Whole Creation

THE WHOLE JOY OF CHRISTMAS 2018. WHOLE CHRIST – WHOLE LOVE

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THE WHOLE JOY OF CHRISTMAS 2018.

WHOLE CHRIST – WHOLE LOVE:

The Whole Joy of Christmas 2018. Whole Christ – Whole Love.

WHOLE CHRIST – WHOLE LOVE: The term “Whole Christ” refers to Jesus before His human birth, during His earthly existence, after His Resurrection, and to the Hope of His Second Coming to establish the ‘Kingdom of Heaven on Earth’.

The term “Whole Love” describes God’s Unconditioned Love that is not determined by human knowledge and rationality. The Birth of Jesus cannot be fully accounted by human knowledge and rationality for man lacks the ability to account for his own existence.

The word Christ (Greek. Christos) refers to the Messiah whose appearance is prophesied in the Old Testament and is used as a title to describe Jesus of Nazareth. I am using the phrase “WholeChrist” to describe Jesus before His human birth, Jesus during the years spent on this Earth, Jesus after His Resurrection, and Jesus who gives the Hope of the Second Coming to establish ‘The Kingdom of Heaven on Earth’. The word Christ may not communicate the entirety of Jesus and in the four Gospels, we do not obtain the full picture as the event called ‘The Second Coming’ has not yet taken place. The word “Love” (Hebrew. ‘Ahavah’, Greek. ‘agape’) is presented in Scripture as the very nature or essence of God, the supreme attribute in which all other attributes are harmonized. Love is a bond that unites all virtues. I consider the Power/Force/Energy of Mercy, Grace, and Compassion as the operating mechanism of God’s Love and could be simply called Divine Providence. I am using the phrase “whole love” to describe God’s Unconditioned Love that is not determined or fully accounted by human knowledge and human rationality. In other words, I have no ability to empower myself to receive Unconditioned Love. I cannot manipulate God’s Whole Love through my actions, behavior, or even prayers. I can experience Whole Love but, I cannot explain or fully account for the existence of that Love.

WHOLE CHRIST – WHOLE LOVE – WHOLE CREATION: THE BIRTH OF JESUS:

The Whole Joy of Christmas 2018. Whole Christ – Whole Love.

Whole Christ – Whole Love – Whole Creation: The Birth of Jesus as a Spiritual Being cannot be fully accounted for by using human knowledge and human rationality.

Man must try to know and understand as to where he exists and as to how he exists. God uses the dimension called WholeLove to bring Unity and Harmony between the dimensions of Matter, Energy, Time, and Space to create man and the World in which man exists.

Man cannot explain the Birth of Jesus using his scientific knowledge. The Birth of Jesus can only be understood as a fact of Creation, a creative event. It should not come as a surprise as each human being who took birth on Earth has always arrived as an original, unique, distinctive, and one of its own kind of object with a genome that never existed in the past and would also never exist again in the future. Each man is born as a created being and the birth of Jesus as a singular event reveals a creative mechanism not known to man and not subject to the limitations of man’s rational power. God uses the dimension called WholeLove to bring Unity and Harmony between the dimensions of Matter, Energy, Time, and Space to create man and the World in which man exists.

WHOLE CHRIST – WHOLE LOVE – WHOLE EXISTENCE:

The Whole Joy of Christmas 2018. Whole Christ – Whole Love.

Whole Christ – Whole Love – Whole Existence: The Birth of Jesus and His earthly existence describes the operation of a Supreme, Spiritual Whole Law that harmonizes all Laws of Nature that operate in the physical world to establish Whole Existence which may be stated as a Law of Conservation:” Matter is neither created nor destroyed.” Similarly, it can be stated: “Life is neither created nor destroyed.”

The Whole Joy of Christmas 2018. Whole Christ – Whole Love.

Whole Christ – Whole Love – Whole Existence: God Exists. Very often people raise the question about God’s place of existence in this vast universe of unknown dimensions. Where does man exist? How could the man be certain about the location of his own existence in this universe which is constantly moving every instant?

The Whole Joy of Christmas 2018. Whole Christ – Whole Love.

Whole Christ – Whole Love – Whole Existence: Where does man exist? It is easy to describe man’s place of existence in the Solar System, and Milky Way Galaxy. In reality, man exists in Space without any awareness of his position that is changing every instant. No object that is known in this universe continues to exist in the same position at two different instants. Man exists in a restless universe under the Blissful influence called Whole Love which shields man from the harsh realities of the physical universe.

To experience the Joy of Christmas, to seek the uplifting power of Jesus Christ, man must know the truth and reality about human existence. Human knowledge and rationality in themselves do nothing to justify human existence or the existence of this universe. To establish the fact of this human existence on one known planet called Earth is beyond the abilities of human cognitive powers. The biological basis of human existence demands the support of Love whose operating principles are Mercy, Grace, and Compassion. This Love is not conditioned by human behavior and human actions and not even prayers. Man cannot empower himself to acquire God’s Love using his free will. The good and evil actions of man, the right and bad conduct of man will be possible if and only if man’s existence precedes his actions and behavior. It is often argued that the evil and suffering in the world seems to count against the existence of God. I have to account for my physical existence before I can share the experience of pain, misery, disappointment, frustration, and suffering of my life’s condition. The fact or the reality of human pain and suffering cannot exclude the fact of God’s existence. The man at any given age and any given stage of his existence, from conception, physical birth, infancy, youth, adult, old age and death, in ill-health or good health depends upon an Unchanging Spiritual Principle to bring Unity and Harmony to maintain that condition or state called existence. This concept of God’s Unconditioned Love or WholeLove for man is shared by the Birth of Jesus. When I think of this Whole Love, I feel better, my mood gets uplifted, the burden of my painful existence is eased, and I can sense the Joy of the Season.

WHOLE CHRIST – WHOLE LOVE – WHOLE LAW:

The Whole Joy of Christmas 2018. Whole Christ – Whole Love.

Whole Christ – Whole Love – Whole Law: Love is defined by stating its attributes. Love is Patient. Love is Kind. Love does not envy. Love does not boast, it is not proud. Love is not rude. Love is not self-seeking. Love is not easily angered. Love protects, trusts, hopes, always persevere and Love never fails. Divine Mother Mary is seen expressing such Love for her baby Jesus.

Apostle Paul in his First Epistle to Corinthians, in the New Testament Book of 1 Corinthians, Chapter 13, verses #4 to 8 describes the attributes of Love: “Love is patient, love is kind. It does not envy. It does not boast, it is not proud. It is not rude, it is not self-seeking, it is not easily angered, it keeps no record of wrongs. Love does not delight in evil but rejoices with the truth. Love always protects, always trusts, always hopes, always perseveres. Love never fails. But where there are prophecies, they will cease; where there are tongues, they will be stilled; where there is knowledge, it will pass away.”  Jesus Christ while teaching the operating principle called Love, names Love as a Law, a Law above all other laws of nature, and above all other Commandments. In the Gospel According to Saint Matthew, Chapter 22, verses #37 to 40 “Whole Love” is explained as “Whole Law”: Jesus replied:” ‘Love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your mind.’ This is the first and greatest commandment. And the second is like it: ‘Love your neighbor as yourself.’ All the Law and the Prophets hang on these two commandments.” Love is the supreme attribute, nature, and essence of God and at the same time, it operates as a Law above all other Laws of Nature and the commandments shared by Prophets. Whole Love can be stated as the Whole Law that governs the existence of man and gives the man the chance to experience Peace, Harmony, and Tranquility in his living condition.

WHOLE CHRIST – WHOLE LOVE – WHOLE REALITY:

The Whole Joy of Christmas 2018. Whole Christ – Whole Love.

Whole Christ – Whole Love – Whole Reality: The Birth of Jesus Christ. Life is neither created nor destroyed. The term Whole Christ describes Jesus as an eternal, immortal, unborn Spiritual Principle that existed before His birth, that existed in the Middle or during His earthly Life and continues to exist in Future without being influenced by Time.

Apostle Paul in his First Epistle to Corinthians, in the New Testament Book of 1 Corinthians, Chapter 13, verse#13 states the Principle of Conservation: “And now these three remain: faith, hope, and love. But the greatest of these is love.”  Man exists in a world that is restless and is constantly changing. The Individual, the created human being, is born, grows and develops, exists with a physical identity that constantly changes under the powerful influence of Time. The event called Death records the loss of that Physical Identity that is never constant at any time of its earthly existence. In the natural world, such changes in appearance are governed by the Laws of Conservation such as the Laws of Conservation of Mass, Energy, and Momentum. During man’s physical existence, the physical form and appearance change and yet the Spiritual Principles of Faith, Hope, and Love are conserved. Man cannot depend upon his knowledge and rationality as they are always subject to change. To know the Subjective and Objective Reality or the “whole Reality” of his ‘WholeExistence’, man needs to know the Law of Conservation of Faith, Hope, and Love.

WHOLE CHRIST – WHOLE LOVE – WHOLE PRAYER:

The Whole Joy of Christmas 2018. Whole Christ – Whole Love.

Whole Christ – Whole Love – Whole Prayer: The Gospel According to Saint Matthew, Chapter 6 gives the account of “Whole Prayer” that is popularly known as ‘Lord’s Prayer’. Father knows what you need before you ask Him. We pray, for His “WILL” be done on earth as it is in Heaven. The ‘Whole Prayer’ gives virtues such as Patience, Perseverance, Tolerance, and Kindness the attributes of ‘Whole Love’.

The word Prayer refers to man’s communication with God. It is a spiritual or devotional communication to make a humble, sincere request. Prayer is the act of supplication and it includes words of praise, words of thanksgiving, words of confession, and words of a plea seeking the sanction of favor to transform a mental desire into a physical reality in the external world. If God is omniscient, He must know of the evil; and if God is omnipotent, He must be able to remove the evil; and if God is perfectly benevolent and is loving, there should be no pain and suffering. To experience pain and misery, to experience suffering, disappointment, and frustration, I have to maintain the condition called existence. At a fundamental level, I have to understand my ability to know things, my power to rule or govern things, and I must know my ability to make choices to change things in my external environment. Jesus in the New Testament Book of Matthew, Chapter 6, verse# 8 instructs: “Do not be like them(pagans), for your Father knows what you need before you ask Him.”  In Lord’s Prayer, Jesus makes it abundantly clear that the purpose of the ‘Whole Prayer’ is that of asking, “Your will be done on earth as it is in heaven.” Using my human knowledge and rationality, I can neither account for my existence nor account for my experience of pain and suffering which describes the nature of my existence. I describe ‘WholePrayer’ as an act of Faith, and Hope in recognition of the fact or reality called WholeLove that imparts its qualities and virtues such as Patience, Perseverance, Tolerance, and Kindness. Even if I cannot change the circumstances of my life that cause or give the experience of pain, suffering, and misery, the acceptance of Whole Love makes me pain-tolerant and pain-resistant. It gives me the strength called ‘Endurance’ to overcome the challenge called the ‘Stress of Life’.

The Whole Joy of Christmas 2018. Whole Christ – Whole Love.

Whole Christ – Whole Love: “That which is done out of Love always takes place beyond Good and Evil.” (Nietzsche). Man, with his Good or Evil actions and behavior cannot control the flow of God’s Unconditioned or ‘WholeLove’.

I wish you all a Merry Christmas.

Rudranarasimham Rebbapragada

BHAVANAJAGAT.ORG

https://bhavanajagat.com/2009/12/25/The-Joy-of-Christmas-The-Uplifting-Power-of-Christ/

The Whole Joy of Christmas 2018. Whole Christ – Whole Love.
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WHOLE MENDELISM – #WholeMendelism VS DARWINISM

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MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE  Vs  HUMAN EVOLUTION WHOLE MENDELISM  #WholeMendelism  Vs  DARWINISM:

The origin of Man, or the Beginning of Man as a new form of Life may have a basis that lies outside  operation of natural causes. Mendelism, ‘The Theory of Heredity’ formulated by Gregor Mendel provides insights to the problem of man’s origin. on the basis of Mendelism, it can be said that man did not descend from Primates and is not truly related to other members of Hominid Family. Man’s relationship with other zoological species has to be explained on the basis of reproductive history and inheritance of  biological traits. I coined the phrase “Whole Mendelism” #WholeMendelism to claim that man had arrived on planet Earth due to a special act of creation.  There are no natural conditions, no natural factors, no natural mechanisms, no natural processes and no natural causes to transform any of previously existing members of Hominid Family to establish the reality of anatomically modern man. To make  transition from an old species to a new species which is often called ‘EVOLUTION’ or ‘DARWINISM’, the breeding interactions of species involved must operate according to the Laws of Inheritance discovered by Gregor Johann Mendel, the Father of Genetics. In this article, I would like to describe the Laws of Inheritance and the problems that I encounter to verify Darwinism while using the Mendelian Principles of Heredity and Variation. For example, if evolutionary biologists or anthropologists claim that anatomically modern human species or its immediate ancestral species had reproduced with archaic hominids such as Neanderthals, the human genome has to include one complete ‘Haploid’ set of chromosomes normally occurring in the mature germ cell called egg or sperm  which means 22 chromosomes(Autosomes), and 1  X or Y chromosome(Sex chromosome) derived exclusively from Neanderthal genome. Secondly, human population must include a few members that can be clearly identified as Neanderthal.

THE ORIGIN AND EXTINCTION OF SPECIES:

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  : AFTER  THE  ORIGIN  OF  LIFE  ON  EARTH  FOR  A  VERY,  VERY  LONG  TIME( ABOUT  3.5  BILLION  YEARS)  IT  COMPRISED  OF  SIMPLER  FORMS  OF  LIFE .  SUDDENLY,  ABOUT  600  MILLION  YEARS  AGO  NUMEROUS  MARINE  CREATURES  ARRIVED  TO  CAUSE  AN  "EXPLOSION  OF  LIFE."
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION : AFTER THE ORIGIN OF LIFE ON EARTH FOR A VERY, VERY LONG TIME( ABOUT 3.5 BILLION YEARS) IT COMPRISED OF SIMPLER FORMS OF LIFE . SUDDENLY, ABOUT 600 MILLION YEARS AGO NUMEROUS MARINE CREATURES ARRIVED TO CAUSE AN “EXPLOSION OF LIFE.”

