THE CELEBRATION OF SPRING SEASON – WELCOME TO TELUGU NEW YEAR SRI MANMADHA – UGADI CELEBRATION ON MARCH 21, 2015:
Friday, March 20, 2015 is the first day of Spring or Vernal Equinox when duration of night and day are equal. This Friday is special for today is the day for Total Solar Eclipse and a New Moon.
THE CELEBRATION OF SPRING SEASON: WELCOME TO TELUGU NEW YEAR “JAYA” – UGADI CELEBRATION ON MONDAY, MARCH 31, 2014.:
TELUGU NEW YEAR VIJAYA: UGADI- THE DAWN OF NEW YEAR APRIL 11, 2013:
Spring is season of the year between Winter and Summer. In the Northern Hemisphere it extends from the Vernal Equinox( day and night equal in length), March 20 or 21, to the Summer Solstice( year’s longest day ), June 21 or 22. The Seasons come with cyclical frequency at the expected time while planet Earth and the rest of the Solar system partake motion of Sun in the Milky Way Galaxy and their location in Space is never constant and is never the same. THE SPRING SEASON – A REASON FOR HOPE :
The arrival of Spring Season is a celebration of Joy in numerous cultures and human traditions. The reason for Joy is because of the Season giving a sense of Hope. The reason for Hope is that of rebirth, renewal, regeneration, regrowth, and rejuvenation. In Spring, we witness the plant and animal life getting revitalized. Things in Nature change with Time but Nature remains unchanged. Nature remains constant, immutable, unchanged, or eternal. Nature does not change as mass, energy, and momentum always remain unchanged. The Laws of Conservation stated by classical Physics state that mass and energy can be neither created nor destroyed. Each Law of Conservation signifies that Nature does not change with passage of Time. We have hope as Nature exists without change. There is hope that we can recover and renew and restart a process broken or worn out. Nature’s ability to support and sustain Life is reflected in the operation of The Laws of Conservation and by operation of the fundamental Force called Gravitation.
THE LORD OF THE SEASON – MADHAVAM :
The other name for Spring Season, known as Vasant or Basant is MADHAVAM. Indian tradition describes ideas by attaching them to personalities. The person known as LORD MADHAVA is the consort of a person known as Goddess MADHAVI. She derives her name from the word MADHU which describes the nectar gathered by butterflies. Madhu is used to name the taste experience called Sweetness, the sweet substances like honey, sugar, Jaggery and any alcohol derived by fermentation of sugars. The Sweetness gives Joy and Happiness and man can get easily addicted to its powerful intoxicating effect. The sweetness has to be experienced with a sense of restraint. Man experiences a sweet sensation called MADHURYA when he experiences MADHAVI as a FORCE/POWER/ENERGY called Mercy/Grace/Compassion. Spring Season is celebration called MADHAVAM as Lord Madhava is the Controller of the FORCE/POWER/ENERGY of Mercy/Grace/Compassion described in Sanskrit language as KRUPA. Man exists at all stages of his life because of God’s Mercy, Grace, and Compassion.
THE CELEBRATION OF TELUGU NEW YEAR – UGADI :
The Telugu speaking people of India follow the Lunar Calendar and the first month of the year is known as CHAITRA. The Telugu New Year is traditionally celebrated as UGADI festival. A traditional holiday dish, a relish called ‘UGADI PACHADI’ is prepared to reflect the tastes and flavors of Spring Season. Telugu people are celebrating the dawn of their New Year called SRI KHARA on 4th April, 2011.
Happy Ugadi to all of you.
R. Rudranarasimham/Rudra N. Rebbapragada, Ann Arbor, Michigan, U.S.A.,
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE Vs HUMAN EVOLUTION WHOLE MENDELISM #WholeMendelism Vs DARWINISM:
The origin of Man, or the Beginning of Man as a new form of Life may have a basis that lies outside operation of natural causes. Mendelism, ‘The Theory of Heredity’ formulated by Gregor Mendel provides insights to the problem of man’s origin. on the basis of Mendelism, it can be said that man did not descend from Primates and is not truly related to other members of Hominid Family. Man’s relationship with other zoological species has to be explained on the basis of reproductive history and inheritance of biological traits. I coined the phrase “Whole Mendelism” #WholeMendelism to claim that man had arrived on planet Earth due to a special act of creation. There are no natural conditions, no natural factors, no natural mechanisms, no natural processes and no natural causes to transform any of previously existing members of Hominid Family to establish the reality of anatomically modern man. To make transition from an old species to a new species which is often called ‘EVOLUTION’ or ‘DARWINISM’, the breeding interactions of species involved must operate according to the Laws of Inheritance discovered by Gregor Johann Mendel, the Father of Genetics. In this article, I would like to describe the Laws of Inheritance and the problems that I encounter to verify Darwinism while using the Mendelian Principles of Heredity and Variation. For example, if evolutionary biologists or anthropologists claim that anatomically modern human species or its immediate ancestral species had reproduced with archaic hominids such as Neanderthals, the human genome has to include one complete ‘Haploid’ set of chromosomes normally occurring in the mature germ cell called egg or sperm which means 22 chromosomes(Autosomes), and 1 X or Y chromosome(Sex chromosome) derived exclusively from Neanderthal genome. Secondly, human population must include a few members that can be clearly identified as Neanderthal.
THE ORIGIN AND EXTINCTION OF SPECIES:
It will be interesting to note that a vast majority of species found on Earth have emerged suddenly and have disappeared suddenly. For example, Cambrian, first geologic Period in the Paleozoic Era witnessed sudden emergence of a great variety of marine animals especially trilobites and brachiopods about 600 million years ago. This “Explosion of Life” is aptly named ‘Cambrian Explosion’. Similarly, towards the end of Cretaceous Period, third geologic Period of the Mesozoic Era and the beginning of Tertiary Period of the Cenozoic Era, about 65 million years ago, a global extinction event called K-T Event was responsible for eliminating approximately 80 percent of all species of animals. Dinosaurs which reached maximum development became extinct while new forms of life appeared with new hereditary traits.
In Darwinism, new species arise when, among the varieties of an existing species, certain intermediate forms become extinct, and the other circumstances are such that the surviving varieties now become more sharply separated from one another in type, and are able to reproduce their kind, and , in the course of many generations of interbreeding, also tend to breed true. This ‘Theory of Evolution’ is not consistent with Mendel’s Laws of Inheritance and Variation. The Unit Character called ‘GENE’ conserves its identity during the process of reproduction which could be either ‘Inbreeding’, or ‘Interbreeding’. A species is always known by its reproductive history for the Unit Characters or Genes get propagated to the next generation during both inbreeding and interbreeding process.
