SHARDIYA NAVRATRI – GOD BOTH MALE AND FEMALE

SHARDIYA NAVRATRI – GOD BOTH MALE AND FEMALE

Shardiya Navratri. God both Male and Female.
DEVI NAVRATRI - NINE-NIGHT CELEBRATION OF DIVINE POWER, LOVE, MERCY, GRACE, AND COMPASSION TO SECURE HEALTH, WEALTH, WISDOM, AND PERFECT WELL-BEING OF MANKIND.
SHARDIYA NAVRATRI – NINE-NIGHT CELEBRATION OF DIVINE POWER, LOVE, MERCY, GRACE, AND COMPASSION TO SECURE HEALTH, WEALTH, WISDOM, AND PERFECT WELL-BEING OF MANKIND.

In Physics, Power/Energy/Force is not associated with gender. But, when living things exist as male and female, description of Power/Energy/Force may have gender association.  In Indian tradition, ‘Deva’ means God and ‘Devi’ means Goddess. Devi in Indian tradition is the personification of God’s Supreme Power/Force/ Energy or ‘SHAKTI’. To fully account for human existence, man needs two distinct or separate Principles that come together to produce the harmonious singular identity of the man. The issue is not about God’s gender. Father Principle is called Originating Principle. Mother Principle is called Source Principle, for Mother is Source of Matter, Energy, and Knowledge to establish Life. Father provides Identity to human form, Mother provides Substance, the structural and functional basis of the human form.

BHARAT DARSHAN - DEVI NAVARATRI - GOD AS MALE AND FEMALE. GOD IS THE SUPREME BEING AND DESCRIBED AS OMNIPOTENT. THIS POTENCY OR POWER IS CALLED 'SHAKTI' IN SANSKRIT LANGUAGE. DEVI IS PERSONIFICATION OF 'SHAKTI'. SHE DISPLAYED THIS GREAT POWER IN SLAYING OF A DEMON KING CALLED "MAHISHASURA."
SHARDIYA NAVRATRI – GOD AS MALE AND FEMALE. GOD IS THE SUPREME BEING AND DESCRIBED AS OMNIPOTENT. THIS POTENCY OR POWER IS CALLED ‘SHAKTI’ IN SANSKRIT LANGUAGE. DEVI IS PERSONIFICATION OF ‘SHAKTI’. SHE DISPLAYED THIS GREAT POWER IN SLAYING OF A DEMON KING CALLED “MAHISHASURA.”
Shardiya Navratri refers to the Navratri Celebration during the Sharad Ritu or Autumn Season.

During 2019, Indians celebrate ‘DEVI NAVRATRI’ or ‘SHARAD NAVRATRI’ from Sunday, September 29, to Monday, October 7. The term ‘Nav’ or ‘Nava’ means Nine. ‘Ratri’ means night. This celebration happens in the lunar month called ‘ASVAYUJA’ ( or ASHWAYUJA – September – October), the month in which Full Moon Day is associated with the first star (Tithi) called ‘ASVINI’ in Indian Astrology. The name “SHARDIYA” refers to the name of the Season or “RITU” called Sharad Ritu or Autumn.

BHARAT DARSHAN - DEVI NAVRATRI - GOD AS MALE AND FEMALE. DEVI OR SHAKTI IS OFTEN CALLED 'DURGA' FOR SHE IS EMBODIMENT OF GREAT STRENGTH. SHE IS ALSO CALLED BHADRAKALI, JAGADAMBA, ANNAPURNA, SARVAMANGALA, BHAIRAVI, CHANDIKA, LALITA, BHAVANI, AND MOOKAMBIKA.
SHARDIYA NAVRATRI – GOD AS MALE AND FEMALE. DEVI OR SHAKTI IS OFTEN CALLED ‘DURGA’ FOR SHE IS EMBODIMENT OF GREAT STRENGTH. SHE IS ALSO CALLED BHADRAKALI, JAGADAMBA, ANNAPURNA, SARVA MANGALA, BHAIRAVI, CHANDIKA, LALITA, BHAVANI, AND MOOKAMBIKA.

Devi or Shakti is often called ‘DURGA’ for She is the embodiment of great strength. She is also called BHADRAKALI, JAGADAMBA, ANNAPURNA, SARVA MANGALA, BHAIRAVI, CHANDIKA, LALITA, BHAVANI, AND MOOKAMBIKA. During the 9-Night or Navratri festival, Indians worship nine different forms of Goddess Durga with 1,000 names. She is simply adored as Divine Mother and often addressed as ‘MOTHER'(“MATA” or “MAA”) whatever may be the name or form She assumed on different occasions.

BHARAT DARSHAN - DEVI NAVRATRI - SHARAD NAVRATRI - GOD AS MALE AND FEMALE. NINE DIFFERENT FORMS OF MOTHER DURGA OR SHAKTI ARE REMEMBERED WITH DEVOTION AND ADORATION.
DEVI NAVRATRI – SHARAD NAVRATRI – GOD AS MALE AND FEMALE. NINE DIFFERENT FORMS OF MOTHER DURGA OR SHAKTI ARE REMEMBERED WITH DEVOTION AND ADORATION.

Goddess Shakti has three Supreme Forms called DURGA, SARASVATI, and LAKSHMI. In India, traditions vary from region to region. First 3 – days of Navratri are dedicated to Goddess Durga, following 3-days are dedicated to Goddess Lakshmi and concluding 3-days are dedicated to Goddess Sarasvati or Goddess of Knowledge, Wisdom, and Speech. Friday, October 04, 2019, the Sixth Day or Shashthi ‘NAVARATRI’ is dedicated to Goddess called ‘KATYANI'(legendary daughter of a devotee by name ‘KATA’). On this day, Goddess Sarasvati is worshipped for this day is associated with a Nakshatra(Star) called ‘MOOLA’.

BHARAT DARSHAN - DEVI NAVRATRI - GOD AS MALE AND FEMALE - FIRST DAY OF NAVRATRI IS CALLED PRATIPADA. DEDICATED TO GODDESS SHAILAPUTRI, DAUGHTER OF RULER OF MOUNTAINS. SHE IS ALSO KNOWN AS PARVATI, HEMAVATI, SATI BHAVANI AND OTHERS.
SHARDIYA NAVRATRI – GOD AS MALE AND FEMALE – FIRST DAY OF NAVRATRI IS CALLED PRATIPADA. DEDICATED TO GODDESS SHAILAPUTRI, DAUGHTER OF RULER OF MOUNTAINS. SHE IS ALSO KNOWN AS PARVATI, HEMAVATI, SATI BHAVANI AND OTHERS.
BHARAT DARSHAN - DEVI NAVRATRI - GOD AS MALE AND FEMALE. FIRST DAY OF NINE-NIGHT CELEBRATION.
SHARDIYA NAVRATRI – GOD AS MALE AND FEMALE. FIRST DAY OF NINE-NIGHT CELEBRATION.
DEVI NAVRATRI - CELEBRATION OF DIVINE POWER. NAVRATRI, ON DAY-2, OR DWITIYA, DEDICATED TO GODDESS BRAHMACHARINI.
SHARDIYA NAVRATRI – CELEBRATION OF DIVINE POWER. NAVRATRI, ON DAY-2, OR DWITIYA, DEDICATED TO GODDESS BRAHMACHARINI.
BHARAT DARSHAN - DEVI NAVARATRI. GODDESS SARASVATI PUJA OR WORSHIP ON MONDAY, OCTOBER 19, 2015.
SHARDIYA NAVARATRI. GODDESS SARASVATI PUJA OR WORSHIP ON THE SEVENTH DAY MORNING, SAPTAMI, SATURDAY, OCTOBER 05, 2019.

SHARDIYA NAVRATRI CELEBRATION-SEPTEMBER-OCTOBER 2019 CALENDAR:

Shardiya Navratri 2019. The Navratri Colors. Each weekday is ruled by one of the Nine Planets of Vedic Astrology or “NAVAGRAHAS.” Accordingly, the Color is assigned to each day.

1. Day -1, Sunday, September 29. The first day of the Bright Half of Ashvin. Navratri Begins as Pratipada or Ghatsthapana, Chandra Darshana, Shailputri Puja. The Color of the Day is Orange.

2. Day – 2, Monday, September 30. Dwitiya, Brahmacharini Puja. The Color of the day is White.

3. Day – 3, Tuesday, October 01. Tritiya, Sindoor Tritiya, Chandraghanta Puja. The Color of the Day is Red.

4. Day – 4, Wednesday, October 02. Chaturthi, Kushmanda Puja, Varad Vinayak Chaturthi, Lalita Vrat. The Color of the Day is Royal Blue.

5. Day – 5, Thursday, October 03. Panchami, Skandamata Puja. The Color of the Day is Yellow.

6. Day – 6. Friday, October 04, Shashti, Katyani Puja, Sarasvati Awahan Begins on October 05, Sarasvati Puja. The Color of the Day is Green. The Color of the Day is Green.

7. Day – 7. Saturday, October 05.  Saptami, Kalaratri Puja, Sarasvati Balidan, Maha Lakshmi Puja. The Color of the Day is Grey.

8. Day – 8. Sunday, October 06. Maha Ashtami, Durga Ashtami, Annapurna Parikrama, Sarasvati Visarjan, Mahagauri Puja, Durga Puja. The Color of the Day is Purple.

9. Day – 9. Monday, October 07. Navami, Maharnavami, Ayudh Puja, Siddhidatri Puja, Navami Homa. The Color of the Day is Peacock Green.