It will be interesting to note that a vast majority of species found on Earth have emerged suddenly and have disappeared suddenly. For example, Cambrian, first geologic Period in the Paleozoic Era witnessed  sudden emergence of a great variety of marine animals especially trilobites and brachiopods about 600 million years ago. This “Explosion of Life” is aptly named ‘Cambrian Explosion’. Similarly, towards the end of Cretaceous Period, third geologic Period of the Mesozoic Era and the beginning of Tertiary Period of the Cenozoic Era, about 65 million years ago, a global extinction event called K-T Event was responsible for eliminating approximately 80 percent of all species of animals. Dinosaurs which reached maximum development became extinct while new forms of life appeared with new hereditary traits.

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION :   THESE  DEEP  SEA  CREATURES  OF  ATLANTIC  OCEAN,  LAMELLIBRACHIA  LUYMESI,  TUBE  WORMS,  INVERTEBRATES  BELONG  TO  PHYLUM  ANNELIDA  LIVE  ON  THE  OCEAN  FLOOR  ALONG  HYDROCARBON  VENTS.  TUBE  WORMS  TAKE  170  TO  250  YEARS  TO  GROW  AND  HAVE  SURVIVED  AS  A  SPECIES  WITHOUT  CONCERN  FOR  CHANGING  TIMES.
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION : THESE DEEP SEA CREATURES OF ATLANTIC OCEAN, LAMELLIBRACHIA LUYMESI, TUBE WORMS, INVERTEBRATES BELONG TO PHYLUM  ANNELIDA  LIVE  ON  THE  OCEAN  FLOOR  ALONG  HYDROCARBON VENTS. TUBE WORMS TAKE 170 TO 250 YEARS TO GROW AND HAVE SURVIVED AS A SPECIES WITHOUT CONCERN FOR CHANGING TIMES SINCE  PRECAMBRIAN  ERA .
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION :  DARWINISM  CANNOT  ACCOUNT  FOR  SUDDEN  APPEARANCE  OF  A  VARIETY  OF  MARINE  LIFE  FORMS IN  AN  EVENT  CALLED 'CAMBRIAN  EXPLOSION'  ABOUT  570  MILLION  YEARS  AGO .  GEODUCK,  BIVALVE  CLAMS ARE  AMONG  THE  OLDEST  ANIMALS  IN  THE  WORLD  WITH  LIFESPANS  OF  ABOUT  146  TO  160  YEARS .
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION : DARWINISM CANNOT ACCOUNT FOR SUDDEN APPEARANCE OF A VARIETY OF MARINE LIFE FORMS IN AN EVENT CALLED ‘CAMBRIAN EXPLOSION’ ABOUT 570 MILLION YEARS AGO . PANOPEA  GENEROSA, GEODUCK(NATIVE  AMERICAN CHINOOK  NAME), BIVALVE,  WORLD’S  LARGEST  BURROWING  SALT  WATER  CLAMS  FOUND  IN  THE  US  PUGET  SOUND  ARE AMONG THE OLDEST ANIMALS IN THE WORLD WITH LIFESPANS OF ABOUT 146 TO 160 YEARS .
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :   CRETACEOUS-TERTIARY  EXTINCTION  EVENT  ABOUT  65  MILLION  YEARS  AGO  WIPED  OUT  APPROXIMATELY  80  PERCENT  OF  ALL  SPECIES  OF  ANIMALS  INCLUDING  A  GREAT  VARIETY  OF  DINOSAURS .
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION : CRETACEOUS-TERTIARY EXTINCTION EVENT ABOUT 65 MILLION YEARS AGO WIPED OUT APPROXIMATELY 80 PERCENT OF ALL SPECIES OF ANIMALS INCLUDING A GREAT VARIETY OF DINOSAURS .
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION :  DARWINISM  CANNOT  EXPLAIN  EITHER  THE  EMERGENCE  OF  NEW  SPECIES  OR  EXTINCTION  OF  OLD  SPECIES.  NATURAL  FACTORS,  NATURAL  CONDITIONS,  NATURAL  MECHANISMS ,  AND  NATURAL  CAUSES  CANNOT  FULLY  ACCOUNT  FOR  EXTINCTION  OF  THE  LARGE-BODIED  ICE  AGE  MAMMALS  SUCH  AS  WOOLLY  RHINOCEROS,  WOOLY  MAMMOTHS, MASTODONS, AND  SABERTOOTH  CARNIVORES .
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION : DARWINISM CANNOT EXPLAIN EITHER THE EMERGENCE OF NEW SPECIES OR EXTINCTION OF OLD SPECIES. NATURAL FACTORS, NATURAL CONDITIONS, NATURAL MECHANISMS , AND NATURAL CAUSES CANNOT FULLY ACCOUNT FOR EXTINCTION OF THE LARGE-BODIED ICE AGE MAMMALS SUCH AS WOOLLY RHINOCEROS, WOOLY MAMMOTHS, MASTODONS, AND SABERTOOTH CARNIVORES .

In Darwinism, new species arise when, among the varieties of an existing species, certain intermediate forms become extinct, and the other circumstances are such that the surviving varieties now become more sharply separated from one another in type, and are able to reproduce their kind, and , in the course of many generations of interbreeding, also tend to breed true. This ‘Theory of Evolution’ is not consistent with Mendel’s Laws of Inheritance and Variation. The Unit Character called ‘GENE’ conserves its identity during the process of reproduction which could be either ‘Inbreeding’, or ‘Interbreeding’. A species is always known by its reproductive history for the Unit Characters or Genes get propagated to the next generation during both inbreeding and interbreeding process.

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE

MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  GREGOR  JOHANN  MENDEL(1822-1884),  THE  FATHER  OF  GENETICS .  AT  THE  AUGUSTINIAN  MONASTERY  IN  BRNO(1843-1868),  HE  CONDUCTED OVER 29,000 BREEDING  EXPERIMENTS  CHIEFLY  ON  GARDEN PEAS(PISUM  SATIVUM).

Gregor Johann Mendel(1822-1884), Austrian monk noted for his experimental work on Heredity. At the Augustinian monastery in Brno(1843-1868) he conducted experiments chiefly on Garden Peas(Pisum sativum) using a controlled pollination technique and a careful statistical analysis of his results. He produced the first accurate and scientific explanation of ‘Hybridization’. Some evolutionary geneticists and evolutionary anthropology scholars have shared opinions claiming that the ‘hybridization’ of unknown, ancestral Homo sapiens with other species of the genus Homo such as Neanderthals, and Denisova hominids may have resulted in  production of anatomically modern humans(Homo sapiens sapiens). Their views on blending of hereditary factors is not supported by Mendel’s classic experiments in Hybridization. According to Mendel, inheritance is particulate. Distinct genetic factors combine to produce a certain somatic result without losing their separate identities. They can therefore be reassorted and enter into new genetic combinations in the next generation. The hypothesis of  Hybridized Anatomically Modern(HAM) humans is fundamentally inconsistent with the Laws of Inheritance discovered by Mendel. If modern man is a product of Hybridization, the present, surviving human population would include a few surviving members of Neanderthals, Denisova, and other ancestral hominids who successfully reproduced with an unknown, ancestral Homo sapiens species which got transformed into ‘HAM’ humans.

THE LAW OF BIOGENESIS AND THE LAW OF NATURAL GENERATION :

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  HUMAN  CHROMOSOMES  AND  HUMAN  IDENTITY .  MAN  REPRODUCES  AND  FURTHER  PROPAGATES  HIS  CHROMOSOMAL  INHERITANCE  ACCORDING  TO  THE  LAW  OF  BIOGENESIS  AND  THE  LAW  OF  NATURAL  GENERATION .
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION : DIPLOID  SET  OF  HUMAN CHROMOSOMES  AND  HUMAN  GENOTYPE  . MAN  REPRODUCES  AND  FURTHER PROPAGATES  HIS  CHROMOSOMAL  INHERITANCE  ACCORDING  TO  THE  LAW  OF BIOGENESIS  AND  THE  LAW  OF  NATURAL  GENERATION . HUMAN  OFFSPRING  WILL  ALWAYS  BE  OF  THE  SAME  SPECIES  AS  THE  PARENT  ORGANISM . THE  TERM  GENOME  DESCRIBES  THE  SET  OF  GENES  CHARACTERISTIC  OF  EACH  SPECIES .

The term ‘Generation’ means to produce offspring. The term ‘Propagation’ means to transmit hereditary characteristics by reproduction. The Law of Biogenesis states the Principle that living organisms originate only from other living organisms closely similar to themselves. It is  ‘The Law of Like Generating Like’. A species always breeds true to its own species. Its members always generate organisms which are classified as belonging to the same species, however much they vary among themselves as individuals within the group. The sub-groups, the races, or varieties of species are able to breed with one another, but diverse species cannot interbreed. By the Law of Natural Generation, offspring will always be of the same species as the parent organism. Hence, species is self-perpetuating and maintain  stability of all other groupings like the genera, phyla, and families which remain as fixed from generation to generation. In Plant and Animal Kingdom, a species distinguishes itself by its ability to maintain its stability from generation to generation. The Mendelian System of Heredity states that an inherited characteristic is determined by the combination of two hereditary units(now called genes), one from each of the parental reproductive cells or gametes(Sperm and Egg Cell). The term genome describes the complete haploid set of chromosomes of a sexually reproducing organism normally occurring in mature germ cell called egg or sperm. This number of chromosomes is characteristic of each species. Every human being arrives on planet Earth with an original, unique, distinctive, and one of its own kind of  genome that has never, ever existed in the past, and would never exist again in the future. Sexual reproduction is a creative process which involves a type of cell division called ‘MEIOSIS’ that results in production of Sperm or Egg Cell. Fertilization of egg cell by sperm always creates a new kind of genome while the number of chromosomes(Diploid set) that is the chief attribute of species is held constant.

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE   VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION :  HUMAN  BIRTH  REQUIRES  THE  UNION  OF  TWO  HEREDITARY  UNITS,  ONE  FROM  EACH  OF  THE  PARENTAL  REPRODUCTIVE  CELLS  OR  GAMETES (SPERM  AND  EGG  CELL) .  MEIOSIS  OR  HAPLOID  DIVISION  IS  A  HIGHLY  CREATIVE  PROCESS  AS  IT  GENERATES  A UNIQUE ,  ORIGINAL,   DISTINCTIVE,  AND  ONE  OF  ITS  OWN  KIND  OF  GENOME, A  COMPLETE  HAPLOID  SET  OF  CHROMOSOMES  WHILE  THE  DIPLOID SET  OF  CHROMOSOMES AFTER FERTILIZATION  OR  CONCEPTION  IS  CONSTANT .

THE ORIGIN OR THE BEGINNING OF ANATOMICALLY MODERN HUMANS:

To explain the Origin of Man, The Beginning of Man on the basis of Darwinism, demands  presence of two, identical, rare, mutant individuals(a male, and a female) to produce offspring and to establish an entirely new, modern human population in all geographical regions of the Old World. About 10, 000 years ago, modern humans may have shared the planet with a few surviving members of Neanderthals and other hominid species. Techniques of DNA extraction and genomic sequencing have advanced and find application in the understanding of the genus Homo. The claims about Hybridization of archaic humans such as Neanderthals with Homo sapiens  finds support from DNA studies of the current,  members of human population as compared to DNA sequences extracted from Neanderthal fossils. But those shared genetic traits are not of major significance and do not account for the morphological appearance of either Neanderthal or modern man. At the same time, it may be noted that 30 – 35, 000 years ago, Neanderthals disappeared from the fossil record. Similarly, Hominid Denisova, discovered in Altai Mountains, Southern Siberia lived 41, 000 years ago. Homo sapiens floresiensis(Flores Man) of Indonesia  suddenly disappeared 12, 000 years ago. Hominid Red Deer discovered in China lived 14.5 to 11.5 thousand years ago. To make a credible claim about interbreeding between Neanderthals and Homo sapiens, we need to demonstrate  presence of traits characteristic of Homo sapiens in the DNA extracted from Neanderthal fossil specimens. It will be correct to claim that from Holocene Epoch or Series, approximately for the last 10, 000 years, modern humans constitute the only surviving members of the Hominid Family found on planet Earth.

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  THE  MENDELIAN  SYSTEM  OF  HEREDITY  CAN  EASILY  ESTABLISH  THE  FACT  THAT  THIS  HUMAN  BABY  HAS  TWO ANATOMICALLY  MODERN  HUMAN  PARENTS . EVERY  BABY   ARRIVES  WITH  ORIGINAL,  UNIQUE,  DISTINCTIVE,  AND  ONE  OF  ITS  OWN  KIND  OF   GENOME( A  COMPLETE  HAPLOID  SET  OF  CHROMOSOMES, OR  23 CHROMOSOMES  FROM  EACH  PARENT) THAT  NEVER  EXISTED  IN  THE  PAST  AND  WILL  NEVER  EXIST  AGAIN  IN  FUTURE  WHILE  ALL  HUMANS  ARE  BORN  WITH  A  DIPLOID  SET   THAT  HAS  46  CHROMOSOMES .