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION : GREGOR JOHANN MENDEL(1822-1884), THE FATHER OF GENETICS . AT THE AUGUSTINIAN MONASTERY IN BRNO(1843-1868), HE CONDUCTED OVER 29,000 BREEDING EXPERIMENTS CHIEFLY ON GARDEN PEAS(PISUM SATIVUM).
Gregor Johann Mendel(1822-1884), Austrian monk noted for his experimental work on Heredity. At the Augustinian monastery in Brno(1843-1868) he conducted experiments chiefly on Garden Peas(Pisum sativum) using a controlled pollination technique and a careful statistical analysis of his results. He produced the first accurate and scientific explanation of ‘Hybridization’. Some evolutionary geneticists and evolutionary anthropology scholars have shared opinions claiming that the ‘hybridization’ of unknown, ancestral Homo sapiens with other species of the genus Homo such as Neanderthals, and Denisova hominids may have resulted in production of anatomically modern humans(Homo sapiens sapiens). Their views on blending of hereditary factors is not supported by Mendel’s classic experiments in Hybridization. According to Mendel, inheritance is particulate. Distinct genetic factors combine to produce a certain somatic result without losing their separate identities. They can therefore be reassorted and enter into new genetic combinations in the next generation. The hypothesis of Hybridized Anatomically Modern(HAM) humans is fundamentally inconsistent with the Laws of Inheritance discovered by Mendel. If modern man is a product of Hybridization, the present, surviving human population would include a few surviving members of Neanderthals, Denisova, and other ancestral hominids who successfully reproduced with an unknown, ancestral Homo sapiens species which got transformed into ‘HAM’ humans.
THE LAW OF BIOGENESIS AND THE LAW OF NATURAL GENERATION :
The term ‘Generation’ means to produce offspring. The term ‘Propagation’ means to transmit hereditary characteristics by reproduction. The Law of Biogenesis states the Principle that living organisms originate only from other living organisms closely similar to themselves. It is ‘The Law of Like Generating Like’. A species always breeds true to its own species. Its members always generate organisms which are classified as belonging to the same species, however much they vary among themselves as individuals within the group. The sub-groups, the races, or varieties of species are able to breed with one another, but diverse species cannot interbreed. By the Law of Natural Generation, offspring will always be of the same species as the parent organism. Hence, species is self-perpetuating and maintain stability of all other groupings like the genera, phyla, and families which remain as fixed from generation to generation. In Plant and Animal Kingdom, a species distinguishes itself by its ability to maintain its stability from generation to generation. The Mendelian System of Heredity states that an inherited characteristic is determined by the combination of two hereditary units(now called genes), one from each of the parental reproductive cells or gametes(Sperm and Egg Cell). The term genome describes the complete haploid set of chromosomes of a sexually reproducing organism normally occurring in mature germ cell called egg or sperm. This number of chromosomes is characteristic of each species. Every human being arrives on planet Earth with an original, unique, distinctive, and one of its own kind of genome that has never, ever existed in the past, and would never exist again in the future. Sexual reproduction is a creative process which involves a type of cell division called ‘MEIOSIS’ that results in production of Sperm or Egg Cell. Fertilization of egg cell by sperm always creates a new kind of genome while the number of chromosomes(Diploid set) that is the chief attribute of species is held constant.
THE ORIGIN OR THE BEGINNING OF ANATOMICALLY MODERN HUMANS:
To explain the Origin of Man, The Beginning of Man on the basis of Darwinism, demands presence of two, identical, rare, mutant individuals(a male, and a female) to produce offspring and to establish an entirely new, modern human population in all geographical regions of the Old World. About 10, 000 years ago, modern humans may have shared the planet with a few surviving members of Neanderthals and other hominid species. Techniques of DNA extraction and genomic sequencing have advanced and find application in the understanding of the genus Homo. The claims about Hybridization of archaic humans such as Neanderthals with Homo sapiens finds support from DNA studies of the current, members of human population as compared to DNA sequences extracted from Neanderthal fossils. But those shared genetic traits are not of major significance and do not account for the morphological appearance of either Neanderthal or modern man. At the same time, it may be noted that 30 – 35, 000 years ago, Neanderthals disappeared from the fossil record. Similarly, Hominid Denisova, discovered in Altai Mountains, Southern Siberia lived 41, 000 years ago. Homo sapiens floresiensis(Flores Man) of Indonesia suddenly disappeared 12, 000 years ago. Hominid Red Deer discovered in China lived 14.5 to 11.5 thousand years ago. To make a credible claim about interbreeding between Neanderthals and Homo sapiens, we need to demonstrate presence of traits characteristic of Homo sapiens in the DNA extracted from Neanderthal fossil specimens. It will be correct to claim that from Holocene Epoch or Series, approximately for the last 10, 000 years, modern humans constitute the only surviving members of the Hominid Family found on planet Earth.
Charles Darwin uses the term species to signify “a set of individuals closely resembling each other” – a class of plants or animals having certain characteristics. The French naturalist George Louis Leclerc Comte de Buffon(1707-1788) in his monumental compendium on Natural History(Histoire Naturelle General et Particuliere, 44 Volumes, 1749-1804) described man as a zoological species. Buffon determined species not by their physical appearances but by their reproductive history. Two individual animals or plants are of the same species if they can produce fertile offspring. According to Buffon, a species is known only through the history of its propagation. Buffon opened the way to development of Paleontology to discover lost species. The status of Anatomically Modern Humans as a distinct species is verified as human populations consist of members that are genetically similar, interbreeding or potentially interbreeding individuals that share the same collection of inherited characteristics, whose combination is unique to our species. Diverse species cannot interbreed. Organisms different in species cannot reproduce productively and if crossbred, like the horse and the ass, they produce a sterile hybrid like the mule. Hybrid is the term for the offspring of a cross between two different subspecies or species. In Genetics, hybrid is the term for the offspring of parents differing in any genetic characteristic.Interbreeding or Hybridization means to produce offspring by crossing two individuals of unlike genetic constitution. The offspring of different races, varieties, species, etc., are called ‘hybrids’. If Neanderthal is one of the parents of Anatomically Modern Humans, identity of the second Hominid parent has to be ascertained, and the characteristics of that parent are accounted for using Mendel’s Laws of Inheritance. The social and cultural behavior of anatomically modern man consistently displays a tendency that prefers and encourages ‘inbreeding’. The prevailing social and cultural norms of human society in general tend to oppose sexual behavior that may be identified as ‘interbreeding’. In selection of a mate for breeding, anatomically modern man prefers an individual who closely resembles the members of his/her own stock.
The concept of Hybridized Anatomically Modern(HAM) humans cannot be verified in absence of any surviving members of Neanderthal, Denisova, or other Hominid population with whom modern man may have reproduced about 10, 000 years ago.