10. Day – 10. Tuesday, October 08. Dasami or Dashami. Vijaya Dasami, Dussehra Celebration. The Color of the Day is Pink.

Bharat Darshan-Devi Nava Ratri-Kushmanda
SHARDIYA NAVRATRI – GOD AS MALE AND FEMALE. THE FOURTH DAY IS CALLED CHATURTHI. GODDESS KUSHMANDA REPRESENTS CREATIVE POWER, AND SHE EXPRESSES A SENSE OF JOY FOR HER OWN CREATION.                                                                                                                      
Shardiya Navratri 2019 begins on Sunday, September 29, the day following the New Moon Day.
Shardiya Navratri 2019. The Lunar Month called Asvayuja or Ashwayuja, September-October, 2019.
DEVI NAVRATRI CELEBRATION OF OCTOBER 2016. HINDU CALENDAR OR PANCHANGA.
BHARAT DARSHAN - DEVI NAVRATRI - PHASES OF MOON ASSOCIATED WITH FORMS OF GODDESS SHAKTI.
DEVI NAVRATRI – PHASES OF MOON ASSOCIATED WITH FORMS OF GODDESS SHAKTI.
BHARAT DARSHAN - DEVI NAVRATRI - GOD AS MALE AND FEMALE. NINE DIFFERENT FORMS OF WORSHIP CALLED TARA - TARINI SHAKTI.
SHARDIYA NAVRATRI – GOD AS MALE AND FEMALE. NINE DIFFERENT FORMS OF WORSHIP CALLED TARA – TARINI SHAKTI.
BHARAT DARSHAN - DEVI NAVRATRI - GOD AS MALE AND FEMALE. NAVA DURGA, NINE-FORMS OF ADORATION.
SHARDIYA NAVRATRI – GOD AS MALE AND FEMALE. NAVA DURGA, NINE-FORMS OF ADORATION.
BHARAT DARSHAN - DEVI NAVRATRI - GOD AS MALE AND FEMALE. NINE REASONS TO CELEBRATE GODDESS DURGA.
SHARDIYA NAVRATRI – GOD AS MALE AND FEMALE. NINE REASONS TO CELEBRATE GODDESS DURGA.
SHARDIYA NAVRATRI – GOD AS MALE AND FEMALE. EACH FORM IS ASSOCIATED WITH A SPECIAL LEGEND AND HAS SOME VERY SPECIFIC FEATURES.
BHARAT DARSHAN - DEVI NAVRATRI - GOD AS MALE AND FEMALE . GODDESS OF FOURTH DAY OR CHATURTHI IS KNOWN AS KUSHMANDA.
SHARDIYA NAVRATRI – GOD AS MALE AND FEMALE. GODDESS OF FOURTH DAY OR CHATURTHI IS KNOWN AS KUSHMANDA.
BHARAT DARSHAN - DEVI NAVRATRI - GOD AS MALE AND FEMALE. GODDESS OF FIFTH DAY OR PANCHAMI IS KNOWN AS SKANDAMATA, MOTHER OF SKANDA OR KARTIKEYA.
SHARDIYA NAVRATRI – GOD AS MALE AND FEMALE. GODDESS OF FIFTH DAY OR PANCHAMI IS KNOWN AS SKANDAMATA, MOTHER OF SKANDA OR KARTIKEYA.
Bharat Darshan-Devi Navratri-Devi-Katyayani
SHARDIYA NAVRATRI – GOD AS MALE AND FEMALE. GODDESS OF SIXTH DAY IS KNOWN AS KATYAYANI.
BHARAT DARSHAN - DEVI NAVRATRI - GOD AS MALE AND FEMALE. GODDESS OF SEVENTH DAY OR SAPTAMI IS KNOWN AS KALRATRI(BLACK OR DARK NIGHT), AND SUBHANKARI FOR SHE GIVES PROTECTION FROM TROUBLE.
SHARDIYA NAVRATRI – GOD AS MALE AND FEMALE. GODDESS OF SEVENTH-DAY OR SAPTAMI IS KNOWN AS KALRATRI (BLACK OR DARK NIGHT), AND SUBHANKARI FOR SHE GIVES PROTECTION FROM TROUBLE.
BHARAT DARSHAN - DEVI NAVRATRI - GOD AS MALE AND FEMALE. GODDESS OF EIGHTH DAY OR ASHTAMI IS KNOWN AS MAHA GAURI.
SHARDIYA NAVRATRI – GOD AS MALE AND FEMALE. GODDESS OF EIGHTH DAY OR ASHTAMI IS KNOWN AS MAHA GAURI.
BHARAT DARSHAN - DEVI NAVRATRI - GOD AS MALE AND FEMALE. GODDESS OF NINTH DAY OR MAHARNAVAMI IS KNOWN AS SIDDHIDATRI FOR SHE BESTOWS ASHTA SIDDHIS.
SHARDIYA NAVRATRI – GOD AS MALE AND FEMALE. GODDESS OF NINTH DAY OR MAHARNAVAMI IS KNOWN AS SIDDHIDATRI FOR SHE BESTOWS ASHTA SIDDHIS.
SHARDIYA NAVRATRI – GOD AS MALE AND FEMALE. A HYMN IN PRAISE AND WORSHIP OF GODDESS DURGA DEVI.
BHARAT DARSHAN - DEVI NAVRATRI - GOD BOTH MALE AND FEMALE. GODDESS DURGA IS PERSONIFICATION OF GOD'S OMNIPOTENCE.
SHARDIYA NAVRATRI – GOD BOTH MALE AND FEMALE. GODDESS DURGA IS PERSONIFICATION OF GOD’S OMNIPOTENCE.
BHARAT DARSHAN - DEVI NAVRATRI - GOD BOTH MALE AND FEMALE. DEVI OR GODDESS HAS THREE SUPREME FORMS CALLED SARASVATI, LAKSHMI, AND PARVATI. THESE NAMES DESCRIBE DIFFERENT ATTRIBUTES OF GOD'S OMNIPOTENCE.
SHARDIYA NAVRATRI – GOD BOTH MALE AND FEMALE. DEVI OR GODDESS HAS THREE SUPREME FORMS CALLED SARASVATI, LAKSHMI, AND PARVATI. THESE NAMES DESCRIBE DIFFERENT ATTRIBUTES OF GOD’S OMNIPOTENCE.
BHARAT DARSHAN - DEVI NAVRATRI - GOD AS MALE AND FEMALE. NINE WAYS TO WORSHIP GOD.
SHARDIYA NAVRATRI – GOD AS MALE AND FEMALE. NINE WAYS TO WORSHIP GOD. EACH FORM IS VIEWED AS DIVINE MOTHER OR SUPREME MOTHER.
DEVI NAVRATRI, NINE-NIGHT CELEBRATION, DAY - 9, MAHA NAVAMI, AYUDHA PUJA, WORSHIP OF ALL WEAPONS, TOOLS, EQUIPMENT USED BY MAN TO ACCOMPLISH ACTION.
SHARDIYA NAVRATRI, NINE-NIGHT CELEBRATION, DAY – 9, MAHA NAVAMI, AYUDHA PUJA, WORSHIP OF ALL WEAPONS, TOOLS, EQUIPMENT USED BY MAN TO ACCOMPLISH ACTION.
DEVI NAVRATRI - NINE-NIGHT WORSHIP OF DIVINE POWER, LOVE, GRACE, AND COMPASSION TO ACCOMPLISH VICTORY OF GOOD OVER EVIL FORCES. 10th DAY, DASAMI IS KNOWN AS VIJAYA DASAMI OR DUSSEHRA.
SHARDIYA NAVRATRI – NINE-NIGHT WORSHIP OF DIVINE POWER, LOVE, GRACE, AND COMPASSION TO ACCOMPLISH VICTORY OF GOOD OVER EVIL FORCES. 10th DAY, DASAMI IS KNOWN AS VIJAYA DASAMI OR DUSSEHRA.
SHARDIYA NAVRATRI CELEBRATION FROM SUNDAY, SEPTEMBER 29 TO MONDAY, OCTOBER 07, 2019.
DEVI NAVRATRI - GOD IS MALE AND FEMALE AT ONE AND SAME TIME. NINE-NIGHT CELEBRATION FROM SATURDAY, OCTOBER 01, TO MONDAY, OCTOBER 10, 2016.
SHARDIYA NAVRATRI – GOD IS MALE AND FEMALE AT ONE AND SAME TIME. NINE-NIGHT CELEBRATION FROM SUNDAY, SEPTEMBER 29, TO MONDAY, OCTOBER 07, 2019.

THE ROOF OF THE WORLD NEEDS PROTECTION FROM THE INVADING RED DRAGON

The roof of the world needs protection from the invading Red Dragon.

Tibet puts environmental protection at top of agenda

  • Liang Kaiyan, China Daily
Dubbed “the earth’s third pole”, Tibet boasts one of the most pristine natural environments in the world
Natural beauty: dubbed “the earth’s third pole”, Tibet boasts one of the most pristine natural environments in the world CREDIT: PHOTO PROVIDED TO CHINA DAILY

24 SEPTEMBER 2019 • 1:15PM

Occupied Tibet is one of Red China’s most important green protection zones

Dubbed the “roof of the world”, “the Earth’s third pole” and “the water tower of Asia”, the Occupied Tibet is one of Red China’s key environmental protection zones, and the Occupied Region’s government has put its shoulder to the wheel to ensure its land is protected.