Charles Darwin uses the term species to signify “a set of individuals closely resembling each other” – a class of plants or animals having certain characteristics. The French naturalist George Louis Leclerc Comte de Buffon(1707-1788) in his monumental compendium on Natural History(Histoire Naturelle General et Particuliere, 44 Volumes, 1749-1804) described man as a zoological species. Buffon determined species not by their physical appearances but by their reproductive history. Two individual animals or plants are of the same species if they can produce fertile offspring. According to Buffon, a species is known only through the history of its propagation. Buffon opened the way to  development of Paleontology to discover lost species. The status of Anatomically Modern Humans as a distinct species is verified as human populations consist of members that are genetically similar, interbreeding or potentially interbreeding individuals that share the same collection of inherited characteristics, whose combination is unique to our species. Diverse species cannot interbreed. Organisms different in species cannot reproduce productively and if crossbred, like the horse and the ass, they produce a sterile hybrid like the mule. Hybrid is the term for the offspring of a cross between two different subspecies or species. In Genetics, hybrid is the term for the offspring of parents differing in any genetic characteristic.Interbreeding or Hybridization means to produce offspring by crossing two individuals of unlike genetic constitution. The offspring of different races, varieties, species, etc., are called ‘hybrids’. If Neanderthal is one of the parents of Anatomically Modern Humans, identity of the second Hominid parent has to be ascertained, and the characteristics of that parent are accounted for using Mendel’s Laws of Inheritance. The social and cultural behavior of anatomically modern man consistently displays a tendency that prefers and encourages ‘inbreeding’. The prevailing social and cultural norms of human society in general tend to oppose sexual behavior that may be identified as ‘interbreeding’. In selection of a mate for breeding, anatomically modern man prefers an individual who closely resembles the members of his/her own stock.

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE   VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  A  SPECIES  IS  RECOGNIZED  BY  ITS  HISTORY  OF  PROPAGATION . MULE,  A   PRODUCT  OF  CROSSBREEDING , OR  HYBRIDIZATION  CANNOT FURTHER  REPRODUCE  PRODUCTIVELY  WITH  OTHER  MULES,  OR  WITH  HORSE , OR   ASS FOR  IT  IS  BORN  STERILE .  HYBRIDIZATION  WILL  NOT  HELP  TO  TRANSFORM  A  SPECIES  INTO  A  NEW  SPECIES  IF  ITS  PARENTS  BELONG  TO  DIFFERENT  SPECIES .

The concept of Hybridized Anatomically Modern(HAM) humans cannot be verified in  absence of any surviving members of Neanderthal, Denisova, or other Hominid population with whom modern man may have reproduced about 10, 000 years ago.

MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE :

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  : IT  WILL  BE  IMPORTANT  TO  NOTE  THAT  ACQUIRED  CHARACTERISTICS  ARE  NOT  HEREDITARY  AND  THERE  IS  NO  INHERITANCE  OF  ACQUIRED  CHARACTERISTICS .
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION : IT WILL BE IMPORTANT TO NOTE THAT ACQUIRED CHARACTERISTICS ARE NOT HEREDITARY AND THERE IS NO INHERITANCE OF ACQUIRED CHARACTERISTICS .
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  MENDEL  DEMONSTRATED  INHERITANCE  PATTERNS  THROUGH  BREEDING  EXPERIMENTATION. THE  IMAGE  SHOWS  SOME  OF  THE  HEREDITARY  TRAITS  OR  CHARACTERS  INVESTIGATED  BY  MENDEL  WHILE  EXPERIMENTING  ON  GARDEN  PEA  PLANTS  WITH  WHITE  OR  VIOLET  FLOWERS.
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE   VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :   FOR  UNIT  CHARACTERS  NAMED  R(DOMINANT),  r(RECESSIVE),  Y(DOMINANT),  AND   y(RECESSIVE),  THE  DIAGRAM  ILLUSTRATES  THE OPERATION  OF  MENDEL’S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE .
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE   VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  THE  MENDELIAN  SYSTEM  OF  HEREDITY  STATES  THAN  AN  INHERITED  CHARACTERISTIC  IS  DETERMINED  BY  THE  COMBINATION  OF  TWO  HEREDITARY  UNITS( NOW  CALLED  GENES ),  ONE  FROM  EACH  OF  THE  PARENTAL  REPRODUCTIVE  CELLS  OR  GAMETES .
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  AS  PER  THE  MENDELIAN  SYSTEM  OF  HEREDITY ,  IF  MODERN  HUMANS  INTERBREED  WITH  NEANDERTHALS , IN  EACH  GENERATION  OF  OFFSPRING  PRODUCED ,  THREE  INDIVIDUALS  COULD  BE  MODERN  HUMANS ( DOMINANT  TRAIT )  AND  ONE  INDIVIDUAL WOULD  BE  NEANDERTHAL ( RECESSIVE  TRAIT ).  SUCH  INTERBREEDING  WOULD  IN  REALITY  SAVE  NEANDERTHAL  POPULATION  FROM  TOTAL  EXTINCTION .

Mendel demonstrated the inheritance patterns through breeding experimentations. He discovered in 1866 hereditary factors or “genes” whose existence he deduced without seeing them. Mendel’s statistical analysis of his data provided the mathematical basis for modern Genetics. There are four principles of hereditary phenomenon discovered and formulated by Mendel :

1. The Law of Independent Unit Characters which states that characters such as height, color, etc., are inherited separately as  Units,

2. The Law of Segregation which states that body cells and primordial germ cells contain pairs of such Unit Characters and that when gametes(Sperm or Egg Cell) are produced, each gamete receives only one member of each such pair,

3. The Law of Dominance which states that in every individual there is a pair of determining factors for each Unit Character, one from each parent, if these factors are different(heterozygous), one Character( the Dominant) appears in the organism, the other(  Recessive) being latent; the Recessive Character can appear in the organism only when the Dominant is absent; hence in all crossbred generations, Unit Characters are shown in varying combinations, each appearing in a definite proportion of the total number of offspring, and 

4. The Law of Independent Assortment which states that any one pair of Characters is inherited independently, not withstanding the simultaneous transmission of other traits. This Law is modified by the discovery of Linkage and Pleiotropy. Linkage describes the tendency of some genes to remain together and act as a Unit or Linkage Group. In Inheritance, the Linkage Group of genes are generally found in the same chromosome. Pleiotropy is the condition in which a single gene exerts simultaneous effects on more than one character in the offspring.

ABOUT GENETICS  AND THE CONSTANCY OF GENETIC CODE :

Genetics is an important aspect of many areas of Biology. Genetics helps in the study and identification of specific types of organisms; research in Molecular Genetics involves studies on chemical structure and functions of genes at molecular level; Cyto Genetics studies  location of genetic material in cells and the role of genes in cell division; Developmental Genetics studies the genetic function in embryological phenomena; Behavior Genetics studies the role of gene in regulating behavior; Population Genetics studies genetics in relation to the “evolutionary” process. Medical Genetics involves  application of genetic principles to the practice of Medicine such as the study of inheritance of diseases in families. Genetic factors cause many health disorders affecting man. Some human diseases are entirely genetic in origin and environmental factors play little if any part. This group of genetic disorders includes chromosomal abnormalities, and so-called “Unifactorial Disorders” which are due to single gene defects or Mendelian factors. There are over 3 thousand of such unifactorial disorders. The mode of inheritance of such disorders is straight forward and follows Mendelian Principles. Mendel’s Laws of Inheritance have their practical applications in Medical Genetics. However, the use of Mendel’s Principles in Population Genetics to verify The Theory of Evolution is highly controversial because of the speculative postulates about transformation of old species into a new species .  Several single-celled Blue-Green algae, plankton, microbes, viruses, protozoans, insects, crocodiles, turtles, sharks and other organisms are known to be existing upon Earth from billions to several millions of years. The unchanging  genetic code in all past and present members of these long-lived species permit the genes to have the same effects on their carriers from generation to generation. Because of  constancy of the genetic code, we can  identify  existence of individual species which maintain their species-specific traits as per Mendelian Principles. There are numerous kinds of longest living species on Earth and their identification is possible because of their genetic codes have essentially remained unchanged.

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION :  THE  CONSTANCY  OF  THE  GENETIC  CODE .  BLUE-GREEN  ALGAE,  CYANOBACTERIA  MAINTAIN  THEIR  SPECIES-SPECIFIC  TRAITS  FOR  BILLIONS  OF  YEARS .
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION : THE CONSTANCY OF THE GENETIC CODE . BLUE-GREEN ALGAE, CYANOBACTERIA MAINTAIN THEIR SPECIES-SPECIFIC TRAITS  SINCE  PRECAMBRIAN  TIME,  3,800  TO  700 MILLION  YEARS  AGO .
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION :  SPONGES  ARE  INVERTEBRATE  ANIMALS  OF  THE  PHYLUM  PORIFERA .  SPONGES  ARE  AMONG  THE  LONGEST  LIVING  ANIMAL  SPECIES  OF  EARTH .  THEY  APPEARED  IN  CAMBRIAN  PERIOD  ABOUT  570  MILLION  YEARS  AGO .  ANTARCTIC  SPONGE  CAN  LIVE  FOR  CENTURIES .  OLDEST  KNOWN  SPONGE  ESTIMATED  AGE  1, 550 YEARS .
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION : SPONGES ARE INVERTEBRATE ANIMALS OF THE PHYLUM PORIFERA . SPONGES ARE AMONG THE LONGEST LIVING ANIMAL SPECIES OF EARTH . THEY APPEARED IN CAMBRIAN PERIOD ABOUT 570 MILLION YEARS AGO . ANTARCTIC SPONGE CAN LIVE FOR CENTURIES . OLDEST KNOWN SPONGE ESTIMATED AGE 1, 550 YEARS .
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION : THE  CONSTANCY  OF  THE  GENETIC  CODE  PERMIT  THE  GENES  TO  HAVE  THE  SAME  EFFECTS  ON  THEIR  CARRIERS  FROM  GENERATION  TO  GENERATION . AMERICAN  COCKROACH  IS  EXISTING  ON  EARTH  FOR  MILLIONS  OF  YEARS .
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION : THE CONSTANCY OF THE GENETIC CODE PERMIT THE GENES TO HAVE THE SAME EFFECTS ON THEIR CARRIERS FROM GENERATION TO GENERATION . AMERICAN COCKROACH IS EXISTING ON EARTH BASICALLY  UNCHANGED  FOR  300   MILLION   YEARS . MOST  ABUNDANT  DURING  THE  CARBONIFEROUS  PERIOD  DURING  WHICH  A  VARIETY  OF  INSECTS  APPEARED .
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  EVOLUTION  :  ARCTICA  ISLANDICA .
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  ARCTICA  ISLANDICA .  OCEAN  QUAHOG  OR  CLAM  .  MOLLUSKS  ARE  ORGANISMS  WITH  SHELLS  DATE  BACK  TO  THE  CAMBRIAN  PERIOD,  500  MILLION  YEARS  AGO .
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  THE  CONSTANCY  OF  THE  GENETIC  CODE  GIVES  THE  ABILITY  TO  IDENTIFY  THE  EXISTENCE  OF  INDIVIDUAL  SPECIES  WHICH  MAINTAIN  THEIR  SPECIES-SPECIFIC  TRAITS .  OVER  MILLIONS  OF  YEARS,  SHARKS  HAVE  MAINTAINED  THEIR  MORPHOLOGICAL  APPEARANCE .
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION : THE CONSTANCY OF THE GENETIC CODE GIVES THE ABILITY TO IDENTIFY THE EXISTENCE OF INDIVIDUAL SPECIES WHICH MAINTAIN THEIR SPECIES-SPECIFIC TRAITS . OVER 350  MILLION   YEARS,  SINCE  THE  END  OF  DEVONIAN  PERIOD  SHARKS HAVE MAINTAINED THEIR MORPHOLOGICAL APPEARANCE .
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  SPHENODON  TUATARA  .  THIS  LIZARDLIKE  REPTILE  OF  NEW  ZEALAND  IS  KNOWN  AS  A  LIVING  FOSSIL .  THIS  SPECIES  IS  IN  EXISTENCE  FOR  ABOUT  200-225  MILLION  YEARS .
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION : SPHENODON TUATARA . THIS LIZARDLIKE REPTILE OF NEW ZEALAND IS KNOWN AS A LIVING FOSSIL . THIS SPECIES IS IN EXISTENCE FOR ABOUT 200-225 MILLION YEARS .
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  : BASED  UPON  THEIR  UNIQUE  GENETIC  CODES,  ORGANISMS  ARE  KNOWN  TO  BE  EXISTING  UPON  EARTH  FOR  SEVERAL  MILLIONS  OF  YEARS .  CROCODILES  LIVED  ALONG  WITH  DINOSAURS .
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION : BASED UPON THEIR UNIQUE GENETIC CODES, ORGANISMS ARE KNOWN TO BE EXISTING UPON EARTH FOR SEVERAL MILLIONS OF YEARS . CROCODILES LIVED ALONG WITH DINOSAURS . ORIGINATED  DURING  THE  LATE  TRIASSIC  PERIOD  200  MILLION  YEARS  AGO .
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  THE  ORIGIN  OF  THE  GENETIC  CODE  IS  UNKNOWN .  THE  VAST  MAJORITY  OF  ORGANISMS  BREED  WITH  OTHER  MEMBERS  OF  THEIR  OWN  SPECIES  PROPAGATING  THEIR  OWN  UNIQUE  GENETIC  CODES .  WE  KNOW  ABOUT  LONG-LIVED  ORGANISMS  LIKE  SEA  TURTLES  BECAUSE  OF  THE  CONSTANCY  OF  THEIR  GENETIC  CODES .
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION : THE ORIGIN OF THE GENETIC CODE IS UNKNOWN . THE VAST MAJORITY OF ORGANISMS BREED WITH OTHER MEMBERS OF THEIR OWN SPECIES PROPAGATING THEIR OWN UNIQUE GENETIC CODES . WE KNOW ABOUT LONG-LIVED ORGANISMS LIKE SEA TURTLES BECAUSE OF THE CONSTANCY OF THEIR GENETIC CODES . TURTLES  ARE  IN  EXISTENCE  FROM  THE  TRIASSIC  PERIOD,  200  MILLION  YEARS  AGO.
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  ALASKA  BOWHEAD  WHALE .  WHALES  ORIGINATED  IN  THE  EARLY  TERTIARY  OR  UPPER  CRETACEOUS  ABOUT  70  MILLION  YEARS  AGO.
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION : ALASKA BOWHEAD WHALE . WHALES ORIGINATED IN THE EARLY TERTIARY OR UPPER CRETACEOUS ABOUT 70 MILLION YEARS AGO.
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  MONOTREMES .  DUCK-BILLED  PLATYPUS  ORNITHO  RHYNCHUS  ANATINUS  IS  A  SPECIES  SURVIVING  SINCE  AUSTRALIAN  PLEISTOCENE  ABOUT  2  MILLION  YEARS  AGO.
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION : MONOTREMES . DUCK-BILLED PLATYPUS ORNITHO RHYNCHUS ANATINUS IS A SPECIES SURVIVING SINCE AUSTRALIAN PLEISTOCENE ABOUT 2 MILLION YEARS AGO.

