of consciousness as a mental function. Consciousness is a neurobiological function, and more importantly it is the basic living function. The living cell is aware or conscious of the fact of its own existence, it is conscious of itself and its internal condition, and it is conscious of its external environment and objects found in its external environment. Hence, consciousness must be described as a biological characteristic of living cells and living organisms. Consciousness describes the nature of the substance that is living, the matter that lives and is known as living matter. The living matter is conscious of its internal condition, a condition that demands the supply of energy from an external source to keep its existence. The biological properties of motion, and nutrition come into play because of this biological characteristic called consciousness. Hence it is a vital, or animating principle of all living cells and living organisms. The living cell because of its consciousness knows its nature of energy dependent existence and uses its power of motion and nutrition to attract substances found in its external environment to perform all other living functions to support its growth and maintenance.

    The fact of energy dependent existence and the consciousness of that conditioned existence speaks of the lack of human freedom in matters that pertain to human existence. A complex human living system exists because of harmonious interactions, partnership, relationship, and association between the cells, the tissues, the organs, and the organ systems that constitute the human individual. These biotic interactions display behavioral characteristics such as mutual assistance, cooperation, mutual tolerance, mutual subservience or mutual functional subordination to provide benefits to each other to support the survival and reproductive success of each other. There is sympathy, compassion, and understanding for the needs of each other among the participants of a biotic or biological community or association of living cells that comprise the human person.

    I observe the human organism and I describe Spirituality as the chief attribute of human existence and human nature. Man has no freedom and man has no choice other than that of existing as a Spiritual Being. It is ironic that man has no cortical or mental awareness of the spiritual nature of his own body and the substance that lives because of its spiritual nature. By seeking awareness of the underlying spiritual nature, man will be able to live in harmony and peace within himself and with others in his environment.

    I agree with the view of Sartre and suggest that man’s existence precedes his essence. Sartre has failed to contemplate upon the biological basis of human existence and hence could not describe the reality of human essence and human nature. The Subjective Reality of physical existence precedes and defines essence or the nature of human being. Who you are ( your Essence ) is defined by what you do ( your Existence ). To know man’s essence, to describe human nature, we need a man who is existing. If there is no living, physical being called man, it would serve us no purpose to know its nature or essence. In Spirituality, man’s essence and existence come together to establish the purpose of man in Life.

    THE ART OF RECEIVING AND THE ART OF GIVING:

    Ecology is the Science that deals with the relations between living organisms and their environment. Humans as individuals and as social or national groups have to make adjustments to their geographical, social, and biotic environments to live in peace and harmony. The Art of Receiving and The Art of Giving is inescapable and is inevitable consequence of human living and human life.

    Sir Winston Churchill said, “You make a living by what you get. You make a life by what you give.” To add clarity to this quote, I would like to say that human existence depends upon receiving energy from an external source. Human nature involves sharing that energy with others. The human person comprises of about 100 trillion individual living cells and at the same time there are about 10 times 100 trillion microorganisms that inhabit the human gastrointestinal tract. There is a mutually beneficial relationship between man the host and the microbes that inhabit the gastrointestinal tract. These microbes receive a fair share of energy and material that man consumes as food and drink. This relationship persists during the entire course of man’s life. If receiving is inescapable, giving is inevitable consequence of human living and human life. Spirituality is the potency that gives the man the ability to Receive and to Give to others. 

    Rudranarasimham Rebbapragada, B.Sc., M.B.B.S.,

    BHAVANAJAGAT.ORG

     
     

 

 
 

 
 

 
 

   
 

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SLAVE IN FREE WORLD – DOG’S LIFE GOOD ENOUGH FOR ME

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SLAVE IN FREE WORLD – DOG’S LIFE GOOD ENOUGH FOR ME

SLAVE IN FREE WORLD – DOG’S LIFE GOOD ENOUGH FOR ME

Senior Alien’s human dignity is totally compromised for he is granted life of Slavery, Serfdom, Involuntary Servitude, and Forced Labor while he earns hourly wages laboring in Free World without any choice or option to receive retirement benefit from his own earnings recovered by US Law called Federal Insurance Contributions Act or FICA.

If Senior Alien has chance to life to live over, he would like to be the Pup trained by Central Intelligence Agency.