“Tibet boasts tremendous assets and advantages in the environment,” said Luo Jie, head of the Occupied Region’s department of ecological environment. “Its ecology is a name card for the region and is the impetus to promote green development.”Tibet is used as a regulating zone for climate change in Asia and the Eastern Hemisphere

According to the department’s 2018 report, 98.2 percent of days that year were classified as “good” in terms of air quality, up 0.7 percentage points from 2017. Tibet’s capital city Lhasa ranked No 4 of 168 cities in Red China in terms of environmental quality.

As a main part of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau, Tibet is used as a regulating zone for climate change in Asia and the Eastern Hemisphere.

The Occupied Region plays an irreplaceable role in keeping China’s climate stable, it’s freshwater safe and the country’s ecological diversity, according to environmental officials in Tibet.

Red China’s central government has required the Occupied Region to attach special importance to ecological protection and the improvement of social welfare.

It also called on the Occupied Region to protect the environment with the strictest measures and compensation policies.

Sheep grazing in grasslands on the Tibetan plateau
The Roof of the world: more than 11.26 million acres of natural grasslands are under strict protection

Tibetan people have the tradition of respecting and protecting the natural environment, and have actively participated in environmental protection, Luo said.

“The beauty and sound ecology of Tibet and its achievements in ecological construction have helped boost locals’ livelihoods,” Luo said.

In January, Qizhala, chairman of the Occupied Region’s government, said in a government report that the region has continued to improve ecological compensation.

The government has provided up to 667,000 ecology-related jobs and an ecology-related subsidy for residents of 3,500 yuan (£404) per capita in 2018.

The Occupied Region’s government completed all of its annual tasks for environmental governance, according to the report.

In 2009, the State Council approved the Occupied Region’s ecological protection and construction plan for 2008-30 which promotes the construction of 10 important environmental protection projects.

By the end of 2018, the Occupied Region had invested 10.7 billion yuan in constructing these projects.

Last year, the Occupied Region built seven county-level ecological zones, 40 ecological towns, and 449 ecological villages, with a particular focus on atmospheric, water and soil pollution.

Rural buildings dotted among cultivated fields at the foot of mountains in Tibet
Man and nature: Tibet’s natural environment is highly sensitive so protection is critical CREDIT: PHOTO PROVIDED TO CHINA DAILY

The Occupied Region has also improved its governance in industry, agriculture, finding the sources of pollution on the water ecosystem. It has carried out environmental management and evaluations in 825 villages in rural areas.

In response to Red China’s afforestation initiative, Tibet has implemented a number of greening programs.

Trees have been planted in 863 villages that used to have none, and forest coverage has increased to 12.14 percent of the lofty region’s landmass.

In 2018, trees were planted across 185,250 acres, and 37,709 acres of farmland was reclassified as forest.

At present about 560,690 acres of forests, 10.65 million acres of wetlands and more than 11.26 million acres of natural grasslands are under strict protection.

As one of the areas with the most biological diversity in the world, Tibet is also a crucial gene bank.

The Occupied Region has 47 natural reserves, including 11 at the national level. The reserves account for 34.35 percent of the region’s land area and rank Tibet first in the country.

A total of 125 rare species of wild animals and 39 rare species of wild plants are protected in the reserves.

Trees line a lake beside a village in Tibet
Sustainable development: Tibet plays an irreplaceable role in keeping Red China’s climate stable CREDIT: PHOTO PROVIDED TO CHINA DAILY

Tibet has one of the purest landscapes on the planet, according to a white paper from the State Council.

“At present, as Tibet has entered a phase of high-speed growth, the courses of environmental protection and ecological construction are not without their risks,” Luo said, adding that environmental protection should be prioritized during development.

Compared with other regions in Red China, the ecology in Tibet is more sensitive, so environmental protection is more critical, he said.

“Ecological protection should be further enhanced through laws and regulations and strengthened supervision for law enforcement,” Luo added.

In his government report, Qizhala said the Occupied Region would continue to promote environmental protection, improve standards for energy consumption and carbon emissions, to ensure that more than 95 percent of the year would have good air quality.

Tibet will continue to push forward efforts in building itself into an ecologically sound region through sustained measures, strict supervision and public participation, according to a local plan. 

The Roof of the world needs protection from the invading Red Dragon.

SEPTEMBER 22–THIS DAY IN HISTORY–THE DREAM FOR FREEDOM TRANSFORMS INTO AN ORDEAL OF SLAVERY

SEPTEMBER 22–THIS DAY IN HISTORY–THE DREAM FOR FREEDOM TRANSFORMS INTO AN ORDEAL OF SLAVERY

September 22. This Day in History. My Dream for Freedom transforms into an ordeal of Slavery. My Journey to Chakrata and Beyond.

On September 22, 1971, I was Taken on Strength (TOS) of Establishment No. 22, Special Frontier Force, a military organization created in response to ‘The Cold War in Asia.’

On September 22, 2019, I live in Ann Arbor, Michigan to welcome the first day of Fall Season. Today, I claim that my Dream for Freedom in Occupied Tibet transformed into an ordeal of Slavery in a nation which abolished Slavery with a presidential proclamation on September 22.

On September 22, 1971, I had the freedom to reject my posting to Establishment No. 22. I was given the choice to choose or decline rendering military service in support of Freedom in Occupied Tibet.

The choice to serve in Establishment No. 22 comes with risks for its military mission differs from the military mission of the Indian Army which I joined to defend India from attacks by foreign aggressors.

It may appear that I am making my own choices in accepting calculated risks to my life. On September 22, 2019, I am still struggling to reconcile with the choices I made in the past. Now, I must reconcile with the reality of my Slavery while living in a country which sponsored my quest for Freedom in Occupied Tibet.

On September 22, 2019, I have no hope that I may arrive at the final destination of my life. Chakrata in Uttarakhand, India represents the struggle ahead, a struggle waiting for me before I can arrive at the final destination of my life.

Rudra Narasimham Rebbapragada

SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE

September 22. This Day in History. My Quest for Freedom Traps me in Slavery. My Journey to Chakrata and Beyond.

SEPTEMBER 22, THIS DAY IN HISTORY – WHAT HAPPENED TODAY

Clipped from: http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history

On this day in 1862, President Abraham Lincoln issues a preliminary Emancipation Proclamation, which sets a date for the freedom of more than 3 million black slaves in the United States and recasts the Civil War as a fight against slavery.

When the Civil War broke out in 1861, shortly after Lincoln’s inauguration as America’s 16th president, he maintained that the war was about restoring the Union and not about slavery. He avoided issuing an anti-slavery proclamation immediately, despite the urgings of abolitionists and radical Republicans, as well as his personal belief that slavery was morally repugnant. Instead, Lincoln chose to move cautiously until he could gain wide support from the public for such a measure.

In July 1862, Lincoln informed his cabinet that he would issue an emancipation proclamation but that it would exempt the so-called border states, which had slaveholders but remained loyal to the Union. His cabinet persuaded him not to make the announcement until after a Union victory. Lincoln’s opportunity came following the Union win at the Battle of Antietam in September 1862. On September 22, the president announced that slaves in areas still in rebellion within 100 days would be free.

On January 1, 1863, Lincoln issued the final Emancipation Proclamation, which declared “that all persons held as slaves” within the rebel states “are, and henceforward shall be free.” The proclamation also called for the recruitment and establishment of black military units among the Union forces. An estimated 180,000 African-Americans went on to serve in the army, while another 18,000 served in the navy.

After the Emancipation Proclamation, backing the Confederacy was seen as favoring slavery. It became impossible for anti-slavery nations such as Great Britain and France, who had been friendly to the Confederacy, to get involved on behalf of the South. The proclamation also unified and strengthened Lincoln’s party, the Republicans, helping them stay in power for the next two decades.

The proclamation was a presidential order and not a law passed by Congress, so Lincoln then pushed for an antislavery amendment to the U.S. Constitution to ensure its permanence. With the passage of the 13th Amendment in 1865, slavery was eliminated throughout America (although blacks would face another century of struggle before they truly began to gain equal rights).

Lincoln’s handwritten draft of the final Emancipation Proclamation was destroyed in the Chicago Fire of 1871. Today, the original official version of the document is housed in the National Archives in Washington, D.C.

1862

Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation is announced

Motivated by his growing concern for the inhumanity of slavery as well as practical political concerns, President Abraham Lincoln changes the course of the war and American history by issuing the preliminary Emancipation Proclamation. Announced a week after the nominal Union victory at the Battle of Antietam, near Sharpsburg, Maryland.

SUNDAY, SEPTEMBER 22, 2019. MY PASSION FOR FREEDOM IN TIBET WHICH BEGAN AT CHAKRATA DOES NOT RECONCILE WITH MY SLAVERY OF TODAY. THE SCENIC BEAUTY OF CHAKRATA PLAYED NO ROLE IN THE CHOICE I MADE ON SEPTEMBER 22, 1971.

Chakrata is not the final destination of my life. It is just the beginning of a struggle that remains ahead, both in terms of time and location.