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE :
Mendel demonstrated the inheritance patterns through breeding experimentations. He discovered in 1866 hereditary factors or “genes” whose existence he deduced without seeing them. Mendel’s statistical analysis of his data provided the mathematical basis for modern Genetics. There are four principles of hereditary phenomenon discovered and formulated by Mendel :
1. The Law of Independent Unit Characters which states that characters such as height, color, etc., are inherited separately as Units,
2. The Law of Segregation which states that body cells and primordial germ cells contain pairs of such Unit Characters and that when gametes(Sperm or Egg Cell) are produced, each gamete receives only one member of each such pair,
3. The Law of Dominance which states that in every individual there is a pair of determining factors for each Unit Character, one from each parent, if these factors are different(heterozygous), one Character( the Dominant) appears in the organism, the other( Recessive) being latent; the Recessive Character can appear in the organism only when the Dominant is absent; hence in all crossbred generations, Unit Characters are shown in varying combinations, each appearing in a definite proportion of the total number of offspring, and
4. The Law of Independent Assortment which states that any one pair of Characters is inherited independently, not withstanding the simultaneous transmission of other traits. This Law is modified by the discovery of Linkage and Pleiotropy. Linkage describes the tendency of some genes to remain together and act as a Unit or Linkage Group. In Inheritance, the Linkage Group of genes are generally found in the same chromosome. Pleiotropy is the condition in which a single gene exerts simultaneous effects on more than one character in the offspring.
ABOUT GENETICS AND THE CONSTANCY OF GENETIC CODE :
Genetics is an important aspect of many areas of Biology. Genetics helps in the study and identification of specific types of organisms; research in Molecular Genetics involves studies on chemical structure and functions of genes at molecular level; Cyto Genetics studies location of genetic material in cells and the role of genes in cell division; Developmental Genetics studies the genetic function in embryological phenomena; Behavior Genetics studies the role of gene in regulating behavior; Population Genetics studies genetics in relation to the “evolutionary” process. Medical Genetics involves application of genetic principles to the practice of Medicine such as the study of inheritance of diseases in families. Genetic factors cause many health disorders affecting man. Some human diseases are entirely genetic in origin and environmental factors play little if any part. This group of genetic disorders includes chromosomal abnormalities, and so-called “Unifactorial Disorders” which are due to single gene defects or Mendelian factors. There are over 3 thousand of such unifactorial disorders. The mode of inheritance of such disorders is straight forward and follows Mendelian Principles. Mendel’s Laws of Inheritance have their practical applications in Medical Genetics. However, the use of Mendel’s Principles in Population Genetics to verify The Theory of Evolution is highly controversial because of the speculative postulates about transformation of old species into a new species . Several single-celled Blue-Green algae, plankton, microbes, viruses, protozoans, insects, crocodiles, turtles, sharks and other organisms are known to be existing upon Earth from billions to several millions of years. The unchanging genetic code in all past and present members of these long-lived species permit the genes to have the same effects on their carriers from generation to generation. Because of constancy of the genetic code, we can identify existence of individual species which maintain their species-specific traits as per Mendelian Principles. There are numerous kinds of longest living species on Earth and their identification is possible because of their genetic codes have essentially remained unchanged.
While describing Genetics as the area of Biology concerned with the study of inheritance, the process by which certain characteristics or traits of organisms are handed down from parent to offspring, I would like to suggest that a creative mechanism, a creative process or a creative operation could be at work when Genetics accounts for variations in similar or related animals and plants. I would like to emphasize the fact of all organisms existing as Individuals with Individuality. In Nature, living things have no choice other than that of existence as Individuals with Individuality. Even a mob of genetically identical(“CLONES”) colony of bacteria of E. coli are experimentally proved to behave as Individuals with Individuality.
In higher organisms with cells that contain a Nucleus, the genetic material called DNA(deoxyribonucleic acid) is carried by structures known as Chromosomes in the Nucleus, and the cytoplasmic structures known as Mitochondria. The genetic material called RNA(ribonucleic acid) is found in the Nucleolus(present inside the Nucleus) and structures called Ribosomes found in the Cytoplasm.
The Ribosomes are the sites of protein synthesis present in the Cytoplasm. DNA interacts with ‘transfer RNA'(t-RNA), ‘Messenger RNA'(m-RNA), and Ribosomal RNA in the process of protein synthesis. The Chromosome is divided into Units called Genes. Each Gene is responsible for a particular trait and hence Gene is the Unit of inheritance. The term ‘allele’ describes either of a pair of genes at the same position on both members of a pair of chromosomes and conveying traits that are inherited by Mendelian Laws.There could be small chemical differences in genes that are expressed as different versions of the same trait (‘alleles’). Each gene is responsible for the manufacture of a particular protein which is involved in development of a trait associated with it. Each chromosome of each species of higher organisms has a definite number and arrangement of genes which govern the structure and functions of the cells. It is important to note that, while genes are located inside the Nucleus of the cell, the actual protein synthesis occurs in structures called Ribosomes present in the Cytoplasm outside the Nucleus. While we appreciate the role of genes as Units of Inheritance, we should give equal importance to the Living Substance, the Living Material, or the Living Matter called Cytoplasm that is found inside the living cells, outside the Nucleus of the cell. There are basically three classes of Genes: 1. Structural genes which determine the sequences of amino acids that go to makeup proteins or the smaller chain of molecules known as polypeptides, 2. Coding genes which specify molecules that function in the processes involved in protein synthesis, and 3. Regulatory genes which are called Noncoding genes for they act solely as “Recognition” sites for enzymes and other proteins involved in controlling protein synthesis.
THE GENETIC CODE AND THE ROLE OF MUTATIONS:
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION : GENETIC CODE DESCRIBES THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE COMPOSITION OF DNA AND THAT OF PROTEINS PRODUCED BY GENES .
The Genetic Code describes the relationship between composition of DNA and that of proteins produced by genes. Genetic Code is the chemical equation by which hereditary information is translated from genes into proteins. Changes in the genetic code are called Mutations. Mutations can cause a change in protein synthesis. In higher organisms, when mutation involves the germ-line cells that eventually develop into sperm or egg cells, the mutation and its consequence of altered protein synthesis is inherited by offspring. A mutation can be minor and relatively insignificant, or it can cause serious deformity or metabolic deficiency in the organism. Most mutations tend to be harmful. Fortunately, a typical gene in higher organisms is segmented and the entire genetic information of a gene is not contained in a single, unbroken strand of DNA molecule. The value of having the genetic code in segments is to reduce the chances of mutations causing harmful changes in protein synthesis. Certain self-repair mechanisms also exist to deal with the damage done to DNA. Very often, the damaged DNA is repaired or the cell carrying the damaged DNA is killed and destroyed. For this reason, it is important to recognize the simple fact of DNA damage associated with mutations irrespective of its cause. The Theory of Evolution proposes that random, unguided, and apparently purposeless mutations lead to gradual changes in a species and eventually lead to its descent as a new species. As per the Theory of Evolution, mutations may bring about three kinds of changes; 1. Changes in the morphological appearance of an organism, 2. Changes in the skeletal and other anatomical structures of an organism, and 3. Changes in the behavior displayed by an organism.