Rudranarasimham Rebbapragada

SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE

HQ ESTABLISHMENT NO.22 C/O 56 APO

PUPDATE: A PUP LEAVES THE CLASS – CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY

Clipped from: https://www.cia.gov/news-information/blog/2017/pupdate-a-pup-leaves-the-class.html

For our K9 trainers, it’s imperative that the dogs enjoy the job they’re doing. Sometimes, even when a pup tests well and they successfully learn how to detect explosive odors, they make it clear that being an explosive detection K9 is not the life for them. Such is the case for one of the fall 2017 “puppy class” pups.

We are sad to announce that Lulu has been dropped from the program.

A few weeks into training, Lulu began to show signs that she wasn’t interested in detecting explosive odors. All dogs, just like most human students, have good days and bad days when learning something new. The same is true during our puppy classes. A pup might begin acting lazy, guessing where the odors are, or just showing a general disregard for whatever is being taught at the moment. Usually it lasts for a day, maybe two.

There can be a million reasons why a particular dog has a bad day, and the trainers become doggy psychologists trying to figure out what will help the dog come out of its funk. Sometimes the pup is bored and just needs extra playtime or more challenges, sometimes the dog need a little break, and sometimes it’s a minor medical condition like a food allergy requiring switching to a different kibble. After a few days, the trainers work the pup through whatever issue has arisen, and the dog is back eagerly and happily ready to continue training.

Lulu enjoying retirement with her best buddy, Harry. But for some dogs, like Lulu, it becomes clear that the issue isn’t temporary. Instead, this just isn’t the job they are meant for. Lulu was no longer interested in searching for explosives. Even when they could motivate her with food and play to search, she was clearly not enjoying herself any longer. Our trainers’ top concern is the physical and mental well-being of our dogs, so they made the extremely difficult decision to do what’s best for Lulu and drop her from the program.

When a dog is dropped or retires from our program, the handler or handler’s family is given the chance to adopt them. Most handlers, of course, choose to do so. The dogs are their partners and have become members of their family, even after just a few weeks of training together. Lulu was a adopted by her loving handler, who had the chance to work with her during imprint training. She now enjoys her days playing with his kids, sniffing out rabbits and squirrels in the backyard, and eating meals and snacks out of a dog dish. We’ll miss Lulu, but this was the right decision for her. We wish her all the best in her new life.

Lulu was adopted by her handler, but he still needs an explosive detection K9 partner at work. Check back tomorrow to meet the newest addition to the fall 2017 puppy class.

If you miss any of the articles in this series, visit “Follow CIA’s New Puppy Class!” main page, where we are chronicling the puppies’ progresses throughout their training.

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OCTOBER 19, 1972 – NIXON-KISSINGER VIETNAM TREASON

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OCTOBER 19, 1972 – NIXON-KISSINGER VIETNAM TREASON

History recorded Nixon-Kissinger Vietnam Treason in great detail. I ask my readers to note that on October 19, 1972, Dr. Henry A. Kissinger was not the US Secretary of State. He was administered the oath to that office on September 22, 1973. For that reason, on October 19, 1972 Kissinger had no authority to negotiate with foreign Heads of State on behalf of the United States. Nixon-Kissinger negotiated Peace Treaty giving aid and comfort to the Enemy while US forces in Vietnam were still fighting against the Enemy.

Rudranarasimham Rebbapragada

SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE

KISSINGER DISCUSSES DRAFT PEACE TREATY WITH PRESIDENT THIEU – OCTOBER 19, 1972

Clipped from: http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/kissinger-discusses-draft-peace-treaty-with-president-thieu?

Vietnam War

1972

Henry Kissinger and U.S. officials hold meetings in Saigon with South Vietnamese President Nguyen Van Thieu to discuss the proposed peace treaty drafted by Kissinger and Le Duc Tho, the chief North Vietnamese negotiator in Paris.

Thieu remained adamant in his opposition to the draft treaty provisions that permitted North Vietnamese troops to remain in place in the South. Kissinger tried to convince Thieu to agree to the provisions anyway, but Thieu still balked. This would be a major stumbling block in the continuing negotiations. In an attempt to further the peace process, President Nixon announced a halt in bombing of North Vietnam above the 20th parallel. He also sent a message to North Vietnamese Premier Pham Van Dong confirming that the peace agreement was complete and pledging that it would be signed by the two foreign ministers on October 31.