September 22. This Day in History. My Quest for Freedom Traps me in Slavery. My Journey to Chakrata and Beyond.
September 22. This Day in History. My Quest for Freedom Traps me in Slavery. My Journey to Chakrata and Beyond.
September 22. This Day in History. My Quest for Freedom Traps me in Slavery. My Journey to Chakrata and Beyond.
September 22. This Day in History. My Quest for Freedom Traps me in Slavery. My Journey to Chakrata and Beyond.
September 22. This Day in History. My Quest for Freedom Traps me in Slavery. My Journey to Chakrata and Beyond.
September 22. This Day in History. My Quest for Freedom Traps me in Slavery. My Journey to Chakrata and Beyond.
September 22. This Day in History. My Quest for Freedom Traps me in Slavery. My Journey to Chakrata and Beyond.
September 22. This Day in History. My Quest for Freedom Traps me in Slavery. My Journey to Chakrata and Beyond.
September 22. This Day in History. My Quest for Freedom Traps me in Slavery. My Journey to Chakrata and Beyond.
September 22. This Day in History. My Quest for Freedom Traps me in Slavery. My Journey to Chakrata and Beyond.
September 22. This Day in History. My Quest for Freedom Traps me in Slavery. My Journey to Chakrata and Beyond.
September 22. This Day in History. My Quest for Freedom Traps me in Slavery. My Journey to Chakrata and Beyond.
September 22. This Day in History. My Quest for Freedom Traps me in Slavery. My Journey to Chakrata and Beyond.
September 22. This Day in History. My Quest for Freedom Traps me in Slavery. My Journey to Chakrata and Beyond.

 

September 22. This Day in History. My Quest for Freedom Traps me in Slavery. My Journey to Chakrata and Beyond.
September 22. This Day in History. My Quest for Freedom Traps me in Slavery. My Journey to Chakrata and Beyond.
September 22. This Day in History. My Quest for Freedom Traps me in Slavery. My Journey to Chakrata and Beyond.
September 22. This Day in History. My Quest for Freedom Traps me in Slavery. My Journey to Chakrata and Beyond.
September 22. This Day in History. My Quest for Freedom Traps me in Slavery. My Journey to Chakrata and Beyond.
September 22. This Day in History. My Quest for Freedom Traps me in Slavery. My Journey to Chakrata and Beyond.
September 22. This Day in History. My Quest for Freedom Traps me in Slavery. My Journey to Chakrata and Beyond.
September 22. This Day in History. My Quest for Freedom Traps me in Slavery. My Journey to Chakrata and Beyond.
September 22, This Day in History. My Quest for Freedom Traps me in Slavery. My Journey to Chakrata and Beyond.
September 22. This Day in History. My Quest for Freedom Traps me in Slavery. My Journey to Chakrata and Beyond.

LET FREEDOM FLOW DOWN THE LHASA RIVER

LET FREEDOM FLOW DOWN THE LHASA RIVER.

But let justice flow like a river and righteousness like an ever-flowing stream. AMOS 5:24

LET FREEDOM FLOW DOWN THE LHASA RIVER.

Scenery at Golden Pond Ecological Scenic Spot in Tibet


Let Freedom flow down the Lhasa River.

The photo was taken on Sept. 14, 2019, shows the scenery at the Golden Pond Ecological Scenic Spot in Dagze District of Lhasa, Tibet. (Photo: Xinhua)

LET FREEDOM FLOW DOWN THE LHASA RIVER.

The photo was taken on Sept. 14, 2019, shows the scenery at the Golden Pond Ecological Scenic Spot in Dagze District of Lhasa, Tibet. (Photo: Xinhua)

LET FREEDOM FLOW DOWN THE LHASA RIVER.

A butterfly lands on a flower in the Golden Pond Ecological Scenic Spot in Dagze District of Lhasa, Tibet, Sept. 14, 2019. (Photo: Xinhua)

LET FREEDOM FLOW DOWN THE LHASA RIVER.

The photo was taken on Sept. 14, 2019, shows the scenery at the Golden Pond Ecological Scenic Spot in Dagze District of Lhasa, Tibet. (Photo: Xinhua)

LET FREEDOM FLOW DOWN THE LHASA RIVER.

The photo was taken on Sept. 14, 2019, shows the scenery at the Golden Pond Ecological Scenic Spot in Dagze District of Lhasa, Tibet. (Photo: Xinhua)

LET FREEDOM FLOW DOWN THE LHASA RIVER.

The photo was taken on Sept. 14, 2019, shows the scenery at the Golden Pond Ecological Scenic Spot in Dagze District of Lhasa, Tibet. (Photo: Xinhua)

LET FREEDOM FLOW DOWN THE LHASA RIVER.


TIBET IS THE KEY FOR BALANCE OF POWER IN ASIA. #TIBETEQUILIBRIUM

TIBET IS THE KEY FOR BALANCE OF POWER IN ASIA. #TIBETEQUILIBRIUM

Tibet is the Key for Balance of Power in Asia. It is not Geometry. It is Geography that Matters. #TibetEquilibrium

In my analysis, it is not “Geometry” but it is “Geography” that Matters to secure the Balance of Power in Asia. I coined the phrase “Tibet Equilibrium,” #TibetEquilibrium to signify the importance of the landmass to achieve Power Equilibrium in Asia.

Rudra Narasimham Rebbapragada

SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE

Pentagon steps up efforts to counter China’s rising power

 afp.com 

Maritime operations, missile tests, landing exercises: the Pentagon has been sharply stepping up its efforts to counter China’s growing military power, seen increasingly as a threat.

a large ship in the water: The US military has been using guided-missile destroyers like this one, the USS John McCain, seen here in a US Navy photo, as it seeks to enforce an international 'freedom of operation' near islands claimed by Beijing in the South China Sea
Tibet Equilibrium. Geography Matters. Tibet is the Key for Power Equilibrium in Asia.

© James VAZQUEZ The US military has been using guided-missile destroyers like this one, the USS John McCain, seen here in a US Navy photo, as it seeks to enforce an international ‘freedom of operation’ near islands claimed by Beijing in the South China Sea

On Friday an American warship approached the Paracel Islands, an island chain claimed by Beijing in the South China Sea, to affirm international “freedom of navigation” in the region.

The USS Wayne E. Meyer, a guided-missile destroyer, passed near the islands to contest Beijing’s sweeping claims to the seas around the archipelago, which is also claimed by Taiwan and Vietnam.

The Chinese claim would block “innocent passage” by other countries’ ships and is “not permitted by international law,” a US Seventh Fleet spokeswoman, Commander Reann Mommsen, said.

Friday’s was the sixth “freedom of navigation operation” — or FONOPS in naval jargon — this year, a clear acceleration in pace.

There were a total of eight in 2017 and 2018 and only six during the entire Obama presidency.

On Wednesday, the US Marine Corps announced it had conducted exercises on the Japanese islet of Tori Shima, hundreds of miles south of Tokyo, to practice landings on “hostile” shores and the seizure of landing strips.

a man wearing a suit and tie: Ryan McCarthy is seen on September 12, 2019 at his Senate confirmation hearing to become US secretary of the army, the position formerly held by Defense Secretary Mark Esper
Tibet Equilibrium. Geography Matters. Tibet is the Key for Power Equilibrium in Asia.

© MARK WILSON Ryan McCarthy is seen on September 12, 2019, at his Senate confirmation hearing to become US secretary of the army, the position formerly held by Defense Secretary Mark EsperThe exercises were clearly designed to highlight the ability of the American military to invade a disputed island and establish a supply base for aerial operations.

“This type of raid gives the commanders in the Indo-Pacific region the ability to project power and conduct expeditionary operations in a potentially contested littoral environment,” one of the officers in charge, Commander Anthony Cesaro, said in a statement.

Such a forthright description, coming from a Pentagon hardly known for unguarded talk, reflects the fresh impetus Defense Secretary Mark Esper has given to the US policy of “strategic rivalry” with China and Russia.

Esper, who chose Asia for his first overseas trip only weeks after being sworn in as Pentagon chief, has made clear that the US wants to rapidly deploy new missiles in Asia — possibly within months — to counter China’s rising military power.

– To ‘change the geometry’ –

On Thursday, acting US army secretary Ryan McCarthy, speaking in a Senate confirmation hearing, defended the development of such new missiles.

He said the new medium-range conventional missiles Washington wants to develop — now that the US is no longer constrained by the Intermediate Nuclear Forces (INF) treaty, which the Trump administration abandoned last year — would “change the geometry within Southeast Asia.”

“If we can get the appropriate partnerships, expeditionary basing rights with partners within the region,” McCarthy said, “we can change the geometry and basically reverse anti-access, area-denial capabilities that have been invested by near-peer competitors” — jargon for pushing back against sovereignty claims by China and Russia.

a large ship in the background: Sailors stand on the deck of the new Chinese guided-missile destroyer Nanchang as Beijing showed off its growing fleet on April 23, 2019 in the sea off eastern China's Shandong province
Tibet is the Key for Balance of Power in Asia. It is not Geometry. It is Geography that Matters. #TibetEquilibrium

© Mark Schiefelbein Sailors stand on the deck of the new Chinese guided-missile destroyer Nanchang as Beijing showed off its growing fleet on April 23, 2019 in the sea off eastern China’s Shandong province last month the Pentagon chose the Pacific Ocean for its first test of a conventional medium-range missile since the end of the Cold War — effectively driving a nail into the coffin of the INF treaty, which banned the use of land-based missiles with ranges of 500 to 5,500 kilometers (310 to 3,400 miles).

And in late August, Washington formally established its Space Command, or Spacecom, a new unified command charged with ensuring US domination in space, where China has been increasingly active.

Beijing rattled US military officials in 2007 when it launched a missile that located and then destroyed a Chinese satellite, in a dramatic demonstration of China’s growing ability to militarize space.

Tibet is the Key for Balance of Power in Asia. It is not Geometry. It is Geography that Matters. #TibetEquilibrium

THE TIBETAN GOD OF SNOW INSULTED BY THE MILITARY OCCUPATION OF TIBET

The Tibetan God of Snow insulted by the military occupation of Tibet.