In higher organisms, the cells are differentiated to perform special functions. For example, muscle cells have ability of contraction. This physiological function of contraction is easily demonstrated by applying an electrical stimulus to muscle as done in Muscle Twitch in Frog Experiment. Animals have different abilities of locomotion; some crawl or creep, or slide on a surface, some swim, or move in water, some fly or glide in air, and others walk, run, climb, and swing in a variety of amazing manners. Whatever may be the mode of locomotion, all animal muscle cells display the same physiological function of contraction. While the physiology remains the same, the muscles of each animal species display individualistic functional characteristics. For mutations are random, unguided, and purposeless, they cannot account for guided, sequential and purposeful nature of muscle contractions which have several creative applications in the natural world.
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION : WHAT IS GENETIC DRIFT ???? CAN IT ACCOUNT FOR THE ARRIVAL OF ANATOMICALLY MODERN HUMANS ??? CAN WE EXPLAIN MAN AS A PRODUCT OF HYBRIDIZATION AND THE PHENOMENON CALLED GENETIC DRIFT ????
In ‘Evolution’ the term ‘Genetic Drift is used to describe a random change in gene frequency within a small population, resulting in mutations which regardless of their adaptive value, become fixed within the group. Variations in diet, variations in physical activity, variations in reproductive behavior, and variations in external environmental conditions may contribute to minor variations in ‘allele’ frequencies without transforming an old species into a new species.
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE AND THE MISSING LINK :
The above image reveals a fundamental problem faced by Darwinism when it attempts to account for Human Evolution. No extinct or living species is able to bridge the gap between modern man(Homo sapiens sapiens) and his nearest allies among Hominid Family and other Primates such as Chimpanzee and Gorilla.
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION : SAHELANTHROPUS TCHADENSIS NICKNAMED “TOUMAI.”
NATURAL HISTORY OF HOMINID FAMILY :
Senckenberg Natural History Museum, Frankfurt, Germany prepared replicas of Hominid species using the fossils discovered at different geographical locations. Sahelanthropus tchadensis lived 6.8 million years ago. It is one of the oldest Hominid specimens, found in 2003 in Djurab desert in Chad, Africa.
Australopithecus afarensis discovered in Afar region of Ethiopia, Africa in 1975. This Hominid lived 3.2 million years ago.
Australopithecus africanus ,this Hominid replica nicknamed “Mrs Ples” lived 2.5 million years ago. Discovered in 1947, at Sterfontein, South Africa.
Paranthropus aethiopicus lived 2.5 million years ago. Discovered near Lake Turkana in Kenya, Africa, in 1985.
Paranthropus boisei, nicknamed “Zinz” lived 1.8 million years ago. Discovered in 1959 in the Olduvai Gorge of Tanzania, Africa.
Homo Rudolfensis lived about 1.8 million years ago. Discovered in 1972 in Koobi Fora, Kenya, Africa.
“TURKANA BOY” Homo ergaster lived about 1.5 million years ago. Initially thought to be an important “missing link” in Human Evolution.
In Africa, Homo ergaster and Homo erectus are viewed as relatives and thought to be the ancestral forms of later Hominids such as Homo heidelbergensis, Homo neanderthalensis, and Homo sapiens. But, African Homo erectus is not related to Asian species of Homo erectus like Java Man, and Peking Man.
Homo erectus of Africa had prominent brow ridges, projecting face, and a brain volume of about a litre as compared to modern man’s average brain volume of about 1,360 cubic centimetres. Some evolutionary biologists suggested that Homo erectus migrated to Asia, and Southern Europe.
Homo heidelbergensis or Homo rhodesiensis. This replica is made from the fossils found in Sima de los Huesos, Spain in 1993. He lived about 500,000 to 350,000 years ago. Fossils also found in other places like Italy, France, and Greece. Homo sapiens may have appeared 300,000 years ago. Heidelbergensis could be the ancestor of Neanderthals which is often described as a subspecies of Sapiens species.
Homo erectus lived 1, 500, 000 to 300, 000 years ago. Homo erectus discovered in Republic of Georgia, China, and Indonesia lived until about 70,000 years ago.
Pithecanthropus, “JAVA MAN” discovered in 1891 could be the first to use fire. He used stone tools and belongs to the Lower Pleistocene Period.
It could be of interest to note that Rhodesian Man( Heidelberg Man – Germany) had a large, thick skull, a sloping forehead, a chinless jaw, a brain larger than that of modern man. The height was about five feet(152 cm) or slightly over.
Sinanthropus, Homo erectus pekinensis, or PEKING MAN belonged to the Middle Pleistocene.
Homo sapiens neanderthalensis lived 56,000 years ago. The above is the replica nicknamed “OLD MAN OF LA CHAPELLE” found near La Chapelle aux-Saints in France in 1908.
Homo sapiens floresiensis, the FLORES MAN discovered in Liang Bua Cave, Flores, Indonesia in 2003. Lived about 18,000 years ago.
The above is a replica of Homo sapiens found in a cave in Israel in 1969. He lived between 100,000 to 90, 000 years ago. It is important to note that it is not representative of true, modern humans called Homo sapiens sapiens.
Homo sapiens idaltu lived about 160, 000 years ago in Pleistocene Period(Middle Paleolithic), in Ethiopia, Africa, may mark the origin of anatomically modern Homo sapiens, making distinction between Homo erectus species and Homo sapiens species. They were at the threshold of modern anatomy but not fully modern humans.
Homo sapiens Red Deer represents “Red Deer Cave” people who lived 11, 500 to 14, 500 years ago in Maludong, Yunnan Province, Southern China. Red Deer Man had high domed braincase, small eyebrow ridges, lower jaw ended in a prominent chin, with a body less muscular than those of earlier Hominids.
THE ORIGIN OF MAN – MONOGENISM VS POLYGENISM :
The term “RACE” is used to describe any of the different varieties or populations of human beings distinguished by physical traits such as hair, eyes, skin color, shape of body, head, facial features, and blood groups. These characteristics are transmitted by heredity but they are highly variable; not every member of a race will exhibit all distinguishing traits. It is apparent to claim that races arose in response to inbreeding. Across majority of human cultures prevalent in Old World, inbreeding is the established cultural norm. In his ‘Systema Naturae'(1735) Carolus Linnaeus, Swedish botanist, gave a very precise description of man placing him among the Mammals in the order of Primates along the apes and the bat. Linnaeus presented a summary of the diverse varieties of human species. He described varieties such as The Asian, The African, and The European. Linnaeus created a system of classification that depended only on external characteristics to place objects into a rational set of categories.