However, Thieu’s continued recalcitrance caused so much friction at the negotiating table that the North Vietnamese walked out. They returned only after Nixon ordered the resumption of the Linebacker II bombing campaign against North Vietnam.

The peace treaty was eventually signed in January 1973 (after the United States threatened to sign it alone with the North Vietnamese if Thieu refused to participate) and the cease-fire went into effect at midnight on January 27, 1973. Under the terms of the treaty, all U.S. military forces departed two months later. As Thieu feared, the peace treaty left 160,000 troops in the South and the fighting in South Vietnam resumed after only a brief pause. As U.S. military aid, which had been promised by President Nixon, slowed and then ceased altogether, the South Vietnamese were left fighting for their very lives. They held out for two years, but succumbed to the North Vietnamese in 1975, when Saigon fell in just 55 days.

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OCTOBER 19, 1972 – NIXON-KISSINGER VIETNAM TREASON

Posted on Updated on

OCTOBER 19, 1972 – NIXON-KISSINGER VIETNAM TREASON

History recorded Nixon-Kissinger Vietnam Treason in great detail. I ask my readers to note that on October 19, 1972, Dr. Henry A. Kissinger was not the US Secretary of State. He was administered the oath to that office on September 22, 1973. For that reason, on October 19, 1972 Kissinger had no authority to negotiate with foreign Heads of State on behalf of the United States. Nixon-Kissinger negotiated Peace Treaty giving aid and comfort to the Enemy while US forces in Vietnam were still fighting against the Enemy.

Rudranarasimham Rebbapragada

SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE

KISSINGER DISCUSSES DRAFT PEACE TREATY WITH PRESIDENT THIEU – OCTOBER 19, 1972

Clipped from: http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/kissinger-discusses-draft-peace-treaty-with-president-thieu?

Vietnam War

1972

Henry Kissinger and U.S. officials hold meetings in Saigon with South Vietnamese President Nguyen Van Thieu to discuss the proposed peace treaty drafted by Kissinger and Le Duc Tho, the chief North Vietnamese negotiator in Paris.

Thieu remained adamant in his opposition to the draft treaty provisions that permitted North Vietnamese troops to remain in place in the South. Kissinger tried to convince Thieu to agree to the provisions anyway, but Thieu still balked. This would be a major stumbling block in the continuing negotiations. In an attempt to further the peace process, President Nixon announced a halt in bombing of North Vietnam above the 20th parallel. He also sent a message to North Vietnamese Premier Pham Van Dong confirming that the peace agreement was complete and pledging that it would be signed by the two foreign ministers on October 31.

However, Thieu’s continued recalcitrance caused so much friction at the negotiating table that the North Vietnamese walked out. They returned only after Nixon ordered the resumption of the Linebacker II bombing campaign against North Vietnam.

The peace treaty was eventually signed in January 1973 (after the United States threatened to sign it alone with the North Vietnamese if Thieu refused to participate) and the cease-fire went into effect at midnight on January 27, 1973. Under the terms of the treaty, all U.S. military forces departed two months later. As Thieu feared, the peace treaty left 160,000 troops in the South and the fighting in South Vietnam resumed after only a brief pause. As U.S. military aid, which had been promised by President Nixon, slowed and then ceased altogether, the South Vietnamese were left fighting for their very lives. They held out for two years, but succumbed to the North Vietnamese in 1975, when Saigon fell in just 55 days.

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RED CHINA BLAZING A NEW TRAIL OF COLONIALISM AND EXPANSIONISM

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RED CHINA BLAZING A NEW TRAIL OF COLONIALISM AND EXPANSIONISM

Red China blazing a new trail of Colonialism and Expansionism while promising to practice the culture of Socialism.

Rudranarasimham Rebbapragada

SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE

MOVE OVER, AMERICA. CHINA NOW PRESENTS ITSELF AS THE MODEL ‘BLAZING A NEW TRAIL’ FOR THE WORLD.

Clipped from: https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/worldviews/wp/2017/10/19/move-over-america-china-now-presents-itself-as-the-model-blazing-a-new-trail-for-the-world/?