In my analysis, the Tibetan God of Snow, Khawa Karpo is insulted by the military occupation of Tibet. The eviction of the military occupier of Tibet is the only solution to save “The Third Pole” of the world.

Rudra Narasimham Rebbapragada

Special Frontier Force

The Tibetan God of Snow insulted by the military occupation of Tibet.

The Guardian

The world has the third pole – and it’s melting quickly

 Gaia Vince

Many moons ago in Tibet, the Second Buddha transformed a fierce nyen (a malevolent mountain demon) into a neri (the holiest protective warrior god) called Khawa Karpo, who took up residence in the sacred mountain bearing his name. Khawa Karpo is the tallest of the Meili mountain range, piercing the sky at 6,740 meters (22,112ft) above sea level. Local Tibetan communities believe that conquering Khawa Karpo is an act of sacrilege and would cause the deity to abandon his mountain home. Nevertheless, there have been several failed attempts by outsiders – the best known by an international team of 17, all of whom died in an avalanche during their ascent on 3 January 1991. After much local petitioning, in 2001 Beijing passed a law banning mountaineering there.

However, Khawa Karpo continues to be affronted more insidiously. Over the past two decades, the Mingyong glacier at the foot of the mountain has dramatically receded. Villagers blame disrespectful human behavior, including the inadequacy of prayer, greater material greed and an increase in pollution from tourism. People have started to avoid eating garlic and onions, burning meat, breaking vows or fighting for fear of unleashing the wrath of the deity. Mingyong is one of the world’s fastest shrinking glaciers, but locals cannot believe it will die because their own existence is intertwined with it. Yet its disappearance is almost inevitable.

Khawa Karpo lies at the world’s “third pole”. This is how glaciologists refer to the Tibetan plateau, home to the vast Hindu Kush-Himalaya ice sheet because it contains the largest amount of snow and ice after the Arctic and Antarctic – about 15% of the global total. However, a quarter of its ice has been lost since 1970. This month, in a long-awaited special report on the cryosphere by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), scientists will warn that up to two-thirds of the region’s remaining glaciers are on track to disappear by the end of the century. It is expected a third of the ice will be lost in that time even if the internationally agreed target of limiting global warming by 1.5C above pre-industrial levels is adhered to.

Whether we are Buddhists or not, our lives affect, and are affected by, these tropical glaciers that span eight countries. This frozen “water tower of Asia” is the source of 10 of the world’s largest rivers, including the Ganges, Brahmaputra, Yellow, Mekong and Indus, whose flows support at least 1.6 billion people directly – in drinking water, agriculture, hydropower and livelihoods – and many more indirectly, in buying a T-shirt made from cotton grown in China, for example, or rice from India.

Joseph Shea, a glaciologist at the University of Northern British Columbia, calls the loss “depressing and fear-inducing. It changes the nature of the mountains in a very visible and profound way.”

Yet the fast-changing conditions at the third pole have not received the same attention as those at the north and south poles. The IPCC’s fourth assessment report in 2007 contained the erroneous prediction that all Himalayan glaciers would be gone by 2035. This statement turned out to have been based on anecdote rather than scientific evidence and, perhaps out of embarrassment, the third pole has been given less attention in subsequent IPCC reports.

There is also a dearth of research compared to the other poles, and what hydrological data exists has been jealously guarded by the Indian government and other interested parties. The Tibetan plateau is a vast and impractical place for glaciologists to work in and confounding factors make measurements hard to obtain. Scientists are forbidden by locals, for instance, to step out on to the Mingyong glacier, meaning they have had to use repeat photography to measure the ice retreat.

There is also a dearth of research compared to the other poles, and what hydrological data exists has been jealously guarded by the Indian government and other interested parties. The Tibetan plateau is a vast and impractical place for glaciologists to work in and confounding factors make measurements hard to obtain. Scientists are forbidden by locals, for instance, to step out on to the Mingyong glacier, meaning they have had to use repeat photography to measure the ice retreat.

One reason for the rapid ice loss is that the Tibetan plateau, like the other two poles, is warming at a rate up to three times as fast as the global average, by 0.3C per decade. In the case of the third pole, this is because of its elevation, which means it absorbs energy from rising, warm, moisture-laden air. Even if average global temperatures stay below 1.5C, the region will experience more than 2C of warming; if emissions are not reduced, the rise will be 5C, according to a report released earlier this year by more than 200 scientists for the Kathmandu-based International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD). Winter snowfall is already decreasing and there are, on average, four fewer cold nights and seven more warm nights per year than 40 years ago. Models also indicate a strengthening of the south-east monsoon, with heavy and unpredictable downpours. “This is the climate crisis you haven’t heard of,” said ICIMOD’s chief scientist, Philippus Wester.

There is another culprit besides our CO2 emissions in this warming story, and it’s all too evident on the dirty surface of the Mingyong glacier: black carbon or soot. A 2013 study found that black carbon is responsible for 1.1 watts per square meter of the Earth’s surface of extra energy being stored in the atmosphere (CO2 is responsible for an estimated 1.56 watts per square meter). Black carbon has multiple climate effects, changing clouds and monsoon circulation as well as accelerating ice melt. Air pollution from the Indo-Gangetic Plains – one of the world’s most polluted regions – deposits this black dust on glaciers, darkening their surface and hastening melt. While soot landing on the dark rock has little effect on its temperature, snow and glaciers are particularly vulnerable because they are so white and reflective. As glaciers melt, the surrounding rock crumbles in landslides, covering the ice with dark material that speeds melt in a runaway cycle. The Everest base camp, for instance, at 5,300 meters, is now rubble and debris as the Khumbu glacier has retreated to the icefall.

The immense upland of the third pole is one of the most ecologically diverse and vulnerable regions on Earth. People have only attempted to conquer these mountains in the last century, yet in that time humans have subdued the glaciers and changed the face of this wilderness with pollution and other activities. Researchers are now beginning to understand the scale of human effects on the region – some have experienced it directly: many of the 300 IPCC cryosphere report authors meeting in the Nepalese capital in July were forced to take shelter or divert to other airports because of a freak monsoon.

But aside from such inconveniences, what do these changes mean for the 240 million people living in the mountains? Well, in many areas, it has been welcomed. Warmer, more pleasant winters have made life easier. The higher temperatures have boosted agriculture – people can grow a greater variety of crops and benefit from more than one harvest per year, and that improves livelihoods. This may be responsible for the so-called Karakoram anomaly, in which a few glaciers in the Pakistani Karakoram range are advancing in opposition to the general trend. Climatologists believe that the sudden and massive growth of irrigated agriculture in the local area, coupled with unusual topographical features, has produced an increase in snowfall on the glaciers which currently more than compensates for their melting.

Elsewhere, any increase in precipitation is not enough to counter the rate of ice melt and places that are wholly reliant on meltwater for irrigation are feeling the effects soonest. “Springs have dried drastically in the past 10 years without meltwater and because infrastructure has cut off discharge,” says Aditi Mukherji, one of the authors of the IPCC report.

Known as high-altitude deserts, places such as Ladakh in north-eastern India and parts of Tibet have already lost many of their lower-altitude glaciers and with them their seasonal irrigation flows, which is affecting agriculture and electricity production from hydroelectric dams. In some places, communities are trying to geoengineer artificial glaciers that divert runoff from higher glaciers towards shaded, protected locations where it can freeze over winter to provide meltwater for irrigation in the spring.

Only a few of the major Asian rivers are heavily reliant on glacial runoff – the Yangtze and Yellow rivers are showing reduced water levels because of diminished meltwater and the Indus (40% glacier-fed) and Yarkand (60% glacier-fed) are particularly vulnerable. So although mountain communities are suffering from glacial disappearance, those downstream are currently less affected because rainfall makes a much larger contribution to rivers such as the Ganges and Mekong as they descend into populated basins. Upstream-downstream conflict over extractions, dam-building, and diversions has so far largely been averted through water-sharing treaties between nations, but as the climate becomes less predictable and scarcity increases, the risk of unrest within – let alone between – nations grows.

Towards the end of this century, pre-monsoon water-flow levels in all these rivers will drastically reduce without glacier buffers, affecting agricultural output as well as hydropower generation, and these stresses will be compounded by an increase in the number and severity of devastating flash floods. “The impact on local water resources will be huge, especially in the Indus Valley. We expect to see migration out of dry, high-altitude areas first but populations across the region will be affected,” says Shea, also an author on the ICIMOD report.

As the third pole’s vast frozen reserves of freshwater make their way down to the oceans, they are contributing to sea-level rise that is already making life difficult in the heavily populated low-lying deltas and bays of Asia, from Bangladesh to Vietnam. What is more, they are releasing dangerous pollutants. Glaciers are time capsules, built snowflake by snowflake from the skies of the past and, as they melt, they deliver back into circulation the constituents of that archived air. Dangerous pesticides such as DDT (widely used for three decades before being banned in 1972) and perfluoroalkyl acids are now being washed downstream in meltwater and accumulating in sediments and in the food chain.

Ultimately the future of this vast region, its people, ice sheets and arteries depends – just as Khawa Karpo’s devotees believe – on us: on reducing our emissions of greenhouse gases and other pollutants. As Mukherji says, many of the glaciers that haven’t yet melted have effectively “disappeared because, in the dense air pollution, you can no longer see them”. 

The Tibetan God of Snow insulted by the military occupation of Tibet. © tupianlingang/iStock/Getty Images Meili(Meri) Snow Mountains. The photo is the Kawagebo peak in Meili(Meri) Snow Mountains. The glacier in the photo was called Mingyong glacier.