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION : HUMAN VARIETIES OR RACES AROSE IN RESPONSE TO INBREEDING . CAROLUS LINNAEUS DESCRIBED HUMAN VARIETIES SUCH AS THE ASIAN, THE AFRICAN, AND THE EUROPEAN .
The French naturalist George Louis Leclerc comte de Buffon in his monumental compendium on Natural History(Histoire Naturelle general et particuliere, 44 volumes, 1749-1804) described man as a zoological species. Buffon determined species not by their physical appearances but by their reproductive history. He held the view that a species is known only through the history of its propagation. Buffon claimed that it is absurd to use the same principles for classifying living and nonliving things. Most important, apes and other animals lack the ability to speak. Buffon saw the rise of human intelligence as a product of development of an articulated language. For animals may lack the ability to attach meaning to their articulated sounds, human language can be used as a basis to define human species and its varieties. Monogenism is the theory that all human beings are descended from a single pair of ancestors. Polygenism is the theory that each race of people has descended from distinct, ultimate ancestors and hence asserts that races are created separately. If anatomically modern humans are products of interbreeding between different Hominid Family members, it would be difficult to suggest that hybridized humans stopped interbreeding and preferred inbreeding to establish the races or varieties that can be observed today. Johann Friedrich Blumenbach(1752-1840), Father of Physical Anthropology known for his work ‘De Generis Humani Varietate Nativa(1775-76), did his research in measurement of craniums. He divided mankind into five great families – Caucasian, Mongolian, Malayan, and Ethiopian. Physical anthropologists initially described three primary divisions of people, 1. Caucasoid, 2. Mongoloid, and 3. Negroid. Thomas Huxley in his paper titled “On the Geographical Distribution of the Chief Modifications of Mankind” (1870) described racial varieties such as 1. Bushmen, 2. Africoid, 3. Negritoes, 4. Melanochroi, 5. Australoids, 6. Xanthochroi, 7. Polynesians, 8. Mongoloids A, B, & C, and 9. Esquimaux. Today, some anthropologists entirely reject the concept of “RACE.” The apparent variations among members of human population have to be explained using Mendel’s Laws of Inheritance which alone can account for breeding behavioral patterns.
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE : JOHANN FRIEDRICH BLUMENBACH(1752-1840), FATHER OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY DIVIDED MANKIND INTO FIVE GREAT FAMILIES – CAUCASIAN, MONGOLIAN, MALAYAN, AND ETHIOPIAN .
CHARLES DARWIN – DARWINISM – THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES(1859):
Charles Darwin claimed that new species originate in the course of time. In his view, one species is transformed into another as a product of ‘Natural Selection’ of randomly produced genetic mutations. He formulated an opinion about the factors or circumstances under which some forms of life cease to have the status of species or become extinct. Darwin states, “The Origin of Species, like their extinction, is entirely a natural process which requires no factors other than those at work everyday in the life, death, and breeding of plants and animals.” To make transition from an old species to a new species, certain intermediate forms become extinct combined with the survival of one or more of the extreme varieties. Darwin further attests, “If my theory be true, numberless intermediate varieties, linking closely together all the species of the same group, must assuredly have existed, but the very process of natural selection constantly tends as has been so often remarked to exterminate the parent forms and the intermediate links.” As per Darwin’s analysis, anatomically modern human species may have to be viewed as a variety of one of the Hominid species that simply survived while this ancestral species and all other Hominid species perished towards the end of Pleistocene(Ice Age).
Darwin’s theory of ‘The Origin of Species’ depends on causes that can be divided into two sets of factors:
1. Mechanism of Survival that includes causes or factors which determine the extinction or survival of organisms, and with their survival, their opportunities for mating and reproduction, and
2. Mechanism of Heredity that includes causes or factors which determine transmission of characteristics from one generation to another and variation of offspring from their ancestors and from each other.
In Darwin’s estimate, the factors of ‘Natural Selection’ operate on genetic variations that cause a range of differences within a group. At the same time it may be noted that the variations generated in the breeding process are never enough to change the basic criteria applied in identification of any given species. For perpetuation of group characteristics in organisms which manage to survive and reproduce, inheritance of ancestral traits is of utmost importance. Darwin’s view on blending of hereditary factors is not supported by Mendel’s classic experiments in Hybridization. According to Mendel, inheritance is particulate. Distinct genetic factors combine to produce a certain somatic result without losing their separate identities. They can therefore be reassorted and enter into new genetic combinations in the next generation. If anatomically modern human species appeared suddenly due to abrupt mutations in a single generation of as yet unknown Hominid species, it will not validate Darwin’s view that new forms of life arise gradually as the result of a continuous accumulation of slight and imperceptible variations. According to Darwin, environment acts as a selective agency and it acts upon variations produced entirely by causes operating in the breeding process. During the period of the Great Ice Age, Pleistocene Series or Epoch, 1.8 million to 10, 000 years ago, 28 percent of Earth’s land area was covered by ice. Continental glaciers covered much of N. North America and NW Europe. Holocene Epoch or Series that began 10, 000 years ago witnessed a dramatic change in land area that is covered by ice. Now, about 10 percent of land area is covered by ice and continental glaciers are restricted to Antarctica and Greenland. In other words, areas of Earth’s surface have become more hospitable for all kinds of Hominid population. There was no geographical catastrophe and there was no environmental change of cataclysmic proportion with serious consequences for the survival of any variety of Hominid species. To adapt to changed environment was easy, food supply became abundant and there is nothing to suggest that Hominid Family members were preying upon one another in a bitter struggle of existence.
COMPARATIVE ANATOMY WILL DEMOLISH DARWINISM :
According to Geologic Time Chart which records the physical nature and history of planet Earth, we are living in the Cenozoic Era the beginning of which was marked by the K-T extinction. Most of the major and minor extinction events were the result of causes that are not natural to Earth or terrestrial factors. The exposure of living things to consequences such as collisions with asteroids, comets, or exposure to ionizing radiation do not belong to a category of circumstances that can be called ‘natural’. I would prefer to use the term ‘supernatural’ to describe extinction events initiated by extraterrestrial factors. The origin, the beginning, appearance of anatomically modern man during Holocene Epoch or Series has no natural cause. No natural condition, no natural factor, no natural mechanism, no natural process and no natural event can alter the shape and size of man’s cranium. Inbreeding, or interbreeding do not change genes, the Units of Inheritance. The sudden, and abrupt change in man’s form and morphological appearance is not due to imperceptible changes and genetic variations that accumulated over a prolonged period of time. If skeletal structures undergo a change due to mutations caused by external factors like climate, physical activity, diet, and opportunities for breeding or reproductive behavior, the skeletal structures of all members of the diverse Hominid Family living at that time have to register a change that affects the germ cells and gets propagated to their offspring as stated by Mendel’s Laws of Inheritance. If a natural condition, a natural factor, or a natural cause can account for a mutation in anatomically modern human, I would like to examine the evidence for its operation in other members of Hominid Family such as Neanderthal who lived at the same time.