While describing Genetics as the area of Biology concerned with the study of inheritance, the process by which certain characteristics or traits of organisms are handed down from parent to offspring, I would like to suggest that a creative mechanism, a creative process or a creative operation could be at work when Genetics accounts for variations in similar or related animals and plants. I would like to emphasize the fact of all organisms existing as Individuals with Individuality. In Nature, living things have no choice other than that of existence as Individuals with Individuality. Even a mob of genetically identical(“CLONES”) colony of bacteria of E. coli are experimentally proved to behave as Individuals with Individuality.

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :
MENDEL’S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN EVOLUTION  : DOUBLE –  HELIX DEOXYRIBO NUCLEIC  ACID  OR  DNA  IS  FOUND  IN  CHROMOSOMES,  THE  STRUCTURES  FOUND  INSIDE   THE   NUCLEUS  OF  CELLS  OF  HIGHER  ORGANISMS.  THE  DNA  MOLECULE  ALWAYS  EXHIBITS  INDIVIDUALISTIC  VARIATION  IN   ITS   BEHAVIOR .

In higher organisms with cells that contain a Nucleus, the genetic material called DNA(deoxyribonucleic acid) is carried by structures known as Chromosomes in the Nucleus, and the cytoplasmic structures known as Mitochondria. The genetic material called RNA(ribonucleic acid) is found in the Nucleolus(present inside the Nucleus) and structures called Ribosomes found in the Cytoplasm.

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  THE  UNITS  OF  INHERITANCE  ARE  KNOWN  AS  GENES.  THE  GENES  ARE  FOUND  INSIDE  CHROMOSOMES  THAT  ARE  PRESENT  IN  THE  NUCLEUS  OF  CELLS  OF  HIGHER  ORGANISMS .  DNA  IS  FOUND IN  CHROMOSOMES,  MITOCHONDRIA,  AND  RIBOSOMES .
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION :  CELL  IS  THE   BASIC  BUILDING  BLOCK  OF  LIVING  THINGS . THE UNITS  OF  INHERITANCE  ARE KNOWN  AS GENES. THE GENES  ARE  FOUND  INSIDE  CHROMOSOMES THAT ARE PRESENT IN THE NUCLEUS OF CELLS OF HIGHER ORGANISMS . DNA,  IS FOUND IN CHROMOSOMES, MITOCHONDRIA, AND  RNA  IS  FOUND  IN THE NUCLEOLUS AND  RIBOSOMES .

The Ribosomes are the sites of protein synthesis present in the Cytoplasm. DNA interacts with ‘transfer RNA'(t-RNA), ‘Messenger RNA'(m-RNA), and Ribosomal RNA in the process of protein synthesis. The Chromosome is divided into Units called Genes. Each Gene is responsible for a particular trait  and hence Gene is the Unit of inheritance. The term ‘allele’ describes either of a pair of genes at the same position on both members of a pair of chromosomes and conveying traits that are inherited by Mendelian Laws.There could be small chemical differences in genes that are expressed as different versions of the same trait (‘alleles’). Each gene is responsible for the manufacture of a particular protein which is involved in  development of a trait associated with it. Each chromosome of each species of higher organisms has a definite number and arrangement of genes which govern the structure and functions of the cells.  It is important to note that, while genes are located inside the Nucleus of the cell, the actual protein synthesis occurs in structures called Ribosomes present in the Cytoplasm outside the Nucleus. While we appreciate the role of genes as Units of Inheritance, we should give equal importance to the Living Substance, the Living Material, or the Living Matter called Cytoplasm that is found inside the living cells, outside the Nucleus of the cell. There are basically three classes of Genes: 1. Structural genes which determine the sequences of amino acids that go to makeup proteins or the smaller chain of molecules known as polypeptides, 2. Coding genes which specify molecules that function in the processes involved in protein synthesis, and 3. Regulatory genes which are called Noncoding genes for they act solely as “Recognition” sites for enzymes and other proteins involved in controlling protein synthesis.

THE  GENETIC CODE AND THE ROLE OF MUTATIONS:    

 

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :

MENDEL’S LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION   :  GENETIC  CODE  DESCRIBES  THE  RELATIONSHIP  BETWEEN  THE  COMPOSITION  OF  DNA  AND  THAT  OF  PROTEINS  PRODUCED  BY  GENES .

The Genetic Code describes the relationship between composition of DNA and that of proteins produced by genes. Genetic Code is the chemical equation by which hereditary information is translated from genes into proteins. Changes in the genetic code are called Mutations. Mutations can cause a change in protein synthesis. In higher organisms, when mutation involves the germ-line cells that eventually develop into sperm or egg cells, the mutation and its consequence of altered protein synthesis is inherited by offspring. A mutation can be minor and relatively insignificant, or it can cause serious deformity or metabolic deficiency in the organism. Most mutations tend to be harmful. Fortunately, a typical gene in higher organisms is segmented and the entire genetic information of a gene is not contained in a single, unbroken strand of DNA molecule. The value of having the genetic code in segments is to reduce the chances of mutations causing harmful changes in protein synthesis. Certain self-repair mechanisms also exist to deal with the damage done to DNA. Very often, the damaged DNA is repaired or the cell carrying the damaged DNA is killed and destroyed. For this reason, it is important to recognize the simple fact of DNA damage associated with mutations irrespective of its cause. The Theory of Evolution proposes that random, unguided, and apparently purposeless mutations lead to gradual changes in a species and eventually lead to its descent as a new species. As per the Theory of Evolution, mutations may bring about three kinds of changes; 1. Changes in the morphological appearance of an organism, 2. Changes in the skeletal and other anatomical structures of an organism, and 3. Changes in the behavior displayed by an organism.

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  MUSCLE  TWITCH  IN  FROG  MUSCLE  EXPERIMENT .  MUTATIONS  CANNOT  ACCOUNT  FOR  GUIDED,  SEQUENTIAL,  AND  PURPOSEFUL  NATURE  OF  MUSCLE  CONTRACTIONS  WHICH  HAVE  SEVERAL  CREATIVE  APPLICATIONS  IN  THE  NATURAL  WORLD .
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION : MUSCLE TWITCH IN FROG MUSCLE EXPERIMENT . MUTATIONS CANNOT ACCOUNT FOR GUIDED, SEQUENTIAL, AND PURPOSEFUL NATURE OF MUSCLE CONTRACTIONS WHICH HAVE SEVERAL CREATIVE APPLICATIONS IN THE NATURAL WORLD .

In higher organisms, the cells are differentiated to perform special functions. For example, muscle cells have ability of contraction. This physiological function of contraction is easily demonstrated by applying an electrical stimulus to muscle as done in Muscle Twitch in Frog Experiment. Animals have different abilities of locomotion; some crawl or creep, or slide on a surface, some swim, or move in water, some fly or glide in air, and others walk, run, climb, and swing in a variety of amazing manners. Whatever may be the mode of locomotion, all animal muscle cells display the same physiological function of contraction. While the physiology remains the same, the muscles of each animal species display individualistic functional characteristics. For mutations are random, unguided, and purposeless, they cannot account for guided, sequential and purposeful nature of muscle contractions which have several creative applications in the natural world.

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION :   CHIMPANZEE  AND  OTHER  APES HAVE  48  CHROMOSOMES  WHEREAS  MAN  HAS  ONLY  46  CHROMOSOMES .  CHROMOSOMES 2a  AND  2b  FOUND  IN  APES  IS  OF  PARTICULAR  INTEREST .
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION : CHIMPANZEE AND OTHER APES HAVE 48 CHROMOSOMES WHEREAS MAN HAS ONLY 46 CHROMOSOMES . CHROMOSOMES 2 a AND 2 b FOUND IN APES ARE  OF PARTICULAR INTEREST .
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  THERE  IS  NO  NATURAL  MECHANISM  OF   SEXUAL  REPRODUCTION  THAT  CAN  FUSE  CHROMOSOME  2 a  AND  2 b  TO  ASSEMBLE   CHROMOSOME  #  2   FOUND  IN   MAN .  MENDEL'S   LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  WHAT  IS  GENETIC  DRIFT  ????   CAN  IT  ACCOUNT  FOR  THE  ARRIVAL  OF  ANATOMICALLY  MODERN  HUMANS  ???   CAN  WE  EXPLAIN   MAN  AS  A  PRODUCT  OF  HYBRIDIZATION  AND  THE  PHENOMENON  CALLED  GENETIC  DRIFT  ????

MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION : WHAT IS GENETIC DRIFT ????  CAN  IT  ACCOUNT  FOR  THE ARRIVAL OF  ANATOMICALLY  MODERN  HUMANS ??? CAN  WE EXPLAIN  MAN  AS  A PRODUCT  OF  HYBRIDIZATION AND  THE PHENOMENON CALLED  GENETIC  DRIFT ????

In ‘Evolution’ the term ‘Genetic Drift is used to describe a random change in gene frequency within a small population, resulting in mutations which regardless of their adaptive value, become fixed within the group. Variations in diet, variations in physical activity, variations in reproductive behavior, and variations in external environmental conditions may contribute to minor variations in ‘allele’ frequencies without transforming an old species into a new species.

MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE  AND  THE  MISSING  LINK :

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION : TAXONOMY  IS  A  BRANCH  OF  BIOLOGY  THAT  FORMULATES  THE  BASIS  FOR  SYSTEMATIC  CATEGORIZATION  OF  ORGANISMS  INTO  CATEGORIES  SUCH  AS  PHYLUM(OR DIVISION), CLASS,  ORDER,  FAMILY,  SUB-FAMILY,  GENUS,  AND  SPECIES .  WITHIN  THE  GENUS  HOMO  SAPIENS,  ANATOMICALLY  MODERN  MAN  IS  UNIQUE,  AND  DISTINCT  FOR  HUMAN  NATURE  STANDS  BY  ITSELF .
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION : TAXONOMY IS A BRANCH OF BIOLOGY THAT FORMULATES THE BASIS FOR SYSTEMATIC CATEGORIZATION OF ORGANISMS INTO CATEGORIES SUCH AS PHYLUM(OR DIVISION), CLASS, ORDER, FAMILY, SUB-FAMILY, GENUS, AND SPECIES . WITHIN THE GENUS HOMO SAPIENS, ANATOMICALLY MODERN MAN IS UNIQUE, AND DISTINCT FOR HUMAN NATURE STANDS BY ITSELF .
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION : CHIMPANZEE  IS  NOT  THE  MISSING  LINK  BETWEEN  MAN  AND  ANIMAL .
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION : CHIMPANZEE IS NOT THE MISSING LINK BETWEEN MAN AND ANIMAL .  CHIMPANZEES  ARE  NATIVE  TO  AFRICA .
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION :  MOUNTAIN  GORILLA  IS  NOT  THE  MISSING  LINK  BETWEEN  MAN  AND  ANIMAL .
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION : MOUNTAIN GORILLA IS NOT THE MISSING LINK BETWEEN MAN AND ANIMAL .  GORILLAS  ARE  NATIVE  TO  AFRICA .
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE   VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  NO   EXTINCT  OR  LIVING  SPECIES  IS  ABLE  TO  BRIDGE  THE  GAP  BETWEEN  MODERN  MAN(HOMO  SAPIENS  SAPIENS)  AND  HIS  NEAREST  ALLIES  AMONG  HOMINID  FAMILY .  WHO  IS  THE  MISSING  LINK  BETWEEN  MAN  AND  ANIMALS  LIKE  CHIMPANZEE  AND  GORILLA ????

The above image reveals a fundamental problem  faced by Darwinism when it attempts to account for Human Evolution.  No extinct or living species is able to bridge the gap between modern man(Homo sapiens sapiens) and his nearest allies among Hominid Family and other Primates such as Chimpanzee and Gorilla.