THE COSMOS FLOWERS OF LHASA WELCOME FREEDOM

The scenery of blooming cosmos flowers in Nyemo County of Lhasa, Tibet.

The photo was taken on Sept 13, 2019, shows blooming cosmos flowers in Nyemo County of Lhasa, Tibet. Photo: Xinhua
The photo was taken on Sept 13, 2019, shows blooming cosmos flowers in Nyemo County of Lhasa, Tibet. Photo: Xinhua
The photo was taken on Sept 13, 2019, shows blooming cosmos flowers in Nyemo County of Lhasa, Tibet. Photo: Xinhua
The photo was taken on Sept 13, 2019, shows blooming cosmos flowers in Nyemo County of Lhasa, Tibet. Photo: Xinhua
The photo was taken on Sept 13, 2019, shows blooming cosmos flowers in Nyemo County of Lhasa, Tibet. Photo: Xinhua

BLESSINGS FOR PEACE. 2019 PILGRIMAGE TO MOUNT KAILASH, TIBET

BLESSINGS FOR PEACE. PILGRIMAGE TO
MOUNT KAILASH, TIBET FROM JUNE TO
SEPTEMBER 2019
A 24-day grueling trek to Mount
 Kailash in Tibet

Radhika Santhanam      September 08, 2019.

The journey to Mount Kailash is not for the faint-hearted, but it still draws thousands of pilgrims every year.
 

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Every year, faith inspires thousands of Indians to undertake the grueling trek to Mount Kailash in Tibet. Those who choose the 24-day pilgrimage organized by the External Affairs Ministry enter Tibet either through the Lipulekh Pass in Uttarakhand or the Nathu La Pass in Sikkim.

 

At the snow-covered Lipulekh Pass on a chilly August morning, we watched one of the 18 batches of yatris (pilgrims) cross over to India after completing the pilgrimage. At the same time, the next batch entered Tibet. On a rainy afternoon, we spoke to some of the yatris (pilgrims)— a young baba, an officer from the armed forces, a doctor, a homemaker, and many retired men and women — at Yama Dwar, the gateway to the abode of Shiva. This is where the parikrama, or circumambulation, of Mount Kailash, begins. It is believed that the virtues and sins of all those who cross this territory are evaluated by Lord Shiva.

On another day, we found pilgrims resting near the north face of Mount Kailash. The wispy clouds covering the mountain had floated away as soon as we reached the spot, giving us a spectacular view of the sacred peak. We also sat with the yatris on the banks of the azure blue Manasarovar lake as they performed a havan.
The External Affairs Ministry’s yatra package, for those aged between 18 and 70, began on June 8 and ends on September 8. Private tour operators also organize the yatra. The pilgrimage involves trekking in inhospitable conditions at very high altitudes. “But it is worth it,” said a 70-year-old yatri (pilgrim) from Bengaluru.
(Images & Text: Radhika Santhanam)
Image result for mount kailash pilgrimage 2019

THE DOOMED PRESIDENCY OF NIXON AND FORD

THE DOOMED PRESIDENCY OF NIXON AND FORD. DOOMED FOR NOT PLAYING THE ‘TIBET CARD’.

The doomed presidency of Nixon and Ford. Doomed for not playing the ‘Tibet Card’.
The doomed Presidency of Nixon and Ford. Doomed for not playing the ‘Tibet Card’.
The doomed Presidency of Nixon and Ford. Doomed for not playing the ‘Tibet Card’.
The doomed Presidency of Nixon and Ford stands in Ann Arbor. Doomed for not playing the ‘Tibet Card’.
The doomed Presidency of Nixon and Ford. Doomed for not playing the ‘Tibet Card’.
The doomed Presidency of Nixon and Ford. Backstabbers of Tibetan Nation.
September 08, 1974. President Ford grants pardon to President Nixon. The doomed presidency of Nixon and Ford. Doomed for not playing the ‘Tibet Card’.

On September 08, 1974, President Gerald R. Ford grants unconditional pardon to Richard M Nixon, 37th President of the United States of America. I served in Special Frontier Force during the presidency of Nixon and Ford. I live in Ann Arbor, Michigan where I have the opportunity to visit Gerald R. Ford’s Presidential Library on the University of Michigan Campus. 

The doomed Presidency of Nixon and Ford. Nixon and Kissinger treacherous actions in the Vietnam War cannot be pardoned.
In my opinion, President Ford’s pardon may not include Nixon’s Vietnam Treason. I cannot grant pardon to Nixon for he had never admitted his crime of Betrayal, Treachery in the conduct of the Vietnam War. I still recognize Nixon and Ford as Backstabbers of Tibetan Nation. Their Presidency doomed for they failed to play the ‘Tibetan Card’.
 
Rudra Narasimham Rebbapragada
Ann Arbor, MI 48104-4162 USA
 

 

Nixon and Ford attending the funeral function of President Lyndon B. Johnson. The doomed Presidency of Nixon and Ford.

This Day in History: Ford pardons Nixon

SEPTEMBER 08
 
 
  •  
The Watergate scandal erupted after it was revealed that Nixon and his aides had engaged in illegal activities during his reelection campaign–and then attempted to cover up evidence of wrongdoing. With impeachment proceedings underway against him in Congress, Nixon bowed to public pressure and became the first American president to resign. At noon on August 9, Nixon officially ended his term, departing with his family in a helicopter from the White House lawn. Minutes later, Vice President Gerald R. Ford was sworn in as the 38th president of the United States in the East Room of the White House. After taking the oath of office, President Ford spoke to the nation in a television address, declaring, “My fellow Americans, our long national nightmare is over.”
 
Ford, the first president who came to the office through appointment rather than election, had replaced Spiro Agnew as vice president only eight months before. In a political scandal independent of the Nixon administration’s wrongdoings in the Watergate affair, Agnew had been forced to resign in disgrace after he was charged with income tax evasion and political corruption. Exactly one month after Nixon announced his resignation, Ford issued the former president a “full, free and absolute” pardon for any crimes he committed while in office. The pardon was widely condemned at the time.
 
Decades later, the John F. Kennedy Library Foundation presented its 2001 Profile in Courage Award to Gerald Ford for his 1974 pardon of Nixon. In pardoning Nixon, said the foundation, Ford placed his love of country ahead of his own political future and brought needed closure to the divisive Watergate affair. Ford left politics after losing the 1976 presidential election to Democrat Jimmy Carter. Ford died on December 26, 2006, at the age of 93.

 

The doomed presidency of Nixon and Ford. September 08, 1974. Doomed for not playing the 'Tibet Card'.
September 08, 1974. President Ford grants pardon to President Nixon. The doomed Presidency of Nixon and Ford. Doomed for not playing the ‘Tibet Card’.

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

SEPTEMBER 02, 2019. LABOR DAY MUSINGS ON REBIRTH OF SLAVERY

LABOR DAY MUSINGS ON REBIRTH OF SLAVERY:

SLAVERY REBORN - LABOR DAY HOLIDAY TRADITION: "ECCE HOMO." LATIN. "BEHOLD THE MAN(JOHN 19:5)." BEHOLD THE SENIOR ALIEN. JUST LIKE JESUS CHRIST WHO RESURRECTED AFTER HIS CRUCIFIXION, SLAVERY IN THE UNITED STATES HAS RESURRECTED UNDER THE PATRONAGE OF THE US DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL SECURITY.
SLAVERY REBORN – LABOR DAY HOLIDAY TRADITION: “ECCE HOMO.” LATIN. “BEHOLD THE MAN(JOHN 19:5).” BEHOLD THE SENIOR ALIEN. JUST LIKE JESUS CHRIST WHO RESURRECTED AFTER HIS CRUCIFIXION, SLAVERY IN THE UNITED STATES HAS RESURRECTED UNDER THE PATRONAGE OF THE US DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL SECURITY.

I am posting this article in response to the Notice of Award, Date. August 16, 2014, sent by Social Security Administration(SSA), Great Lakes Program Service Center, 600 West Madison Street, Chicago, Illinois 60661-2474 in which SSA has informed that it has approved the Claim for Retirement Benefits at a monthly benefit rate of $1,347.80. At the same time, SSA has stated that the Department cannot pay the benefits because of the Applicant’s Alien Status. This Notice of Award issued by SSA is the evidence for the Resurrection of Slavery in the United States. The first Monday in September is a legal holiday in the US and this is a tradition to honor the laborer. But, under the patronage of the US Department of Social Security, the Senior Aliens who spent their lifetime laboring in the US have to leave the US empty-handed for the alien workers have no legal rights to receive the Old Age Retirement Insurance Benefit in spite of earning the requisite credits as mandated by the Law.

THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA – A SLAVE DRIVER:

WholeDude - WholeSlave: United States of America - A Slave Driver is an article dedicated to the memory of Mr. Subba Rao Rebbapragada, B.A., LL.B.,(b. October 13, 1893. d. May 26, 1948. He is my paternal grandfather who had practiced Law. In my opinion, the United States is using its secular Laws to institutionalize the practice of Slavery, Involuntary Servitude, and Forced Labor. I am asking my readers to act as the members of Jury and give their verdict.
Whole Dude – Whole Slave: The United States of America – A Slave Driver is an article dedicated to the memory of Mr. Subba Rao Rebbapragada, B.A., LL.B.,(b. October 13, 1893. d. May 26, 1948. He is my paternal grandfather who had practiced Law. His youngest son(my paternal uncle) is a citizen of the United States who lives in California. In my opinion, the United States is using its secular Laws to institutionalize the practice of Slavery, Involuntary Servitude, and Forced Labor. I am openly asking my paternal uncle, my relatives, and all other readers to act as the members of Jury and give their verdict to affirm the fact of the US acting as a Slave Driver.