Cro-Magnon Man lived 40, 000 to 35, 000 years ago. He was discovered in southwestern France in 1868. His height was about 6 feet(180 Cms), had high forehead, short and wide face, developed prominent chin, and large brain. His brain capacity of 1600 cubic centimetres is larger than the average 1,360 cubic centimetres for anatomically modern human species. He belonged to upper paleolithic culture of Old Stone Age whereas anatomically modern human species had established its presence in the Mesolithic Period or Middle Stone Age at the end of the last glacial era about 10, 000 years ago. Anatomically modern human species developed a culture that included gradual domestication of plants and animals, formation of settled communities, use of the bow, development of delicate stone ‘Microliths’, and pottery.
THE ORIGIN OF HUMAN SPECIES – THE ORIGIN OF HUMAN LANGUAGE:
In my view, Human Speech(spoken and written) is the criteria by which the difference between anatomically modern man and other members of Hominid Family is made. Human Language is one of the principal characteristics of the specifically human world. Language is the peculiar possession of human beings. While Neanderthal, and Cro-Magnon Man share certain anatomical and physiological traits possessed by the zoological species identified as human beings, they were not true representatives of Homo sapiens sapiens. In the use of ‘Precision Grip’, both Neanderthal and Cro-Magnon Man fall short of the status called ‘human’. Paleolithic art, paintings, and drawings are not the same as human writing.
The reproductive history of modern man does not support Darwinism and its assumptions about breeding . To identify and to recognize man as a zoological species, the yardstick has to be defined as morphological appearances are inadequate. I coined the phrase ‘Whole Linguistics’ to use Human Language as the chief characteristic of human species. Whole Linguistics involves three entities, namely 1. A Language User, 2. A Language Interpreter and 3. A Language Creator. It introduces a concept about the Creative Beginning of Man and his Language.
HUMAN IDENTITY, INDIVIDUALITY, AND THE MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX:
All said and done, man has no choice about the nature of his physical existence in natural world. Each man without any choice exists as an Individual with Individuality. Man deploys protein molecules called antigens to identify ‘self’ and ‘non-self’. The antigens causing the immune response that results in rejection of a tissue allograft are known as ‘Major Histocompatibility Antigens'(HLA). In man, the Major Histocompatibility Complex(MHC) is the HLA cluster on Chromosome 6. As MHC antigens were originally described on human Leukocytes(White Blood Cells), they are still referred to as Human leukocyte Antigens(HLA). The role of MHC is not limited to transplantation rejection as the proteins encoded in this region are involved in many aspects of immunological recognition and immunity response. The HLA antigens are remarkable for the extensive degree of genetic polymorphism which makes variability between individuals very great . Even among members of human population, most unrelated persons possess different HLA . This antigenic specificity established at molecular level is the evidence for a creative process, a creative mechanism, and a creative principle which determines the Subjective and Objective Physical Reality of Man’s Status in Nature.
THE PROOF OF PUDDING IS IN THE EATING :
Greek philosophers Plato and Aristotle introduced notion of Form, Nature, or Essence. Plants and animals are derived from seeds that already contain within them the Form, Nature, or Essence of the species from which they were derived and into which they would subsequently develop. To exist as a thing of a given kind, there could be an innate tendency to strive to develop into a perfect example of itself to fulfill its nature and to realize its full potential. In a purposive or teological view of the natural world, each natural thing by its intrinsic nature strives to realize its own ideal Form or Essence. Darwinism proposes a view that explains development of a natural thing in a “mechanistic” and nonpurposive manner. If a new form of life is a product of unguided, random, and purposeless genetic mutations, it will be hard to explain and account for its Form, Nature, and Essence.
All living things define their existence using about 20 Amino Acids. Protein Synthesis involves unique and creative ways of arranging these amino acids into chains called polypeptides. Protein Synthesis is a creative process for the product created by one species has ability to impart unique sensory experience in an unrelated species. Man can distinguish plant and animal proteins by using his organs of sense perception. The creative aspect of protein synthesis is in the taste, smell, flavor, color, texture, and palatability of plant and animal proteins. Man further improves palatability of proteins he consumes by refining his culinary skills.To refute the concept called ‘DARWINISM’, the Proof or Verification is in Eating Sweet Garden Peas and recognizing them from their color, taste, smell, flavor, texture, and palatability. Plants and animals do not use sensory functions like vision, olfaction, and taste in protein synthesis. The sensory experience of man is possible for living things exist with an innate tendency to express their Form, Nature, and Essence. I am asking my readers to contemplate upon supernatural circumstances that may define Form, Nature, and Essence of living things that are not explained by a study of their genes and genetic code.
WHOLE DESIGNER – WHOLE ARTIST – WHOLE AESTHETICS :
Plants have the ability of Photoreception but do not have organs of sense perception like eyes. They produce flowers as if an artist is at work. The flowers below all have two things in common: They’re beautiful, and they remind the human eye of something else entirely. These are flowers are just stunning works of art by nature.
NATURE IS AMAZING & ASTONISHING….
WHOLEDUDE – WHOLEDESIGNER – PHOTOCHEMISTRY
HAPPY NEW YEAR – THE PERCEPTION OF TIME – “THE WHOLETIME”:
THIS IS TO WISH ALL MY READERS A VERY HAPPY NEW YEAR.
HAPPY NEW YEAR – THE PERCEPTION OF TIME: Man’s perceptions and experience of Time depend upon several factors. The Past, and the Future have duration, but no existence. The Present exists but does not endure. The arrival of New Year brings a sense of Hope, Expectation about Future that brings a sense of Joy, and Happiness. The idea of a Creator gives Time, the Past, the Present, and the Future to be viewed as a continuous “WholeTime.”
We run our lives by numbers on Clocks and Calendars. The Clocks and Calendars create the illusion that we live in a world of mathematically measured segments of time. Clocks and Calendars record or represent the passage of time in conventional units, but these conventions have some natural basis in Astronomical Time, the Solar Time and the Sidereal Time. It is a continuous quantity and it is divisible into segments, durations or periods.
Earth rotates on its axis as it revolves around Sun. Man’s experience of time is caused by Earth’s rotational spin which brings changes in the environment with alternating periods of light and darkness called Day and Night. In Biology, Time has a Cyclical Flow. Both Time and Life share the same nature, the nature of motion, movement, or change that is called ‘Dynamic’. In Aristotle’s view, Time is neither movement nor independent of movement. On planet Earth, Time is relative to Earth’s motion, and Time is used to measure motion.