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE   VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  SOME  EVOLUTIONARY  GENTICISTS  CLAIM  THAT  MODERN  HUMANS HAVE  DESCENDED  BY  INTERBREEDING  AND  REPRODUCING  WITH  OTHER  SPECIES  OF  THE  GENUS  HOMO . INTERBREEDING  OR  INBREEDING  CANNOT  TRANSFORM  AN  OLD  SPECIES  INTO  A  NEW   SPECIES .
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE   VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  THERE  IS  NO  NATURAL  MECHANISM,  NO  NATURAL  PROCESS,  NO  NATURAL  CONDITION,  OR  NATURAL  CAUSE  THAT  CAN  TRANSFORM  NEANDERTHAL  SPECIES  INTO  ANATOMICALLY  MODERN  HUMANS. ANATOMICAL  TRAITS  PECULIAR  TO  NEANDERTHALS  WILL  NOT  BE  WIPED  OUT  BY  SEXUAL  REPRODUCTION,  EITHER  INBREEDING  OR  INTERBREEDING .
MENDEL'S   LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE   VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  DENISOVA  HOMINIDS  DISCOVERED  IN  DENISOVA  CAVE ,  ALTAI  MOUNTAINS ,  SOUTHERN  SIBERIA,  RUSSIA .  DENISOVA  MORE  SIMILAR  TO  NEANDERTHALS  AS  COMPARED  TO  ANATOMICALLY  MODERN  HUMANS .  THEY   LIVED  41, 000 YEARS  AGO . CAN  ONLY  BREED  TRUE  TO  THEIR  OWN  SPECIES .
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE   VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  ARTISTIC  RENDITION  OF  DENISOVA  CHILD .  DNA  EXTRACTED  FROM  A  FRAGMENT  OF  PHALANX  OF  HAND  AND  A  MOLAR (TOOTH).  THIS  DENISOVA  GIRL IN  APPEARANCE  IS  MORE  SIMILAR  TO  NEANDERTHAL  THAN  TO  MODERN  HUMANS .
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE   VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  NEANDERTHALS  LIVED  FOR  ABOUT  300, 000  YEARS .  NEANDERTHAL  BELONGS  TO  MIDDLE  PALEOLITHIC  PERIOD  OF  OLD  STONE  AGE .  NEANDERTHAL  HAD  A  PRECISION  GRIP  SIMILAR  TO  THAT  OF  MODERN  HUMANS  BUT  DID  NOT  DISPLAY  WRITING  SKILLS .
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE   VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  NEANDERTHAL  HAD  POWER  GRIP  AND  PRECISION  GRIP  LIKE  ANATOMICALLY  MODERN  HUMANS .  BUT  HIS  ANATOMICAL  TRAITS  WERE  NOT  ENOUGH  FOR  HIM  TO  ADVANCE  INTO  MESOLITHIC  PERIOD  OF  OLD  STONE  AGE .  THIS  SPECIES  LIVED  FOR  A  LONG  TIME  WITHOUT  THE  POTENTIAL  TO  DEVELOP  WRITING  SKILLS .                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  :

MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE   VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :   SAHELANTHROPUS  TCHADENSIS  NICKNAMED  “TOUMAI.”

NATURAL HISTORY OF HOMINID FAMILY :

Senckenberg Natural History Museum, Frankfurt, Germany prepared replicas of Hominid species using the fossils  discovered at different geographical locations. Sahelanthropus tchadensis lived 6.8 million years ago. It is one of the oldest Hominid specimens, found in 2003 in Djurab desert in Chad, Africa. 

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE   VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  AUSTRALOPITHECUS  AFARENSIS, AFRICAN  HOMINID  LIVED  3.2  MILLION  YEARS  AGO .

Australopithecus afarensis discovered in Afar region of Ethiopia, Africa in 1975. This Hominid lived 3.2 million years ago.

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE   VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  HOMINID  AUSTRALOPITHECUS  AFRICANUS   LIVED  2.5  MILLION  YEARS  AGO .

 Australopithecus africanus ,this Hominid replica nicknamed “Mrs Ples” lived 2.5 million years ago. Discovered in 1947, at Sterfontein, South Africa.

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE   VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  PARANTHROPUS AETHIOPICUS  LIVED  2.5  MILLION  YEARS  AGO .

Paranthropus aethiopicus lived 2.5 million years ago. Discovered near Lake Turkana in Kenya, Africa, in 1985.

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  PARANTHROPUS  BOISEI  LIVED  1.8  MILLION  YEARS  AGO .

Paranthropus boisei, nicknamed “Zinz” lived 1.8 million years ago. Discovered in 1959 in the Olduvai Gorge of Tanzania, Africa.

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE   VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  HOMO  RUDOLFENSIS  LIVED  ABOUT  1.8  MILLION  YEARS  AGO .

Homo Rudolfensis lived about 1.8 million years ago. Discovered in 1972 in Koobi Fora, Kenya, Africa.

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE   VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  HOMO  ERGASTER . LIVED  ABOUT  1.5  MILLION  YEARS  AGO.  NICKNAMED  “TURKANA  BOY.”

“TURKANA BOY” Homo ergaster lived about 1.5 million years ago. Initially thought to be an important “missing link” in Human Evolution.

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  HOMO  ERGASTER  IS  RELATED  TO  HOMO  ERECTUS  SPECIES  THAT  LIVED  IN  EASTERN  AND  SOUTHERN  AFRICA  FROM  ABOUT 1.89  MILLION  YEARS  AGO .
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION : HOMO ERGASTER IS RELATED TO HOMO ERECTUS SPECIES THAT LIVED IN EASTERN AND SOUTHERN AFRICA FROM ABOUT 1.89 MILLION YEARS AGO .

In Africa, Homo ergaster and Homo erectus are viewed as relatives and thought to be the ancestral forms of later Hominids such as Homo heidelbergensis, Homo neanderthalensis, and Homo sapiens. But, African Homo erectus is not related to Asian species of Homo erectus like Java Man, and Peking Man.

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION : REPLICA  OF  HOMO  ERECTUS(AFRICA), ERECT  MAN,  VERTICAL  GAIT,  LIVED  ABOUT 1.8  TO  0.3  MILLION  YEARS  AGO .
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION : REPLICA OF HOMO ERECTUS(AFRICA), ERECT MAN, VERTICAL GAIT, LIVED ABOUT 1.8 TO 0.3 MILLION YEARS AGO .

Homo erectus of Africa had prominent brow ridges, projecting face, and a brain volume of about a litre as compared to modern man’s average brain volume of about 1,360 cubic centimetres. Some evolutionary biologists suggested that Homo erectus migrated to Asia, and Southern Europe.

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE   VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  HOMO HEIDELBERGENSIS  ALSO  NAMED  HOMO  RHODESIENSIS  LIVED  ABOUT  500, 000  TO  350, 000  YEARS  AGO .

Homo heidelbergensis or Homo rhodesiensis. This replica is made from the fossils found in Sima de los Huesos, Spain in 1993. He lived about 500,000 to 350,000 years ago. Fossils also found in other places like Italy, France, and Greece. Homo sapiens may have appeared 300,000 years ago. Heidelbergensis could be the ancestor of Neanderthals which is often described as  a subspecies of Sapiens species.

Mendel's Laws-Human Evolution-Homo erectus
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE    VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  REPLICA   OF  HOMO  ERECTUS,  HOMINID  THAT  LIVED  1.5 MILLION  TO  300, 000  YEARS  AGO.

Homo erectus lived 1, 500, 000 to 300, 000 years ago. Homo erectus discovered in Republic of Georgia, China, and Indonesia lived until about 70,000 years ago.

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  PILTDOWN  MAN  OF  SUSSEX,  ENGLAND.  HOMINID  SPECIES  OF  THE  PALEOLITHIC  PERIOD  OR  OLD  STONE  AGE .
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE   VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  : PITHECANTHROPUS  ERECTUS ,  HOMO  ERECTUS .  THE  REPLICA  OF   “JAVA  MAN.”

Pithecanthropus, “JAVA MAN” discovered in 1891 could be the first to use fire. He used stone tools and belongs to the Lower Pleistocene Period.

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE   VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  RHODESIAN  MAN  HAD  A  BRAIN  LARGER  THAN  THAT  OF  MODERN  HUMANS.

It could be of interest to note that Rhodesian Man( Heidelberg Man – Germany) had a large, thick skull, a sloping forehead, a chinless jaw, a brain larger than that of modern  man. The height was about five feet(152 cm) or slightly over.

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  HOMO  ERECTUS  PEKINENSIS . SINANTHROPUS  OR  PEKING  MAN .

Sinanthropus, Homo erectus pekinensis, or PEKING MAN belonged to the Middle Pleistocene.

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE   VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  HOMO  SAPIENS  NEANDERTHALENSIS . THIS  REPLICA  IS  NICKNAMED “OLD MAN  OF  LA  CHAPELLE .”  HE  LIVED  56, 000  YEARS  AGO .

Homo sapiens neanderthalensis lived 56,000 years ago. The above is the replica nicknamed “OLD MAN OF LA CHAPELLE” found near La Chapelle aux-Saints in France in 1908.

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  HOMO  SAPIENS  FLORESIENSIS .  NICKNAMED  “HOBBIT. ”  LIVED  ABOUT  18, 000  YEARS  AGO .

Homo sapiens floresiensis, the FLORES MAN discovered in Liang Bua Cave, Flores, Indonesia in 2003. Lived about 18,000 years ago.

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  HOMO  SAPIENS FLORESIENSIS  –  FLORES  MAN  OF  INDONESIA  .
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE   VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  FLORES  MAN  .  HOMO  SAPIENS  FLORESIENSIS. IT  COULD  BE  OF  INTEREST  TO  NOTE  THAT  FLORES  MAN  WAS ONLY  ABOUT  3  FEET  IN   HEIGHT. Initially thought to be a subspecies of Sapiens and now considered as a separate species. This Hominid species disappeared without any trace for unknown reasons.
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE   VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  HOMO  SAPIENS.  LIVED  BETWEEN  100,  000  TO  90,  000  YEARS  AGO  BUT  NOT  A  TRUE  REPRESENTATIVE  OF  ANATOMICALLY  MODERN  HUMAN  SPECIES .

The above is a replica of Homo sapiens found in a cave in Israel in 1969. He lived between 100,000 to 90, 000 years ago. It is important to note that it is not representative of true, modern humans called Homo sapiens sapiens.

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  HOMO  SAPIENS  IDALTU . IDALTU  MAN   LIVED  ABOUT  160, 000  YEARS  AGO .  NOT  A  TRUE  REPRESENTATIVE  OF  ANATOMICALLY  MODERN  HUMAN  SPECIES .
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE   VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  : HOMO  SAPIENS  IDALTU  OR  “HERTO  MAN ”  DISCOVERED  IN  1997  AT  HERTO, ETHIOPIA ,  AFRICA  .

Homo sapiens idaltu lived about 160, 000 years ago in Pleistocene Period(Middle Paleolithic), in Ethiopia, Africa, may mark the origin of anatomically modern Homo sapiens, making  distinction between Homo erectus species and Homo sapiens species. They were at the threshold of modern anatomy but not fully modern humans.

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :   HOMO  SAPIENS  RED  DEER ,  SOUTHERN  CHINA   LIVED  11, 500  TO  14, 500  YEARS  AGO .

Homo sapiens Red Deer represents “Red Deer Cave” people who lived 11, 500 to 14, 500 years ago in Maludong, Yunnan Province, Southern China. Red Deer Man had high domed braincase, small eyebrow ridges, lower jaw ended in a prominent chin, with a body less muscular than those of earlier Hominids.

THE  ORIGIN  OF  MAN –  MONOGENISM  VS  POLYGENISM :

The term “RACE” is used to describe any of the different varieties or populations of human beings distinguished by physical traits such as hair, eyes, skin color, shape of body, head, facial features, and blood groups. These characteristics are transmitted by heredity but they are highly variable; not every member of a race will exhibit all distinguishing traits. It is apparent to claim that races arose in response to inbreeding. Across  majority of human cultures prevalent in Old World, inbreeding is the established cultural norm. In his ‘Systema Naturae'(1735) Carolus Linnaeus, Swedish botanist, gave a very precise description of man placing him among the Mammals in the order of Primates along the apes and the bat. Linnaeus presented a summary of the diverse varieties of human species. He described varieties such as The Asian, The African, and The European. Linnaeus created a system of classification that depended only on external characteristics to place objects into a rational set of categories. 

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  :

MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE   VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  HUMAN  VARIETIES  OR  RACES  AROSE  IN  RESPONSE  TO  INBREEDING . CAROLUS  LINNAEUS  DESCRIBED  HUMAN  VARIETIES  SUCH  AS  THE  ASIAN,  THE  AFRICAN,  AND  THE  EUROPEAN .

The French naturalist George Louis Leclerc comte de Buffon in his monumental compendium on Natural History(Histoire Naturelle general et particuliere, 44 volumes, 1749-1804) described man as a zoological species. Buffon determined species not by their physical appearances but by their reproductive history. He held the view that a species is known only through the history of its propagation. Buffon claimed that it is absurd to use the same principles for classifying living and nonliving things. Most important, apes and other animals lack the ability to speak. Buffon saw the rise of human intelligence as a product of development of an articulated language. For animals may lack the ability to attach meaning to their articulated sounds, human language can be used as a basis to define human species and its varieties. Monogenism is the theory that all human beings are descended from a single pair of ancestors. Polygenism is the theory that each race of people has descended from distinct, ultimate ancestors and hence asserts that races are created separately. If anatomically modern humans are products of interbreeding between different Hominid Family members, it would be difficult to suggest that hybridized humans stopped interbreeding and preferred inbreeding to establish the races or varieties that can be observed today. Johann Friedrich Blumenbach(1752-1840), Father of Physical Anthropology known for his work ‘De Generis Humani Varietate Nativa(1775-76), did his research in measurement of craniums. He divided mankind into five great families – Caucasian, Mongolian, Malayan, and Ethiopian. Physical anthropologists initially described three primary divisions of people, 1. Caucasoid, 2. Mongoloid, and 3. Negroid. Thomas Huxley in his paper titled “On the Geographical Distribution of the Chief Modifications of Mankind” (1870) described racial varieties such as 1. Bushmen, 2. Africoid, 3. Negritoes, 4. Melanochroi, 5. Australoids, 6. Xanthochroi, 7. Polynesians, 8. Mongoloids A, B, & C, and 9. Esquimaux. Today, some anthropologists entirely reject the concept of “RACE.” The apparent variations among members of human population have to be explained using Mendel’s Laws of Inheritance which alone can account for breeding behavioral patterns. 