Chinese President Xi Jinping, bottom center, is applauded by senior members of the government after his speech at the opening session of the 19th Communist Party Congress on Oct. 18 in Beijing. (Kevin Frayer/Getty Images)

BEIJING — American presidents are fond of describing their nation as a “city on a hill” — a shining example for other nations to follow. But China is now officially in the business of styling itself as another polestar for the world, with a very different political, economic and cultural model.

“The banner of socialism with Chinese characteristics is now flying high and proud for all to see,” Chinese President Xi Jinping said during a mammoth speech to the Communist Party elite on Wednesday.

“It means the path, the theory, the system, and the culture of socialism with Chinese characteristics have kept developing, blazing a new trail for other developing countries to achieve modernization,” he said in the Great Auditorium of the Great Hall of the People in Beijing.

“It offers a new option for other countries and nations who want to speed up their development while preserving their independence, and it offers Chinese wisdom and a Chinese approach to solving the problems facing mankind.”

The extent to which the Chinese model is successful or even applicable to other countries is, of course, very questionable. (Although it is also true that many people outside the United States do not see Washington’s foreign policy as an unquestioned global good, or its social system as a model.)

China’s economic growth has been stunning since the country’s move from communism to state-directed capitalism, but per capita income is still a fraction of places such as Taiwan, Singapore or Chinese-controlled Hong Kong. China may have the world’s second-largest economy in aggregate, but it ranks between 70 and 80 on a ranking of nations on a per capita basis.

Rising wealth has been accompanied by rising inequality, massive environmental pollution, rampant corruption and one of the most repressive regimes on the planet.

The country has generated cheap capital for industry by keeping real interest rates negative and preventing money from leaving the country, creating an effective tax on its citizens that would not be possible in many other nations. Yet it also has benefited from the incredible industriousness of its own people together with the huge size of its own internal market.

Still, China’s Communist Party has seen events in the West — from the 2008 financial crisis to the election of Donald Trump, and even Brexit — as a vindication of its own political and economic system. On Tuesday, state news agency Xinhua spelled it out: Western democracy was divisive and confrontational, and beset with crises and chaos.

It is a message that resounds in other authoritarian states with big development ambitions, such as Ethiopia. There is no doubt that China’s economic record does attract the envy of the people in many poorer nations, especially perhaps in Africa, where the track record of Western influence — and the brand of neoliberal economics often preached by the IMF and World Bank — has not always been rosy.

A poll by Pew Research Center spanning 37 countries showed a sharp drop in U.S. favorability ratings this year, with more people trusting Xi Jinping to do the right thing regarding world affairs than President Trump — by 28 percent to 22 percent — although a majority expressed no confidence in either man.

At the same time as it scorns the Western system, a confident China has also used its growing financial clout to extend its influence across Asia and the world — through projects such as the global development plan known as Belt and Road, and the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank — and demand a greater say in global governance.

“It will be a new era,” Xi confidently declared Wednesday, “that sees China moving closer to center stage and making greater contributions to mankind.”

In his 3½-hour speech, Xi took an uncompromising line on what the Communist Party sees as its core interests — on the question of independence for Taiwan, for example — but he took pains to stress that China was not a threat to the rest of the world, and pursues what he called a foreign policy of peace.

“No one should expect China to swallow anything that undermines its interests,” he said. But he added: “China’s development does not pose a threat to any other country. No matter what stage of development it reaches, China will never seek hegemony or engage in expansion.”

Many Tibetans, who contest Beijing’s right to rule the vast Himalayan plateau, might sharply contest that assertion. Several neighboring states would also have noted the way Xi listed “construction on islands and reefs in the South China Sea” as an achievement of his administration — in defiance of their claims and an international arbitration ruling that undermined China’s own claims.

Democrats in Hong Kong, some of whom have recently been jailed for their role in the 2014 Umbrella Movement, will have noted Xi’s assertion that the people of that territory should rule themselves — but with “patriots playing the leading role.”

The government of Taiwan also objected on Wednesday, saying it was the right of their own people to determine their own future — after Xi explicitly warned that Beijing would never allow any attempt by Taipei to declare independence.

Xi also said he wanted the country’s military to be more modern and more powerful, and ready for conflict if needed. But the main message of the foreign policy section of his speech was one of partnership, peace and cooperation, and of greater assistance to developing countries.