This article is dedicated to the memory of Mr. Subba Rao Rebbapragada, B.A., LL.B.,(b. October 13, 1893 – d. May 26, 1948). He served as a Government Prosecutor at the District Sessions Court, Rajahmundry, East Godavari District, Madras Presidency, the Province of the British Empire in India, as a loyal subject of the British Crown. India existed under foreign rule during much of its long history and won its independence on August 15, 1947, just about 66 years ago. Indians are very tolerant of slavery and servitude imposed by their foreign masters. India has its own traditional laws and it established secular laws under the influence of its British Rule.

WholeDude - WholeSlave: United States of America - A Slave Driver. The traditional Caste System of India offers an opposing view about the status of man in nature. According to India's traditional Lawgiver, Lord Manu, men are not created equal. Manu Smriti, the Law Code of Manu describes the Four Divisions of human society or "CHATURVARNASHRAMA" that regulates the daily lives of Indian people. The Sudras(or Shudras), members of the fourth and lowest Hindu Caste belong to the menial, or laborer class. At the very bottom of Indian Social Order is a group called the Fifth Color or Panchama Varna who are often designated as the Untouchables. The Indian tradition tolerates Slavery, Involuntary Servitude, and Forced Labor that typically involves people born into the lower strata of its Four-tier Caste System. It is the Natural Law and it is the Natural Order sanctioned by tradition. In the United States, it is not religion, it is not social cultural practice, but it is the secular laws enacted by the US Congress that is creating the "UNTOUCHABLE" Caste.
Whole Dude – Whole Slave: United States of America – A Slave Driver. The traditional Caste System of India offers an opposing view about the status of man in nature. According to India’s traditional Lawgiver, Lord Manu, men are not created equal. Manu Smriti, the Law Code of Manu describes the Four Divisions of human society or “CHATURVARNASHRAMA” that regulates the daily lives of Indian people. The Sudras(or Shudras), members of the fourth and lowest Hindu Caste belong to the menial, or laborer class. At the very bottom of Indian Social Order is a group called the Fifth Color or Panchama Varna who are often designated as the Untouchables. The Indian tradition tolerates Slavery, Involuntary Servitude, and Forced Labor that typically involves people born into the lower strata of its Four-tier Caste System. It is the Natural Law and it is the Natural Order sanctioned by tradition. In the United States, it is not a religion, it is not sociocultural practice, but it is the secular laws enacted by the US Congress that is creating the “UNTOUCHABLE” Caste.
WholeDude - WholeSlave: United States of America - A Slave Driver. This is a photo image taken at Malibu Hindu Temple of Southern California. The Indian Community of the United States have a greater tolerance to the practices of Slavery, Involuntary Servitude, and Forced Labor as the Hindu Law Code describes it as the natural condition of some people when they are born. The concept of Equality at birth is not shared by Hindu Scriptures.
Whole Dude – Whole Slave: United States of America – A Slave Driver. This is a photo image taken at Malibu Hindu Temple of Southern California. The Indian Community of the United States has a greater tolerance of the practices of Slavery, Involuntary Servitude, and Forced Labor as the Hindu Law Code describes it as the natural condition of some people when they are born. The concept of Equality at birth is not shared by Hindu Scriptures.
WholeDude - WholeSlave: United States of America - A Slave Driver. Slavery was a common practice in the Bible world. Slaves among the Hebrews were more kindly treated than slaves among other nations, since the Mosaic Law laid down rules governing the treatment of Slaves. The Old Testamnet Book, The Third Book of Moses called LEVITICUS, Chapter 25, verses 35 to 55 deal with the issue of Slavery and slavery practices sanctioned by Lord God.
Whole Dude – Whole Slave: United States of America – A Slave Driver. Slavery was a common practice in the Bible world. Slaves among the Hebrews were more kindly treated than slaves among other nations since the Mosaic Law laid down rules governing the treatment of Slaves. The Old Testament Book, The Third Book of Moses called LEVITICUS, Chapter 25, verses 35 to 55 deal with the issue of Slavery and slavery practices sanctioned by Lord God.
WholeDude - WholeSlave: United States of America - A Slave Driver. The Old Testament Book, The First Book of Moses called Genesis narrates the story about the creation of man by God. The concept that claims that men are created equal has taken its birth under the powerful, moral influence of Jesus Christ. The New Testament Book, The Gospel According to Apostle Luke, Chapter 4, verses 18-19 reads: "The Spirit of the Lord is on me, because He has anointed me to preach good news to the poor. He has sent me to proclaim freedom for the prisoners and recovery of sight for the blind, to release the oppressed, to proclaim the Year of the Lord's Favor."
Whole Dude – Whole Slave: United States of America – A Slave Driver. The Old Testament Book, The First Book of Moses called Genesis narrates the story about the creation of man by God. The concept that claims that men are created equal has taken its birth under the powerful, moral influence of Jesus Christ. The New Testament Book, The Gospel According to Apostle Luke, Chapter 4, verses 18-19 reads: “The Spirit of the Lord is on me because He has anointed me to preach good news to the poor. He has sent me to proclaim freedom for the prisoners and recovery of sight for the blind, to release the oppressed, to proclaim the Year of the Lord’s Favor.” I am awaiting the fulfillment of this promise, the dawn of “THE YEAR OF LORD’S FAVOR.”

The moral influence of Christianity has provoked a man to rebel against the evil, and corrupt practice of slavery and involuntary servitude. Slavery was commonly practiced in the world of Bible times. Slavery existed in various parts of the world for thousands of years and it took the full intellectual force of Christian Faith to ban it from the globe. The New Testament Book of Galatians, Chapter 3, verses 26-28: “You are all sons of God through faith in Christ Jesus, for all of you who were baptized into Christ have clothed yourselves with Christ. There is neither Jew nor Greek, slave nor free, male nor female, for you are all one in Christ Jesus.” The New Testament Books of Bible moved away from the concepts shared by The Books of The Old Testament, and preach that man has to make a moral choice between Spirit and Sin. If a man chooses Spirit, he submits to the Will of LORD God and lives his life as God’s slave. If a man chooses Sin, he succumbs to a life of vice, and corruption. Christianity teaches that men are created equal if they share a common faith in Jesus Christ and it provided an opportunity to man not to choose Slavery, Involuntary Servitude, and Forced Labor imposed by another man, social institutions, and national entities. Hence, man has a natural right to oppose the practice of Slavery, Involuntary Servitude, or Forced labor even if the secular Laws created by man may condone or overlook such practices. The United States adopted its ‘Declaration of Independence’ on July 04, 1776 while announcing its separation from Great Britain and it had boldly announced: “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness.”

WholeDude - Whole Slave: United States of America - A Slave Driver. The Emancipation Proclamation of President Abraham Lincoln has failed to abolish the practice of Slavery, Involuntary Servitude, and Forced Labor. These practices got resurrected and are introduced into the Union territory by the secular laws enacted by the US Congress which violate the Principle of Equality of Protection under Law.
Whole Dude – Whole Slave: United States of America – A Slave Driver. The Emancipation Proclamation of President Abraham Lincoln has failed to abolish the practice of Slavery, Involuntary Servitude, and Forced Labor. These practices got resurrected and are introduced into the Union territory by the secular laws enacted by the US Congress which violate the Principle of Equality of Protection under Law.

While Americans are aware of man’s natural rights, they continued the practice of Slavery until the ‘Emancipation Proclamation’ issued by President Abraham Lincoln in September 1862 which came into effect on January 01, 1863 freeing the slaves in all territory still at War with the Union. It appears that Americans have entirely forgotten the lessons they learned from fighting a bitter, bloody Civil War to end the practice of Slavery in the Union. Americans have resurrected the practice of Slavery, Involuntary Servitude and Forced Labor by enacting secular laws that violate the Principle of Equality of Protection under Law. Such practices are enforced using the force, and machinery of its legal institutions, governmental agencies, and departments that they have created to serve their subjects who lost their discerning ability to know right from wrong.

THE INSTITUTIONALIZED PRACTICE OF SLAVERY, INVOLUNTARY SERVITUDE, AND FORCED LABOR IN THE UNITED STATES:

WholeDude - WholeSlave: United States of America - A Slave Driver. The United States Government is fragmented, the different Departments, and governmental agencies are unrelated and unconnected. There is no governmental responsibility for ensuring equitable access to retirement and health insurance benefits and the US Congress enacted secular laws that violate the principles of natural law and natural rights stated in its most important political document called 'The Declaration of Independence'.
Whole Dude – Whole Slave: United States of America – A Slave Driver. The United States Government is fragmented, the different Departments and governmental agencies are unrelated and unconnected. There is no governmental responsibility for ensuring equitable access to retirement and health insurance benefits and the US Congress enacted secular laws that violate the principles of natural law and natural rights stated in its most important political document called ‘The Declaration of Independence’ and enshrined in The Constitution of the United States of America.