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE   VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  THE  ORIGIN  AND  THE  EXTINCTION  OF DIFFERENT  MEMBERS  OF  HOMINID  SPECIES  CANNOT  BE  ACCOUNTED  ON  THE  BASIS  OF  NATURAL  CAUSES,  NATURAL  MECHANISMS ,  OR  NATURAL  CONDITIONS  THAT  INFLUENCE  LIFE  AND  DEATH  OF  LIVING  ORGANISMS .MENDEL'S  LAWS

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  :

MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE :  JOHANN FRIEDRICH BLUMENBACH(1752-1840), FATHER OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY DIVIDED MANKIND INTO FIVE GREAT FAMILIES  – CAUCASIAN, MONGOLIAN, MALAYAN, AND ETHIOPIAN .

CHARLES DARWIN – DARWINISM –  THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES(1859):

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE   VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  CHARLES  DARWIN(1809-1892) .  HIS  IMPORTANT  CONTRIBUTIONS  INCLUDE  THE  ORIGIN  OF  SPECIES(1859),  AND  THE  DESCENT  OF  MAN(1871).

Charles Darwin claimed that new species originate in the course of time. In his view, one species is transformed into another as a product of ‘Natural Selection’ of randomly produced genetic mutations. He formulated an opinion about the factors or circumstances under which some forms of life cease to have the status of species or become extinct. Darwin states, “The Origin of Species, like their extinction, is entirely a natural process which requires no factors other than those at work everyday in the life, death, and breeding of plants and animals.” To make  transition from an old species to a new species, certain intermediate forms become extinct combined with the survival of one or more of the extreme varieties. Darwin further attests, “If my theory be true, numberless intermediate varieties, linking closely together all the species of the same group, must assuredly have existed, but the very process of natural selection constantly tends as has been so often remarked to exterminate the parent forms and the intermediate links.” As per Darwin’s analysis, anatomically modern human species may have to be viewed as a variety of one of the Hominid species that simply survived while this ancestral species and all other Hominid species perished towards the end of Pleistocene(Ice Age).

Darwin’s theory of ‘The Origin of Species’ depends on causes that can be divided into two sets of factors:

1. Mechanism of Survival that includes causes or factors which determine the extinction or survival of organisms, and with their survival, their opportunities for mating and reproduction, and 

2. Mechanism of Heredity that includes causes or factors which determine transmission of characteristics from one generation to another and  variation of offspring from their ancestors and from each other.

In Darwin’s estimate, the factors of ‘Natural Selection’ operate on genetic variations that cause a range of differences within a group. At the same time it may be noted that the variations generated in the breeding process are never enough to change the basic criteria applied in  identification of any given species. For  perpetuation of group characteristics in organisms which manage to survive and reproduce,  inheritance of ancestral traits is of utmost importance. Darwin’s view on blending of hereditary factors is not supported by Mendel’s classic experiments in Hybridization. According to Mendel, inheritance is particulate. Distinct genetic factors combine to produce a certain somatic result without losing their separate identities. They can therefore be reassorted and enter into new genetic combinations in the next generation. If anatomically modern human species appeared suddenly due to abrupt mutations in a single generation of as yet unknown Hominid species, it will not validate Darwin’s view that new forms of life arise gradually as the result of a continuous accumulation of slight and imperceptible variations. According to Darwin, environment acts as a selective agency and it acts upon variations produced entirely by causes operating in the breeding process. During the period of the Great Ice Age, Pleistocene Series or Epoch, 1.8 million to 10, 000 years ago, 28 percent of Earth’s land area was covered by ice. Continental glaciers covered much of N. North America and NW Europe. Holocene Epoch or Series that began 10, 000 years ago witnessed a dramatic change in land area that is covered by ice. Now, about 10 percent of land area is covered by ice and continental glaciers are restricted to Antarctica and Greenland. In other words, areas of Earth’s surface have become more hospitable for all kinds of Hominid population. There was no geographical catastrophe and there was no environmental change of cataclysmic proportion with serious consequences for the survival of any variety of Hominid species. To adapt to changed environment was easy, food supply became abundant and there is nothing to suggest that Hominid Family members were preying upon one another in a bitter struggle of existence. 

COMPARATIVE ANATOMY  WILL  DEMOLISH  DARWINISM :

According to Geologic Time Chart which records the physical nature and history of planet Earth, we are living in the Cenozoic Era the beginning of which was marked by the K-T extinction. Most of the major and minor extinction events were the result of causes that are not natural to Earth or terrestrial factors. The exposure of living things to consequences such as collisions with asteroids, comets, or exposure to ionizing radiation  do not belong to a category of circumstances that can be called ‘natural’. I would prefer to use the term ‘supernatural’ to describe extinction events initiated by extraterrestrial factors. The origin, the beginning, appearance of anatomically modern man during Holocene Epoch or Series has no natural cause. No natural condition, no natural factor, no natural mechanism, no natural process and no natural event can alter the shape and size of man’s cranium. Inbreeding, or interbreeding do not change genes, the Units of Inheritance. The sudden, and abrupt change in man’s form and morphological appearance is not due to imperceptible changes and genetic variations that accumulated over a prolonged period of time. If skeletal structures undergo a change due to mutations caused by external factors like climate, physical activity, diet, and opportunities for breeding or reproductive behavior, the skeletal structures of all members of the diverse Hominid Family living at that time have to register a change that affects the germ cells and gets propagated to their offspring as stated by Mendel’s Laws of Inheritance. If a natural condition, a natural factor, or a natural cause can account for a mutation in anatomically modern human, I would like to examine the evidence for its operation in other members of Hominid Family such as Neanderthal who lived at the same time.

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  LIVING  FORMS  EMERGED  AND  DIVERSIFIED  IN  SUDDEN  SPURTS  AND  WERE  ELIMINATED  ABRUPTLY  IN  MAJOR  AND  MINOR  EXTINCTION  EVENTS  DURING  GEOLOGIC  PERIOD .
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE   VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  THERE  IS  NO  NATURAL  PROCESS  OF  SEXUAL  REPRODUCTION  EITHER  INBREEDING  OR  INTERBREEDING  THAT  CAN  TRANSFORM  ANATOMICAL  TRAITS  OF  NEANDERTHAL  INTO  ANATOMICALLY  MODERN  HUMANS .
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION :  CRO-MAGNON  SKULL  .
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN EVOLUTION : CRO-MAGNON SKULL .  CRO-MAGNON  MAN  IS  NOT  CONSIDERED  AS  A  SEPARATE  SPECIES  OR  SUBSPECIES  . LIVED  40, 000  TO  35, 000  YEARS  AGO .

Cro-Magnon Man lived 40, 000 to 35, 000 years ago. He was discovered in southwestern France in 1868. His height was about 6 feet(180 Cms), had high forehead, short and wide face, developed prominent chin, and large brain. His brain capacity of 1600 cubic centimetres is larger than the average 1,360 cubic centimetres for anatomically modern human species.  He belonged to upper paleolithic culture of Old Stone Age whereas anatomically modern human species had established its presence in the Mesolithic Period or Middle Stone Age at the end of the last glacial era about 10, 000 years ago. Anatomically modern human species developed a culture that included gradual domestication of plants and animals, formation of settled communities, use of the bow, development of delicate stone ‘Microliths’, and pottery.

THE ORIGIN OF HUMAN SPECIES – THE ORIGIN OF HUMAN LANGUAGE:

In my view, Human Speech(spoken and written) is the criteria by which the difference between anatomically modern man and other members of Hominid Family is made. Human Language is one of the principal characteristics of the specifically human world. Language is the peculiar possession of human beings. While Neanderthal, and Cro-Magnon Man share certain anatomical and physiological traits possessed by the zoological species identified as human beings, they were not true representatives of Homo sapiens sapiens. In the use of ‘Precision Grip’, both Neanderthal and Cro-Magnon Man fall short of the status called ‘human’. Paleolithic art, paintings, and drawings are not the same as human writing.

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION :  CRO-MAGNON  MAN  AND  PRECISION  GRIP .
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION : CRO-MAGNON MAN AND PRECISION GRIP . PALEOLITHIC  ART  IS  NOT  EQUIVALENT  TO  HUMAN  ARTISTIC  EXPRESSION .  DRAWINGS  AND  PAINTINGS  ARE  NOT  THE  SAME  AS  HUMAN  WRITING .
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION :  THE  ANATOMICAL  STRUCTURES  INVOLVED  IN  PRECISION  GRIP .
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION : THE ANATOMICAL STRUCTURES INVOLVED IN PRECISION GRIP .  HOMINIDS  LIKE  NEANDERTHAL  HAD  ANATOMICAL  STRUCTURES  THAT  GIVE  FUNCTIONAL  ABILITIES  CALLED 1. PRESSURE  GRIP,  AND  2.  PRECISION  GRIP .  NEUROMUSCULAR  COORDINATION  BETWEEN  BRAIN  AND  FINGERS  CONTRIBUTES  TO  A  CREATIVE  ABILITY  CALLED  WRITING .
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION .  PALEOLITHIC  ART  .  CAVE  PAINTINGS  IN  N  SPAIN  AND  SW  FRANCE  . c. 14,000- c. 13,500 B.C.  LASCAUX  CAVE  PAINTINGS  -  THE  AURIGNACIO - PERIGORDIAN  PERIOD .
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION . PALEOLITHIC ART . CAVE PAINTINGS IN N SPAIN AND SW FRANCE . c. 14,000- c. 13,500 B.C. LASCAUX CAVE PAINTINGS – THE AURIGNACIO – PERIGORDIAN PERIOD .
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  PALEOLITHIC  ART .  MURALS  AT  ROUFFIGNAC,  NIAUX,  AND  CAVE  PAINTINGS  OF  ALTAMIRA ,  SPAIN . c. 14,000 -c. 9500 B.C. THE  SOLUTREO - MAGDALENIAN  PERIOD  .
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION : PALEOLITHIC ART . MURALS AT ROUFFIGNAC, NIAUX, AND CAVE PAINTINGS OF ALTAMIRA , SPAIN . c. 14,000 – c. 9500 B.C. THE SOLUTREO – MAGDALENIAN PERIOD .
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  KUNDA  TOOLS ,  MICROLITHS, c. 10,000 -c.8000 B.C. MESOLITHIC  PERIOD  OR  MIDDLE  STONE  AGE .  THE  BEGINNING  OF  ANATOMICALLY  MODERN  MAN .
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION : KUNDA TOOLS , MICROLITHS, c. 10,000 -c.8000 B.C. MESOLITHIC PERIOD OR MIDDLE STONE AGE . THE BEGINNING OF ANATOMICALLY MODERN MAN . HUMANS  ARE  KNOWN  BY  THEIR  CULTURE .

The reproductive history of modern man does not support Darwinism and its assumptions about breeding . To identify and to recognize man as a zoological species, the yardstick has to be defined as morphological appearances are inadequate. I coined the phrase ‘Whole Linguistics’ to use Human Language as the chief characteristic of human species. Whole Linguistics involves three entities, namely 1. A Language User, 2. A Language Interpreter and 3. A Language Creator. It introduces a concept about the Creative Beginning of Man and his Language.

HUMAN IDENTITY, INDIVIDUALITY, AND THE MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX:

All said and done, man has no choice about the nature of his physical existence in natural world. Each man without any choice exists as an Individual with Individuality. Man deploys protein molecules called antigens to identify ‘self’ and ‘non-self’. The antigens causing the immune response that results in  rejection of a tissue allograft are known as ‘Major Histocompatibility Antigens'(HLA). In man, the Major Histocompatibility Complex(MHC) is the HLA cluster on Chromosome 6. As MHC antigens were originally described on human Leukocytes(White Blood Cells), they are still referred to as Human leukocyte Antigens(HLA). The role of MHC is not limited to transplantation rejection as the proteins encoded in this region are involved in many aspects of immunological recognition and immunity  response. The HLA antigens are remarkable for the extensive degree of genetic polymorphism which makes  variability between individuals very great . Even among members of human population, most unrelated persons possess different HLA . This antigenic specificity established at molecular level is the evidence for a creative process, a creative mechanism, and a creative principle which determines the Subjective and Objective Physical Reality of Man’s Status in Nature.

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  HUMAN  LEUKOCYTE  ANTIGEN .  MAN  DEPLOYS  UNIQUE  PROTEIN  MOLECULES  TO  IDENTIFY  SELF  AND  NON-SELF .  HUMAN  EXISTENCE  AND  HUMAN  IDENTITY  IS  DEFINED  BY  MOLECULES .
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION : HUMAN LEUKOCYTE ANTIGEN . MAN DEPLOYS UNIQUE PROTEIN MOLECULES TO IDENTIFY SELF AND NON-SELF . HUMAN EXISTENCE AND HUMAN IDENTITY IS DEFINED BY MOLECULES .
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION :  MAN  IS  ABLE  TO  EXIST  IN  NATURE  FOR  HE  IS  ABLE  TO  DEFEND  HIS  EXISTENCE  BY  DEPLOYING  MOLECULES  THAT  CAN  MAKE  THE  RECOGNITION  AND  DISTINCTION  BETWEEN  SELF  AND  NON-SELF.
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION : MAN IS ABLE TO EXIST IN NATURE FOR HE IS ABLE TO DEFEND HIS EXISTENCE BY DEPLOYING MOLECULES THAT CAN MAKE THE RECOGNITION AND DISTINCTION BETWEEN SELF AND NON-SELF.

THE PROOF OF PUDDING IS IN THE EATING :

Greek philosophers Plato and Aristotle introduced  notion of Form, Nature, or Essence. Plants and animals are derived from seeds that already contain within them the Form, Nature, or Essence of the species from which they were derived and into which they would subsequently develop. To exist as a thing of a given kind, there could be an innate tendency to strive to develop into a perfect example of itself to fulfill its nature and to realize its full potential. In a purposive or teological view of the natural world, each natural thing by its intrinsic nature strives to realize its own ideal Form or Essence. Darwinism proposes a view that explains  development of a natural thing in a “mechanistic” and nonpurposive manner. If a new form of life is a product of unguided, random, and purposeless genetic mutations, it will be hard to explain and account for its Form, Nature, and Essence.