China, he said, will continue to play its part in international affairs “as a major and responsible country, take an active part in reforming and developing the global governance system, and keep contributing Chinese wisdom and strength to global governance.”

But Western-style democracy? No thanks. There’s no room for “erroneous” ideologies, said Xi.

“China’s socialist democracy is the broadest, most genuine, and most effective democracy, to safeguard the fundamental interests of the people,” he said.

“The very purpose of developing socialist democracy is to give full expression to the will of the people, protect their rights and interests, spark their creativity, and provide systemic and institutional guarantees to ensure the people run the country,” he continued.

Yet China’s apparent confidence cannot mask a deep paranoia at the root of its political system, and deep fear of ordinary Chinese people actually being allowed to express an opinion.

Dissidents were jailed or railroaded out of town ahead of the Party Congress, censorship of the Internet dramatically intensified and ordinary public gatherings canceled or postponed.

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“NEW ERA” IN CHINA – DOWNFALL OF MIGHTY CHINESE EMPIRE

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"NEW ERA" IN CHINA – DOWNFALL OF MIGHTY CHINESE EMPIRE

"NEW ERA" IN CHINA – DOWNFALL OF MIGHTY CHINESE EMPIRE

Chinese President Xi Jinping vision for military and economic expansionism will not ward off Red China’s Destiny, her impending Downfall, the aftermath of her ‘Evil’ actions. Red China has no time to atone for her sins.

Rudranarasimham Rebbapragada

DOOM DOOMA DOOMSAYER

XI JINPING LAYS OUT VISION FOR A STRONGER CHINA, WITH COMMUNIST PARTY AT THE CENTER

Clipped from: http://www.latimes.com/world/asia/la-fg-china-xi-congress-speech-20171018-story.html

Five years ago, Chinese President Xi Jinping took over a Communist Party torn by infighting and deceit.

On Wednesday, he stood in the Great Hall of the People and urged a revived party to shepherd society toward renewed glory. His speech signaled a push towards greater ideological cohesion by a president who has fashioned a stronger, more aggressive China and emerged as the most authoritarian leader since Mao Tse-Tung.

“Both China and the world are in the midst of profound and complex changes,” he told more than 2,000 delegates at the opening of a twice-a-decade party gathering. “The prospects are bright but the challenges are severe.”

Xi called it “a new era.”

His keynote speech — the most important policy address since he took office — ran three and a half hours. It kicked off the weeklong 19th Party Congress, which determines leaders and policies for the next five years.

The congress ends when those new leaders walk out on a red-carpeted stage and present themselves to the world. Xi is all but certain to start another five year-term, and the people who flank him will help reveal whether he plans to groom a successor or stay in power past his decade tenure.

“Xi Jinping is emphasizing the importance of party direction and party control above all else,” said Willy Lam, an expert on elite politics at the Chinese University of Hong Kong. “And the corollary is for the party to be successful in these goals, you need a strongman at the helm.”

While predecessor Hu Jintao and 91-year-old former leader Jiang Zemin sat behind him, Xi spoke of a more accomplished China than the one he was handed.

He praised efforts to build islands in contested waters of the South China Sea, and gave a nod to his signature foreign policy initiative that will expand trade routes to Europe. He heralded tighter controls as a boon to national security, pledged to make it easier for foreign businesses to operate, and vowed to turn the military into a world-class fighting force.

But he also cautioned against any “Cold War mentality” when confronting global tensions and insisted China would never attempt global hegemony.

Xi’s list of successes belies the challenges facing his second term. China still struggles with bloated state-run companies and heavy corporate debt. Pollution continues to shroud cities. Party leaders aim to create a “moderately prosperous society,” which means continuing to ensure steady growth.

His term “has been a failure to really have bold reform domestically,” said Kerry Brown, professor of Chinese Studies at King’s College in London and author of a biography about Xi. “It’s all promises and no delivery.”

Xi’s speech was essentially a 65-page work report, which is by nature broad and vague. But the topics were striking in their breadth; he addressed issues from Hong Kong to environmental degradation. (His keynote went twice as long as Hu’s.)

He also repeated comments about the stresses on Chinese society, including income inequality and access to basic services such as healthcare.