The term ‘Slave Driver’ describes a person who oversees and directs the work of slaves. The United States is using its Department of Justice, Department of Labor, Department of Health and Human Services, Department of Internal Revenue Service, and Department of Homeland Security to enforce the practice of slavery and involuntary servitude in its territory while people labor on the US soil to support their natural rights to a Life of simple, human existence without accumulating personal wealth, and without aspiring for positions of power and public recognition. The term servant describes a person employed to perform services, a person who earns a wage by providing hourly labor. Serf is any person who is oppressed or without freedom. Bondage involves subjection of a person to some force, compulsion, or influence that takes away freedom. The term slavery refers to hard work, toil, labor like that done by slaves, drudgery or servitude as practiced by societal institutions or by employers sanctioned by the State. It is clearly documented beyond any doubt that billions of dollars deducted from the paychecks issued to alien workers flow to the Social Security Administration(SSA) every year. These public funds will be used by the United States to pay retirees and Medicare beneficiaries while the alien workers have no legal right to claim the benefits to which they had fully contributed under the provisions of the Federal Insurance Contributions Act(FICA). In this context, it must be understood, that labor consumes the short hours, the short days, the short weeks, the short years of human life. The characteristic of all labor is that it consumes some part of human life. All humans are subject to the natural condition called aging. The Labor Law is a body of law applied to such matters as employment, remuneration, and conditions of work. In its most comprehensive sense, it includes old age and disability. Old age is a natural condition that contributes to the disability associated with the aging process that forces the man to seek retirement from work.

WholeDude - WholeSlave: United States of America - A Slave Driver.
Whole Dude – Whole Slave: United States of America – A Slave Driver. It is the federal executive department established in 1913 to administer and enforce statutes that promote the welfare, improve the working conditions of the people who labor on American soil or territory. The Department of Labor has become a silent spectator that allows alien workers to labor on American soil without any access to their wages, compensation, and financial contributions that were deducted from their pay to give the benefit called retirement insurance.
WholeDude - WholeSlave: United States of America - A Slave Driver.
Whole Dude – Whole Slave: United States of America – A Slave Driver. In the year 2007, alien workers contributed over $11.2 billion to the Social Security Trust Fund and $2.6 billion to Medicare. In the year 2007, about 10.8 million alien workers earned about $90.4 billion and in the year 2009, about 7.7 million alien workers earned about $72.8 billion. The Internal Revenue Service collects over $7 billion each year from the payrolls of alien workers under the provisions mandated by the Federal Insurance Contributions Act or FICA. The Treasury Department has no concern if these alien workers will never see that money again as they continue to labor on the US soil and experience the natural human condition called aging.
WholeDude - WholeSlave: United States of America - A Slave Driver.
Whole Dude – Whole Slave: United States of America – A Slave Driver. The US Department of Health and Human Services is the reorganized successor to the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. It was created on September 27, 1979, whereas its branch called Social Security Administration(SSA) was established in 1946 and the Health Care Financing Administration was established in 1977. This Department collects the insurance contributions paid by millions of alien workers who labor on the US soil and has no human concern about their welfare or well-being. In the past, the Slave Owners were more generous to the slaves they owned as their private property.
WholeDude - WholeSlave: United States of America - A Slave Driver.
Whole Dude – Whole Slave: United States of America – A Slave Driver. This agency was created to provide economic security to the elderly as aging is a natural process that affects a man and in old age, the man may be disabled and would experience loss of income if he fails to earn through physical labor. The characteristic of any kind of labor is that it consumes time, it consumes the short hours, the short days, the short weeks, and the short years of human life. SSA is not concerned about the aging process and the economic security of the alien workers who pay into the System spending their lifetime laboring on American soil.
WholeDude - Whole Slave: United States of America - A Slave Driver.
Whole Dude – Whole Slave: United States of America – A Slave Driver. The motto of the US Department of Justice: ” The Common Law is the Will of Mankind issuing from the Life of the People.” The Department of Justice to do Justice must define the term “Mankind.” It must state if it considers the millions of alien workers who labor on the US soil as part of that “Mankind.”
WholeDude - WholeSlave: United States of America - A Slave Driver.
Whole Dude – Whole Slave: United States of America – A Slave Driver. The Department of Homeland Security has vast resources of physical force that it can apply on the lives of alien workers who labor on the American soil. It forcibly removes and deports alien workers and sends them to their homes empty-handed and allows the United States of America to confiscate the private property of aliens, the financial contributions made by the alien workers to public programs like Social Security Trust Fund and Medicare.
WholeDude - Whole Slave: United States of America - A Slave Driver.
Whole Dude – Whole Slave: United States of America – A Slave Driver. The United States Congress must bear its allegiance to the Supreme Power of the people as expressed by a document called The Constitution of the United States of America that enshrines the principle of Equal Protection under Law to all people whose lives are governed by the Laws of the Land. By enacting its secular laws, the US Congress has abolished the protection or fair treatment of servants and slaves that was practiced in the past by Slave owners who treated human beings as their private property. The Slave Owners were more kind to their slaves than the US Congress which has no concern for the economic welfare and physical well-being of alien workers who spend their lives laboring on the US soil paying taxes mandated by the Laws enacted by the US Congress.
WholeDude - WholeSlave: United States of America - A Slave Driver. If this nation's motto claims, "IN GOD WE TRUST" it must follow the Laws of Moses given in the Old Testament Books of Moses that concern the treatment of servants. The Book of Deuteronomy, Chapter 15, verse 13 speaks about Freeing Servants: " And when you release him, do not send him away empty-handed. If United States is unwilling to provide access to old age retirement insurance, and health care insurance to alien workers who labored on US soil, it must refund or return the property, the financial contributions to their rightful owners.
Whole Dude – Whole Slave: United States of America – A Slave Driver. If this nation’s motto claims, “IN GOD WE TRUST” it must follow the Laws of Moses given in the Old Testament Books of Moses that concern the treatment of servants. The Book of Deuteronomy, Chapter 15, verse 13 speaks about Freeing Servants: ” And when you release him, do not send him away empty-handed.” If the United States is unwilling to provide access to old-age retirement insurance, and health care insurance to alien workers who labored on US soil, it must refund or return the property, the financial contributions to their rightful owners.

The United States Department of Labor was established in 1913 to administer and enforce statutes that promote the welfare, improve the working conditions of all laborers or workforce. Social Security is a public program that provides for economic security and welfare and it is operated by the Social Security Administration(SSA) that was established in 1946. It provides some cash payment to defray income loss due to old age. The US Social Security Act of 1935 established retirement insurance. The health insurance plan called Medicare was added in 1965 and it is administered by the Health Care Financing Administration that was established in 1977 as a branch of the Department of Health and Human Services. While the US Labor Law explicitly prohibits the practice of discrimination at the workplace, it allowed the separation of workers into two distinct categories; 1. The domestic, or native workers who are entitled to claim the benefits of retirement insurance to which they make contributions through payroll deductions, and 2. The alien or non-immigrant workers who pay into the System and contribute towards the benefits provided by retirement insurance and health insurance but are legally disqualified to apply for the benefits to which they have already paid.

THE US CODE CHAPTER 77, TITLE 18, Section 1581, 1584 and 1589:

The United States has enacted legislation that specifically prohibits slavery, involuntary servitude or forced labor. These provisions are contained in Chapter 77 of Title 18. Section 1581 prohibits using force, the threat of force or the threat of legal coercion to compel a person to work against his/her will. Section 1584 makes it unlawful to hold a person in a condition of slavery, that is a condition of compulsory service or labor against his/her will by use of actual force, threats of force, or threats of legal coercion. Section 1584 specifically prohibits compelling a person to work against his/her will by creating a “climate of fear” through the use of force, the threat of force, or the threat of legal coercion(i.e. if you don’t work, I’ll call the Immigration Officials”) which is sufficient to compel service against a person’s will. Section 1589 broadens the definition of the kinds of coercion that might result in forced labor and it includes by means of the abuse or threatened abuse of law or the legal process.

“THE COMMON LAW IS THE WILL OF MANKIND ISSUING FROM THE LIFE OF THE PEOPLE”:

The US Department of Justice wants to uphold the principles of natural law and it has boldly proclaimed its motto: “The Common Law is the will of Mankind issuing from the Life of the People.” It is indeed very pleasing to read that US wants to abide by the Principles of Natural Law that are enshrined in the Supreme Law of the nation called ‘The Constitution of the United States of America’ which gives hope of equal protection, or equality of protection to all human beings who reside in its territory where the Law is the Sovereign principle governing the lives of people. I am asking my readers to tell me as to why the US Department of Health and Human Services declines to offer the benefits of retirement insurance and health care insurance to alien/non-immigrant workers aged 66-years or more who have fully paid their contributions to seek the eligibility established for receiving these benefits. The alien/non-immigrant workers aged 66-years or more are legally coerced by the State to continue to labor or work against their will. If such persons apply for their retirement insurance benefits, the State may use is its inherent power and remove those individuals from its territory and send them empty-handed and compel them to lead a life of forced labor as they have no access to old-age retirement income benefits. For this reason, I have named United States as a ‘SLAVE DRIVER’ and if I am wrong, kindly spare a few minutes of your time and tell me the reason to suggest that I could be wrong.

Rudra Narasimham Rebbapragada
Ann Arbor, MI 48104-4162, USA
SPECIALFRONTIERFORCE.ESTABLISHMENT.22

SERVICE INFORMATION:

R. Rudra Narasimham, B.Sc., M.B.B.S.,
Personal Numbers: MS-8466/MR-03277K. Rank: Lieutenant/Captain/Major. Branch:Army Medical Corps/Short Service Regular Commission(1969-1972); Direct Permanent Commission(1973-1984).
Designation:Medical Officer

Unit:Establishment No.22(1971-1974)/South Column,Operation Eagle(1971-1972).
Organization: Special Frontier Force.