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE   VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  GREGOR  MENDEL  CONDUCTED  EXPERIMENTS  ON  GARDEN  PEA(PISUM  SATIVUM)  PLANTS  TO  DISCOVER  THE   NATURAL  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  AND  VARIATION  .  I  DISCOVER   THE  ‘MAGIC  OF  CREATION’  BY   SIMPLY   TASTING   A  FEW   SWEET   PEAS  .

All living things define their existence using about 20 Amino Acids. Protein Synthesis involves unique and creative ways of arranging these amino acids into chains called polypeptides. Protein Synthesis is a creative process for the product created by one species has ability to impart unique sensory experience in an unrelated species.  Man can distinguish plant and animal proteins by using his organs of sense perception. The creative aspect of protein synthesis is in the taste, smell, flavor, color, texture, and palatability of plant and animal proteins. Man further improves palatability of proteins he consumes by refining his culinary skills.To refute the concept called ‘DARWINISM’, the Proof or Verification is in Eating Sweet Garden Peas and recognizing them from their color, taste, smell, flavor, texture, and palatability. Plants and animals do not use sensory functions like vision, olfaction, and taste in protein synthesis. The sensory experience of man is possible for living things exist with an innate tendency to express their Form, Nature, and Essence. I am asking my readers to contemplate upon supernatural circumstances that may define Form, Nature, and Essence of living things that are not explained by a study of their genes and genetic code.

Related Articles:

1SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE – MAN IS A SPIRITUAL BEING

2. SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE – THE HUMAN SPECIES

3. SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE – THE ORIGIN OF HUMAN SPECIES

 

 

#WHOLEMENDELISM – MENDELISM VS DARWINISM

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MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE  Vs  HUMAN EVOLUTION WHOLE MENDELISM  #WholeMendelism  Vs  DARWINISM:

The origin of Man, or the Beginning of Man as a new form of Life may have a basis that lies outside  operation of natural causes. Mendelism, ‘The Theory of Heredity’ formulated by Gregor Mendel provides insights to the problem of man’s origin. on the basis of Mendelism, it can be said that man did not descend from Primates and is not truly related to other members of Hominid Family. Man’s relationship with other zoological species has to be explained on the basis of reproductive history and inheritance of  biological traits. I coined the phrase “Whole Mendelism” #WholeMendelism to claim that man had arrived on planet Earth due to a special act of creation.  There are no natural conditions, no natural factors, no natural mechanisms, no natural processes and no natural causes to transform any of previously existing members of Hominid Family to establish the reality of anatomically modern man. To make  transition from an old species to a new species which is often called ‘EVOLUTION’ or ‘DARWINISM’, the breeding interactions of species involved must operate according to the Laws of Inheritance discovered by Gregor Johann Mendel, the Father of Genetics. In this article, I would like to describe the Laws of Inheritance and the problems that I encounter to verify Darwinism while using the Mendelian Principles of Heredity and Variation. For example, if evolutionary biologists or anthropologists claim that anatomically modern human species or its immediate ancestral species had reproduced with archaic hominids such as Neanderthals, the human genome has to include one complete ‘Haploid’ set of chromosomes normally occurring in the mature germ cell called egg or sperm  which means 22 chromosomes(Autosomes), and 1  X or Y chromosome(Sex chromosome) derived exclusively from Neanderthal genome. Secondly, human population must include a few members that can be clearly identified as Neanderthal.

THE ORIGIN AND EXTINCTION OF SPECIES:

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  : AFTER  THE  ORIGIN  OF  LIFE  ON  EARTH  FOR  A  VERY,  VERY  LONG  TIME( ABOUT  3.5  BILLION  YEARS)  IT  COMPRISED  OF  SIMPLER  FORMS  OF  LIFE .  SUDDENLY,  ABOUT  600  MILLION  YEARS  AGO  NUMEROUS  MARINE  CREATURES  ARRIVED  TO  CAUSE  AN  "EXPLOSION  OF  LIFE."
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION : AFTER THE ORIGIN OF LIFE ON EARTH FOR A VERY, VERY LONG TIME( ABOUT 3.5 BILLION YEARS) IT COMPRISED OF SIMPLER FORMS OF LIFE . SUDDENLY, ABOUT 600 MILLION YEARS AGO NUMEROUS MARINE CREATURES ARRIVED TO CAUSE AN “EXPLOSION OF LIFE.”

It will be interesting to note that a vast majority of species found on Earth have emerged suddenly and have disappeared suddenly. For example, Cambrian, first geologic Period in the Paleozoic Era witnessed  sudden emergence of a great variety of marine animals especially trilobites and brachiopods about 600 million years ago. This “Explosion of Life” is aptly named ‘Cambrian Explosion’. Similarly, towards the end of Cretaceous Period, third geologic Period of the Mesozoic Era and the beginning of Tertiary Period of the Cenozoic Era, about 65 million years ago, a global extinction event called K-T Event was responsible for eliminating approximately 80 percent of all species of animals. Dinosaurs which reached maximum development became extinct while new forms of life appeared with new hereditary traits.

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION :   THESE  DEEP  SEA  CREATURES  OF  ATLANTIC  OCEAN,  LAMELLIBRACHIA  LUYMESI,  TUBE  WORMS,  INVERTEBRATES  BELONG  TO  PHYLUM  ANNELIDA  LIVE  ON  THE  OCEAN  FLOOR  ALONG  HYDROCARBON  VENTS.  TUBE  WORMS  TAKE  170  TO  250  YEARS  TO  GROW  AND  HAVE  SURVIVED  AS  A  SPECIES  WITHOUT  CONCERN  FOR  CHANGING  TIMES.
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION : THESE DEEP SEA CREATURES OF ATLANTIC OCEAN, LAMELLIBRACHIA LUYMESI, TUBE WORMS, INVERTEBRATES BELONG TO PHYLUM  ANNELIDA  LIVE  ON  THE  OCEAN  FLOOR  ALONG  HYDROCARBON VENTS. TUBE WORMS TAKE 170 TO 250 YEARS TO GROW AND HAVE SURVIVED AS A SPECIES WITHOUT CONCERN FOR CHANGING TIMES SINCE  PRECAMBRIAN  ERA .
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION :  DARWINISM  CANNOT  ACCOUNT  FOR  SUDDEN  APPEARANCE  OF  A  VARIETY  OF  MARINE  LIFE  FORMS IN  AN  EVENT  CALLED 'CAMBRIAN  EXPLOSION'  ABOUT  570  MILLION  YEARS  AGO .  GEODUCK,  BIVALVE  CLAMS ARE  AMONG  THE  OLDEST  ANIMALS  IN  THE  WORLD  WITH  LIFESPANS  OF  ABOUT  146  TO  160  YEARS .
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION : DARWINISM CANNOT ACCOUNT FOR SUDDEN APPEARANCE OF A VARIETY OF MARINE LIFE FORMS IN AN EVENT CALLED ‘CAMBRIAN EXPLOSION’ ABOUT 570 MILLION YEARS AGO . PANOPEA  GENEROSA, GEODUCK(NATIVE  AMERICAN CHINOOK  NAME), BIVALVE,  WORLD’S  LARGEST  BURROWING  SALT  WATER  CLAMS  FOUND  IN  THE  US  PUGET  SOUND  ARE AMONG THE OLDEST ANIMALS IN THE WORLD WITH LIFESPANS OF ABOUT 146 TO 160 YEARS .
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :   CRETACEOUS-TERTIARY  EXTINCTION  EVENT  ABOUT  65  MILLION  YEARS  AGO  WIPED  OUT  APPROXIMATELY  80  PERCENT  OF  ALL  SPECIES  OF  ANIMALS  INCLUDING  A  GREAT  VARIETY  OF  DINOSAURS .
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION : CRETACEOUS-TERTIARY EXTINCTION EVENT ABOUT 65 MILLION YEARS AGO WIPED OUT APPROXIMATELY 80 PERCENT OF ALL SPECIES OF ANIMALS INCLUDING A GREAT VARIETY OF DINOSAURS .
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION :  DARWINISM  CANNOT  EXPLAIN  EITHER  THE  EMERGENCE  OF  NEW  SPECIES  OR  EXTINCTION  OF  OLD  SPECIES.  NATURAL  FACTORS,  NATURAL  CONDITIONS,  NATURAL  MECHANISMS ,  AND  NATURAL  CAUSES  CANNOT  FULLY  ACCOUNT  FOR  EXTINCTION  OF  THE  LARGE-BODIED  ICE  AGE  MAMMALS  SUCH  AS  WOOLLY  RHINOCEROS,  WOOLY  MAMMOTHS, MASTODONS, AND  SABERTOOTH  CARNIVORES .
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION : DARWINISM CANNOT EXPLAIN EITHER THE EMERGENCE OF NEW SPECIES OR EXTINCTION OF OLD SPECIES. NATURAL FACTORS, NATURAL CONDITIONS, NATURAL MECHANISMS , AND NATURAL CAUSES CANNOT FULLY ACCOUNT FOR EXTINCTION OF THE LARGE-BODIED ICE AGE MAMMALS SUCH AS WOOLLY RHINOCEROS, WOOLY MAMMOTHS, MASTODONS, AND SABERTOOTH CARNIVORES .

In Darwinism, new species arise when, among the varieties of an existing species, certain intermediate forms become extinct, and the other circumstances are such that the surviving varieties now become more sharply separated from one another in type, and are able to reproduce their kind, and , in the course of many generations of interbreeding, also tend to breed true. This ‘Theory of Evolution’ is not consistent with Mendel’s Laws of Inheritance and Variation. The Unit Character called ‘GENE’ conserves its identity during the process of reproduction which could be either ‘Inbreeding’, or ‘Interbreeding’. A species is always known by its reproductive history for the Unit Characters or Genes get propagated to the next generation during both inbreeding and interbreeding process.

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE

MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  GREGOR  JOHANN  MENDEL(1822-1884),  THE  FATHER  OF  GENETICS .  AT  THE  AUGUSTINIAN  MONASTERY  IN  BRNO(1843-1868),  HE  CONDUCTED OVER 29,000 BREEDING  EXPERIMENTS  CHIEFLY  ON  GARDEN PEAS(PISUM  SATIVUM).

Gregor Johann Mendel(1822-1884), Austrian monk noted for his experimental work on Heredity. At the Augustinian monastery in Brno(1843-1868) he conducted experiments chiefly on Garden Peas(Pisum sativum) using a controlled pollination technique and a careful statistical analysis of his results. He produced the first accurate and scientific explanation of ‘Hybridization’. Some evolutionary geneticists and evolutionary anthropology scholars have shared opinions claiming that the ‘hybridization’ of unknown, ancestral Homo sapiens with other species of the genus Homo such as Neanderthals, and Denisova hominids may have resulted in  production of anatomically modern humans(Homo sapiens sapiens). Their views on blending of hereditary factors is not supported by Mendel’s classic experiments in Hybridization. According to Mendel, inheritance is particulate. Distinct genetic factors combine to produce a certain somatic result without losing their separate identities. They can therefore be reassorted and enter into new genetic combinations in the next generation. The hypothesis of  Hybridized Anatomically Modern(HAM) humans is fundamentally inconsistent with the Laws of Inheritance discovered by Mendel. If modern man is a product of Hybridization, the present, surviving human population would include a few surviving members of Neanderthals, Denisova, and other ancestral hominids who successfully reproduced with an unknown, ancestral Homo sapiens species which got transformed into ‘HAM’ humans.

THE LAW OF BIOGENESIS AND THE LAW OF NATURAL GENERATION :

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  HUMAN  CHROMOSOMES  AND  HUMAN  IDENTITY .  MAN  REPRODUCES  AND  FURTHER  PROPAGATES  HIS  CHROMOSOMAL  INHERITANCE  ACCORDING  TO  THE  LAW  OF  BIOGENESIS  AND  THE  LAW  OF  NATURAL  GENERATION .
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION : DIPLOID  SET  OF  HUMAN CHROMOSOMES  AND  HUMAN  GENOTYPE  . MAN  REPRODUCES  AND  FURTHER PROPAGATES  HIS  CHROMOSOMAL  INHERITANCE  ACCORDING  TO  THE  LAW  OF BIOGENESIS  AND  THE  LAW  OF  NATURAL  GENERATION . HUMAN  OFFSPRING  WILL  ALWAYS  BE  OF  THE  SAME  SPECIES  AS  THE  PARENT  ORGANISM . THE  TERM  GENOME  DESCRIBES  THE  SET  OF  GENES  CHARACTERISTIC  OF  EACH  SPECIES .

The term ‘Generation’ means to produce offspring. The term ‘Propagation’ means to transmit hereditary characteristics by reproduction. The Law of Biogenesis states the Principle that living organisms originate only from other living organisms closely similar to themselves. It is  ‘The Law of Like Generating Like’. A species always breeds true to its own species. Its members always generate organisms which are classified as belonging to the same species, however much they vary among themselves as individuals within the group. The sub-groups, the races, or varieties of species are able to breed with one another, but diverse species cannot interbreed. By the Law of Natural Generation, offspring will always be of the same species as the parent organism. Hence, species is self-perpetuating and maintain  stability of all other groupings like the genera, phyla, and families which remain as fixed from generation to generation. In Plant and Animal Kingdom, a species distinguishes itself by its ability to maintain its stability from generation to generation. The Mendelian System of Heredity states that an inherited characteristic is determined by the combination of two hereditary units(now called genes), one from each of the parental reproductive cells or gametes(Sperm and Egg Cell). The term genome describes the complete haploid set of chromosomes of a sexually reproducing organism normally occurring in mature germ cell called egg or sperm. This number of chromosomes is characteristic of each species. Every human being arrives on planet Earth with an original, unique, distinctive, and one of its own kind of  genome that has never, ever existed in the past, and would never exist again in the future. Sexual reproduction is a creative process which involves a type of cell division called ‘MEIOSIS’ that results in production of Sperm or Egg Cell. Fertilization of egg cell by sperm always creates a new kind of genome while the number of chromosomes(Diploid set) that is the chief attribute of species is held constant.