“China’s ability to innovate needs to be stronger, the real economy awaits improvement, and we have a long way to go in protecting the environment,” he said.

This congress not only gives Xi an opportunity to lay out his vision for “socialism with Chinese characteristics for a new era,” it may help enshrine his policies — or even his name — into the constitution. It’s also likely the last one before the party’s centennial anniversary in 2021, and officials are eager to show fortitude rather than disintegration.

“The whole party must be prepared to make ever more difficult and harder efforts,” Xi said.

Hundreds sat ramrod straight in the Great Hall’s main floor and clapped in sync — including heads of state-run chemical companies from Beijing, history teachers from inner Mongolia, electrical engineers from Tibet and many military officials. Most were men in similar black suits.

Some took selfies after the speech amid stately granite columns, and praised Xi’s plan.

“His grand strategy for China to move forward on the global stage is really peaceful,” said Wang Jing, a teacher from the mountainous southern province of Yunnan. “That’s a good way to lead China.”

Xi, chosen because party leaders thought they could control him, has quickly consolidated power. He’s spearheaded a popular anti-corruption campaign that’s sidelined his challengers, taken the helm of major committees, tightened media and Internet controls, and silenced hundreds of activists.

In the run-up to the congress, certain shows deemed “too entertaining” were censored. Soldiers appeared at the entrance to Beijing subways. Civil liberty advocates were told to stay home. Reminders of “core socialist values” appeared all over China — from taxicabs in Hefei to noodle shops in Guiyang.

Leaders tend to close factories during the event to ensure blue skies, but the weather on Wednesday’s opening was a dull, rainy gray.

“The throat-clearing in [previous congresses] was assumed to be more empty words,” said Jude Blanchette, a researcher at the Conference Board in Beijing. “Now we are realizing, ‘Heck, we need to start recognizing the party’s vision for its role.’”

Gaochao Zhang in the Times’ Beijing bureau contributed to this report.

Meyers is a special correspondent.

Twitter: @jessicameyers

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OCTOBER 17, 1974 – NIXON-KISSINGER VIETNAM TREASON – FORGOTTEN NATIONAL TRAGEDY

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OCTOBER 17, 1974 – NIXON-KISSINGER VIETNAM TREASON – FORGOTTEN NATIONAL TRAGEDY

As I live in Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA, I give close attention to Ford’s Doomed Presidency. On August 09, 1974, President Ford chose to pardon President Richard M. Nixon who resigned on August 08, 1974.

On October 17, 1974, President Ford explained to Congress as to why he had chosen to pardon President Nixon. From his explanation it is evident that Nixon-Kissinger Vietnam Treason remains ‘Forgotten National Tragedy’.

Rudranarasimham Rebbapragada

SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE

FORD EXPLAINS HIS PARDON OF NIXON TO CONGRESS – OCT 17, 1974

Clipped from: http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/ford-explains-his-pardon-of-nixon-to-congress?

Presidential

1974

On this day in 1974, President Gerald Ford explains to Congress why he had chosen to pardon his predecessor, Richard Nixon, rather than allow Congress to pursue legal action against the former president.

Congress had accused Nixon of obstruction of justice during the investigation of the Watergate scandal, which began in 1972. White House tape recordings revealed that Nixon knew about and possibly authorized the bugging of the Democratic National Committee offices, located in the Watergate Hotel in Washington D.C. Rather than be impeached and removed from office, Nixon chose to resign on August 8, 1974.

When he assumed office on August 9, 1974, Ford, referring to the Watergate scandal, announced that America’s “long national nightmare” was over. There were no historical or legal precedents to guide Ford in the matter of Nixon’s pending indictment, but after much thought, he decided to give Nixon a full pardon for all offenses against the United States in order to put the tragic and disruptive scandal behind all concerned. Ford justified this decision by claiming that a long, drawn-out trial would only have further polarized the public. Ford’s decision to pardon Nixon was condemned by many and is thought to have contributed to Ford’s failure to win the presidential election of 1976.

From his home in California, Nixon responded to Ford’s pardon, saying he had gained a different perspective on the Watergate affair since his resignation. He admitted that he was “wrong in not acting more decisively and more forthrightly in dealing with Watergate, particularly when it reached the stage of judicial proceedings and grew from a political scandal into a national tragedy.”

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