The experience of Time on this planet is an illusionary experience and is not an absolute experience. Time is affected by the gravitational field of each celestial body and thus is unique to any one spot in the universe. It must be noted that Sun and other stars in our neighborhood orbit the center of the Milky Way Galaxy every 230 million years, because the entire Galaxy is rotating. If galaxies are moving apart in the universe at a great speed, the position of any galaxy is not constant. Man’s perception of Time cannot be related to changes in Space as planet Earth partakes in all these motions of Sun and the Milky Way Galaxy. At no instant, planet Earth occupies the same Space and man practically exists with no awareness of these changes in Earth’s spatial relationships.
Kepler’s Laws of Planetary Motion explain that when the planets revolve around the Sun, the closest move faster than those further away. Gravity accelerates when the planet is closer to the mass of the Sun. Sir Issac Newton’s Universal Theory of Gravity explains planetary motions and motions of other kinds of celestial objects like asteroids, and comets.
Since man’s Perception of Time is relative to the alternating periods of light and darkness caused by Earth’s rotational spin, the perception of time changes on different planets of our Solar System.
I describe the planets of our Solar System as Original, Distinctive, One of its Own Kind of Created Celestial Objects as the Perception of Time varies from planet to planet and this Perception of Time is not determined by the Universal Law of Gravity which determines the planetary motions explained by Kepler’s Laws. I have reasons to speculate that an unknown Force/Power/Energy has caused the differing kinds of Rotational Spins of the planets of our Solar System. It indeed gives me a sense of confidence to assert that there are no identical planets in this entire universe while it may contain billions of stars with their own planetary systems if the identity of a given planet is an attribute of its Rotational Spin.
THE PERCEPTION OF TIME – TEMPORALISM – TEMPORAL RELATIONSHIPS:
The philosophical doctrine of Temporalism stresses the ultimate reality of Time. The term ‘temporal’ is concerned with life on Earth and it relates Time to Life. However, there is a fundamental distinction between these two measurable entities. Every thing that is born comes with its own plan for its dissolution and exists during a measured duration of Time. But, Time is essentially a self-subsisting Nonentity. Temporal relationships lead to notions such as prior, posterior, and simultaneous. In terms of Life it poses the biological riddle; Which came First, the Chicken or the Egg? There is a problem with explaining Temporal Relationships, particularly to know the reality of human existence; the reality of prior existence before the fact of present birth and existence, and the reality of a future birth, resurrection, reincarnation, afterlife, or rebirth after the conclusion of present birth and existence. The concepts of Immortality, or Everlasting Life demand that Eternity is Prior to Time, Simultaneous to Time, and Posterior to Time. There is a chance for Chicken and Egg coming into existence Simultaneously if there is a Creator or Creative Principle that is Uncreated, Unborn, Eternal, and is Prior to Time. Things in Nature Change with Time. The Power of Dissolution exerted by Time would compel man to investigate and to explore the concept of Absolute, Unchanging, Immutable, Eternal Reality that exists the “WholeTime” without any concern about man’s Perception of Time.
SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE – THE ART OF KNOWING :
When I write about Man as a Spiritual Being, the concern is not about glorifying people as saints. The issue is about man’s true or real nature. My theory of Spirituality is about “The Art of Knowing” that can provide tools to all people to know themselves in an objective manner. This is a simple challenge that can be accomplished without forcing people to attend Church or any other place of worship. The Art of Knowing does not involve what most people tend to recognize as spiritual practices such as Prayer, Meditation, Yoga, or Mysticism. The Art of Knowing simply involves training people to know what they know about others or about themselves. It must be noted that Life is essentially a state, a condition, or an act of knowing.
WHOLE INTUITION VS WHOLE MYSTICISM :
Henri Bergson, French philosopher, Professor at the College de France, was awarded the 1927 Nobel Prize in Literature. His famous works include Time and Free Will(1889) and The Creative Mind(1934). Bergson’s dualistic philosophy holds that the world contains two opposing tendencies, the life force and the resistance of matter against that life force. The individual knows matter through intellect but through intuition perceives the life force and the reality of time, which is not a unit of measurement but duration in terms of life experience. Bergson considered intuition to be the highest state of human knowing and held that mysticism is the perfection of intuition. Bergson emphasized the value of intuition in scientific thinking and argued that reality is beyond rational understanding. He formulated a Theory of Knowledge in which intuition plays a central role. He contended that the expansive and creative thrust of Life explained by Darwinian mechanism. Bergson claimed that ‘Evolution’ is creative and is not based upon mechanistic principles. For similar reasons, I shared my arguments to oppose Darwin’s Theory of Evolution. I formulated my theory of ‘The Law of Creation and Individuality’ for all known living things primarily exist as Individuals with Individuality and they have no choice other than that of existing as Individuals. In this article, I would like to recognize knowing as a basic cognitive function and this biological characteristic can be attributed to a popular term called ‘Spirit’ or ‘Soul’. In this context, I would like to interpret Bergson’s views about Knowing, Intuition, Mysticism, and the Reality of Time.
Intuition provides immediate understanding and it describes the ability to perceive or know things without conscious reasoning. Intuition is about direct knowing or learning of something without using the faculties of mind such as Intellect. The doctrine of Intuitionism claims that things and principles are truly apprehended by Intuition. The doctrine called Ethics describes that fundamental moral principles or the rightness of acts is apprehended by Intuition. In Biology, I would like to use the term Intuition to things apprehended by ‘Innate Knowledge’, the Knowledge that is inherent and not acquired, the Knowledge that is implanted in the Substance or Material called Living Matter. Plants know Light not because of intellectual ability but on account of an innate ability or intuitive power.
To learn the Art of Knowing, man has to know that the physiological basis for existence is dependent upon Innate Knowledge with which the human organism recognizes matter( such as molecules of Oxygen, or energy-yielding molecules of food substances) and further exploits matter and energy to support and maintain its living functions. To the same extent, the human organism defends its own existence by recognizing the molecules as Self or Non-Self. The immune defense mechanisms that the human body uses to recognize viruses, bacteria, protozoa, and other foreign antigens involve the recognition of molecules.
What is the Mystery of Life ??? Can Mysticism help to know the hidden truths about Life ??? Mysticism is the doctrine about knowing reality through intense contemplation and other secret practices that involve mental concentration. Mysticism is found in several religions of the world. The criteria and conditions for mystical experience vary depending on the cultural traditions, but there are three common attributes of Mysticism : 1. The experience is immediate and overwhelming, divorced from the common experience of reality, 2. The experience or the knowledge imparted by it is self-authenticating, without need of further evidence or justification, and 3. The experience is ineffable, its essence incapable of being expressed or understood outside the experience itself. The focus of Mysticism is not about the physical reality called existence but it is about a direct and immediate experience of the sacred, or the knowledge derived from such an experience. Mysticism is about the practices of those who are initiated into the mysteries, the practice of putting oneself into direct relation with God, the Absolute or any Unifying Principle of Life. Mystics believe that it is possible to achieve communion with God through their mystic practices. There are two general tendencies in the practice of Mysticism; 1. To regard God as outside the ‘Soul’ which rises to God by successive stages, and 2. To regard God as dwelling within the ‘Soul’ to be found by delving deeper into one’s own reality. Mysticism is extended to Magic, Occultism, and the Esoteric. Magic may involve the use of charms, spells, and rituals in seeking or pretending to cause or control events or govern certain natural and supernatural forces. Occultism is about hidden, concealed, and secret information that could be beyond human understanding. The Esoteric is about confidential, private, or withheld information that is intended for or understood by only a chosen few and as such the knowledge or information is beyond the understanding of most people. The rituals of Mysticism include meditation, prayer, and a variety of ascetic disciplines. If Mysticism is about Knowing the Secrets of Life, it does not demand the learning of Human Anatomy or Human Physiology, or any of the principles of Biology.
Bergson claimed that the Reality of Time is not a Unit of Measurement but duration in terms of life experience. How does the human organism knows about its own lifetime??? The human organism experiences the Aging Phenomenon which is related to man’s perception of Time. How is Time controlling or operating life experience ??? The physical reality called existence is controlled, is operated, or is directly influenced by events in man’s external environment, and the most important change in the environment is the alternating periods of light and darkness called Day and Night.
Bergson may have used the term life force to describe the vital, animating Principle called Spirit or Soul. In my view, Soul is an animating Principle for it is fundamentally related to the functional ability called Knowing. Soul is a vital Principle for it is fundamentally related to the functional ability called Nutrition, the power of a living organism to exploit matter found in its external environment. The functional attributes of Soul are related to Knowledge that is inherent or Innate and not acquired as learned experience. Soul describes man’s intuitive ability to know the fact of his own existence in a given environment and to maintain that existence while experiencing the aging process under the external influence called Time.
While writing about The Art of Knowing, I would like to remind my readers that certain things could be hidden from the human perception and man has no ability to know things even if he knows the reality of those things. Blaise Pascal, the French scientist who founded the modern Theory of Probability had claimed : “Man is a nothing in comparison with the Infinite, an All in comparison with the Nothing, a mean between Nothing and Everything. Since he is infinitely removed from comprehending the extremes, the end of things and their beginnings are hopelessly hidden from him in an impenetrable secret; he is equally incapable of seeing the Nothing from which he was made, and the Infinite in which he swallowed up.”
Which came first, the Chick or the Egg ??? Spirituality Science is not about knowing the Beginning or the Ending of things. Spirituality is about things that exist in the ‘Present’. The Physical Reality of Man’s Subjective and Objective experience of his lifetime is a functional attribute of Soul or Spirit which gives Man the cognitive ability called Knowing . If Devotion is used as a scientific method of Inquiry, ‘The Art of Knowing’ is about Knowing Man as a Spiritual Being.
WHOLE COOKIE – WHOLE REVOLUTION – WHOLE ECLIPTIC:
We need to bring a new, ‘Whole Revolution’ in the reasoning process that we use to interpret the scientific information about the world and the universe in which man finds his existence. To begin, please have a Cookie and some milk before I launch you on a trip to the Milky Way, the Galaxy, our home in this vast universe of unknown dimensions.
THE MILKY WAY GALAXY – A TOUGH COOKIE TO CRUNCH:
The Milky Way System is one of billions of Galaxies that make up the universe. It contains more than 100 billion stars.
The Sun is located near the inner edge of one of these spiral arms – the ‘Orion Arm’ – about two-thirds of the way from the center of the Galaxy. The galactic nucleus is at a distance of about 27, 000 to 30, 000 light years from the Sun. The entire Milky Way System rotates around the galactic center, but the various constituent objects do not rotate at the same velocity. Stars distant from the center travel at lower speeds than those closer to it. The Sun which is located relatively far from the nucleus, moves at an estimated speed of about 140 miles per second(225 kilometres/second) in a nearly circular orbit. Because of its relatively low velocity, the Sun’s period of revolution about the galactic center is approximately 230 million years.
The Universal System, and the Universal Order has to be interpreted in the context of man’s world of experience. In my view, the world of experience is determined by a “PURPOSE”, the “PURPOSE” that establishes the physical reality of man’s existence in a universe that is on a constant move at varying degrees of amazing speeds. My world of experience is entirely shaped by tha above photo image of a beautiful Sunrise, the event that marks the beginning of a new day of my life’s journey.
The Sun converts 4, 000, 000 tons of matter into energy every second. But, it must be noted that it is the transformation of that energy which establishes the fact of life on Earth. The energy generated by Sun is first released as ‘Gamma Rays’, and this form of electromagnetic radiation is very harmful to life. The Gamma radiation released during energy production undergoes a considerable number of interactions with overlying material on its way to the Sun’s outer layer called Photosphere. It must be realized that it takes several hundreds of thousands of years for the degraded Gamma radiation to emerge mainly as visible light and infrared radiation. Photochemical reactions are chemical processes initiated by the absorption of energy in the form of visible, infrared or UV radiation. Photochemical processes are sometimes extremely efficient for the conversion of energy from light into chemical energy. For living systems, the single most important photochemical process is known as ‘Photosyntheis’. Chlorophyll refers to the green pigment found in plant cells and it is the most important of all biomolecules. Chlorophyll absorbs light energy most strongly in the blue portion of the electromagnetic spectrum followed by the red portion. This creative transformation of solar radiation into a new form of chemical energy can be simply recognized by tasting the products that it creates. The sweetness of the ‘Whole Cookie’ speaks of ‘The Magic of Creation’.
The term ‘Ecliptic’ refers to the great circle on the celestial sphere that lies in the plane of the Earth’s orbit. Because of the Earth’s yearly revolution around the Sun, the Sun appears to move in an annual journey along the ‘Ecliptic’.
Immanuel Kant(1724-1804), German philosopher altered the nature of philosophic inquiry and he called his radical redefinition of philosophical problems and procedures a “COPERNICAN REVOLUTION.” As Copernicus reversed the way subsequent philosophers thought about the relationship of the Earth and the Sun, so Kant reversed the way subsequent philosophers thought about the relationship of the world of experience and the mind. The mind is not shaped by the world of experience, rather, the world of experience is shaped by the pattern set by the mind. In my opinion, “WHOLE DEVOTION” is a valid method of scientific inquiry and it will establish the correct mental pattern to understand the world of experience. I am asking for a “Whole Revolution” in our interpretation of the basic information Science provides to know Man’s Status in Nature. The reality of the Sun’s motions in the Milky Way Galaxy System are of no relevance to establish the reality called human existence. The Subjective, and the Objective Reality of Man is established by the apparent motions of the Sun across the sky, the imaginary plane that I call the “WHOLE ECLIPTIC.”