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE   VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION :  HUMAN  BIRTH  REQUIRES  THE  UNION  OF  TWO  HEREDITARY  UNITS,  ONE  FROM  EACH  OF  THE  PARENTAL  REPRODUCTIVE  CELLS  OR  GAMETES (SPERM  AND  EGG  CELL) .  MEIOSIS  OR  HAPLOID  DIVISION  IS  A  HIGHLY  CREATIVE  PROCESS  AS  IT  GENERATES  A UNIQUE ,  ORIGINAL,   DISTINCTIVE,  AND  ONE  OF  ITS  OWN  KIND  OF  GENOME, A  COMPLETE  HAPLOID  SET  OF  CHROMOSOMES  WHILE  THE  DIPLOID SET  OF  CHROMOSOMES AFTER FERTILIZATION  OR  CONCEPTION  IS  CONSTANT .

THE ORIGIN OR THE BEGINNING OF ANATOMICALLY MODERN HUMANS:

To explain the Origin of Man, The Beginning of Man on the basis of Darwinism, demands  presence of two, identical, rare, mutant individuals(a male, and a female) to produce offspring and to establish an entirely new, modern human population in all geographical regions of the Old World. About 10, 000 years ago, modern humans may have shared the planet with a few surviving members of Neanderthals and other hominid species. Techniques of DNA extraction and genomic sequencing have advanced and find application in the understanding of the genus Homo. The claims about Hybridization of archaic humans such as Neanderthals with Homo sapiens  finds support from DNA studies of the current,  members of human population as compared to DNA sequences extracted from Neanderthal fossils. But those shared genetic traits are not of major significance and do not account for the morphological appearance of either Neanderthal or modern man. At the same time, it may be noted that 30 – 35, 000 years ago, Neanderthals disappeared from the fossil record. Similarly, Hominid Denisova, discovered in Altai Mountains, Southern Siberia lived 41, 000 years ago. Homo sapiens floresiensis(Flores Man) of Indonesia  suddenly disappeared 12, 000 years ago. Hominid Red Deer discovered in China lived 14.5 to 11.5 thousand years ago. To make a credible claim about interbreeding between Neanderthals and Homo sapiens, we need to demonstrate  presence of traits characteristic of Homo sapiens in the DNA extracted from Neanderthal fossil specimens. It will be correct to claim that from Holocene Epoch or Series, approximately for the last 10, 000 years, modern humans constitute the only surviving members of the Hominid Family found on planet Earth.

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  THE  MENDELIAN  SYSTEM  OF  HEREDITY  CAN  EASILY  ESTABLISH  THE  FACT  THAT  THIS  HUMAN  BABY  HAS  TWO ANATOMICALLY  MODERN  HUMAN  PARENTS . EVERY  BABY   ARRIVES  WITH  ORIGINAL,  UNIQUE,  DISTINCTIVE,  AND  ONE  OF  ITS  OWN  KIND  OF   GENOME( A  COMPLETE  HAPLOID  SET  OF  CHROMOSOMES, OR  23 CHROMOSOMES  FROM  EACH  PARENT) THAT  NEVER  EXISTED  IN  THE  PAST  AND  WILL  NEVER  EXIST  AGAIN  IN  FUTURE  WHILE  ALL  HUMANS  ARE  BORN  WITH  A  DIPLOID  SET   THAT  HAS  46  CHROMOSOMES .

Charles Darwin uses the term species to signify “a set of individuals closely resembling each other” – a class of plants or animals having certain characteristics. The French naturalist George Louis Leclerc Comte de Buffon(1707-1788) in his monumental compendium on Natural History(Histoire Naturelle General et Particuliere, 44 Volumes, 1749-1804) described man as a zoological species. Buffon determined species not by their physical appearances but by their reproductive history. Two individual animals or plants are of the same species if they can produce fertile offspring. According to Buffon, a species is known only through the history of its propagation. Buffon opened the way to  development of Paleontology to discover lost species. The status of Anatomically Modern Humans as a distinct species is verified as human populations consist of members that are genetically similar, interbreeding or potentially interbreeding individuals that share the same collection of inherited characteristics, whose combination is unique to our species. Diverse species cannot interbreed. Organisms different in species cannot reproduce productively and if crossbred, like the horse and the ass, they produce a sterile hybrid like the mule. Hybrid is the term for the offspring of a cross between two different subspecies or species. In Genetics, hybrid is the term for the offspring of parents differing in any genetic characteristic.Interbreeding or Hybridization means to produce offspring by crossing two individuals of unlike genetic constitution. The offspring of different races, varieties, species, etc., are called ‘hybrids’. If Neanderthal is one of the parents of Anatomically Modern Humans, identity of the second Hominid parent has to be ascertained, and the characteristics of that parent are accounted for using Mendel’s Laws of Inheritance. The social and cultural behavior of anatomically modern man consistently displays a tendency that prefers and encourages ‘inbreeding’. The prevailing social and cultural norms of human society in general tend to oppose sexual behavior that may be identified as ‘interbreeding’. In selection of a mate for breeding, anatomically modern man prefers an individual who closely resembles the members of his/her own stock.

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE   VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  A  SPECIES  IS  RECOGNIZED  BY  ITS  HISTORY  OF  PROPAGATION . MULE,  A   PRODUCT  OF  CROSSBREEDING , OR  HYBRIDIZATION  CANNOT FURTHER  REPRODUCE  PRODUCTIVELY  WITH  OTHER  MULES,  OR  WITH  HORSE , OR   ASS FOR  IT  IS  BORN  STERILE .  HYBRIDIZATION  WILL  NOT  HELP  TO  TRANSFORM  A  SPECIES  INTO  A  NEW  SPECIES  IF  ITS  PARENTS  BELONG  TO  DIFFERENT  SPECIES .

The concept of Hybridized Anatomically Modern(HAM) humans cannot be verified in  absence of any surviving members of Neanderthal, Denisova, or other Hominid population with whom modern man may have reproduced about 10, 000 years ago.

MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE :

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  : IT  WILL  BE  IMPORTANT  TO  NOTE  THAT  ACQUIRED  CHARACTERISTICS  ARE  NOT  HEREDITARY  AND  THERE  IS  NO  INHERITANCE  OF  ACQUIRED  CHARACTERISTICS .
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION : IT WILL BE IMPORTANT TO NOTE THAT ACQUIRED CHARACTERISTICS ARE NOT HEREDITARY AND THERE IS NO INHERITANCE OF ACQUIRED CHARACTERISTICS .
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  MENDEL  DEMONSTRATED  INHERITANCE  PATTERNS  THROUGH  BREEDING  EXPERIMENTATION. THE  IMAGE  SHOWS  SOME  OF  THE  HEREDITARY  TRAITS  OR  CHARACTERS  INVESTIGATED  BY  MENDEL  WHILE  EXPERIMENTING  ON  GARDEN  PEA  PLANTS  WITH  WHITE  OR  VIOLET  FLOWERS.
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE   VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :   FOR  UNIT  CHARACTERS  NAMED  R(DOMINANT),  r(RECESSIVE),  Y(DOMINANT),  AND   y(RECESSIVE),  THE  DIAGRAM  ILLUSTRATES  THE OPERATION  OF  MENDEL’S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE .
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE   VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  THE  MENDELIAN  SYSTEM  OF  HEREDITY  STATES  THAN  AN  INHERITED  CHARACTERISTIC  IS  DETERMINED  BY  THE  COMBINATION  OF  TWO  HEREDITARY  UNITS( NOW  CALLED  GENES ),  ONE  FROM  EACH  OF  THE  PARENTAL  REPRODUCTIVE  CELLS  OR  GAMETES .
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  AS  PER  THE  MENDELIAN  SYSTEM  OF  HEREDITY ,  IF  MODERN  HUMANS  INTERBREED  WITH  NEANDERTHALS , IN  EACH  GENERATION  OF  OFFSPRING  PRODUCED ,  THREE  INDIVIDUALS  COULD  BE  MODERN  HUMANS ( DOMINANT  TRAIT )  AND  ONE  INDIVIDUAL WOULD  BE  NEANDERTHAL ( RECESSIVE  TRAIT ).  SUCH  INTERBREEDING  WOULD  IN  REALITY  SAVE  NEANDERTHAL  POPULATION  FROM  TOTAL  EXTINCTION .

Mendel demonstrated the inheritance patterns through breeding experimentations. He discovered in 1866 hereditary factors or “genes” whose existence he deduced without seeing them. Mendel’s statistical analysis of his data provided the mathematical basis for modern Genetics. There are four principles of hereditary phenomenon discovered and formulated by Mendel :

1. The Law of Independent Unit Characters which states that characters such as height, color, etc., are inherited separately as  Units,

2. The Law of Segregation which states that body cells and primordial germ cells contain pairs of such Unit Characters and that when gametes(Sperm or Egg Cell) are produced, each gamete receives only one member of each such pair,

3. The Law of Dominance which states that in every individual there is a pair of determining factors for each Unit Character, one from each parent, if these factors are different(heterozygous), one Character( the Dominant) appears in the organism, the other(  Recessive) being latent; the Recessive Character can appear in the organism only when the Dominant is absent; hence in all crossbred generations, Unit Characters are shown in varying combinations, each appearing in a definite proportion of the total number of offspring, and 

4. The Law of Independent Assortment which states that any one pair of Characters is inherited independently, not withstanding the simultaneous transmission of other traits. This Law is modified by the discovery of Linkage and Pleiotropy. Linkage describes the tendency of some genes to remain together and act as a Unit or Linkage Group. In Inheritance, the Linkage Group of genes are generally found in the same chromosome. Pleiotropy is the condition in which a single gene exerts simultaneous effects on more than one character in the offspring.

ABOUT GENETICS  AND THE CONSTANCY OF GENETIC CODE :

Genetics is an important aspect of many areas of Biology. Genetics helps in the study and identification of specific types of organisms; research in Molecular Genetics involves studies on chemical structure and functions of genes at molecular level; Cyto Genetics studies  location of genetic material in cells and the role of genes in cell division; Developmental Genetics studies the genetic function in embryological phenomena; Behavior Genetics studies the role of gene in regulating behavior; Population Genetics studies genetics in relation to the “evolutionary” process. Medical Genetics involves  application of genetic principles to the practice of Medicine such as the study of inheritance of diseases in families. Genetic factors cause many health disorders affecting man. Some human diseases are entirely genetic in origin and environmental factors play little if any part. This group of genetic disorders includes chromosomal abnormalities, and so-called “Unifactorial Disorders” which are due to single gene defects or Mendelian factors. There are over 3 thousand of such unifactorial disorders. The mode of inheritance of such disorders is straight forward and follows Mendelian Principles. Mendel’s Laws of Inheritance have their practical applications in Medical Genetics. However, the use of Mendel’s Principles in Population Genetics to verify The Theory of Evolution is highly controversial because of the speculative postulates about transformation of old species into a new species .  Several single-celled Blue-Green algae, plankton, microbes, viruses, protozoans, insects, crocodiles, turtles, sharks and other organisms are known to be existing upon Earth from billions to several millions of years. The unchanging  genetic code in all past and present members of these long-lived species permit the genes to have the same effects on their carriers from generation to generation. Because of  constancy of the genetic code, we can  identify  existence of individual species which maintain their species-specific traits as per Mendelian Principles. There are numerous kinds of longest living species on Earth and their identification is possible because of their genetic codes have essentially remained unchanged.

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION :  THE  CONSTANCY  OF  THE  GENETIC  CODE .  BLUE-GREEN  ALGAE,  CYANOBACTERIA  MAINTAIN  THEIR  SPECIES-SPECIFIC  TRAITS  FOR  BILLIONS  OF  YEARS .
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION : THE CONSTANCY OF THE GENETIC CODE . BLUE-GREEN ALGAE, CYANOBACTERIA MAINTAIN THEIR SPECIES-SPECIFIC TRAITS  SINCE  PRECAMBRIAN  TIME,  3,800  TO  700 MILLION  YEARS  AGO .
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION :  SPONGES  ARE  INVERTEBRATE  ANIMALS  OF  THE  PHYLUM  PORIFERA .  SPONGES  ARE  AMONG  THE  LONGEST  LIVING  ANIMAL  SPECIES  OF  EARTH .  THEY  APPEARED  IN  CAMBRIAN  PERIOD  ABOUT  570  MILLION  YEARS  AGO .  ANTARCTIC  SPONGE  CAN  LIVE  FOR  CENTURIES .  OLDEST  KNOWN  SPONGE  ESTIMATED  AGE  1, 550 YEARS .
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION : SPONGES ARE INVERTEBRATE ANIMALS OF THE PHYLUM PORIFERA . SPONGES ARE AMONG THE LONGEST LIVING ANIMAL SPECIES OF EARTH . THEY APPEARED IN CAMBRIAN PERIOD ABOUT 570 MILLION YEARS AGO . ANTARCTIC SPONGE CAN LIVE FOR CENTURIES . OLDEST KNOWN SPONGE ESTIMATED AGE 1, 550 YEARS .
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION : THE  CONSTANCY  OF  THE  GENETIC  CODE  PERMIT  THE  GENES  TO  HAVE  THE  SAME  EFFECTS  ON  THEIR  CARRIERS  FROM  GENERATION  TO  GENERATION . AMERICAN  COCKROACH  IS  EXISTING  ON  EARTH  FOR  MILLIONS  OF  YEARS .
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION : THE CONSTANCY OF THE GENETIC CODE PERMIT THE GENES TO HAVE THE SAME EFFECTS ON THEIR CARRIERS FROM GENERATION TO GENERATION . AMERICAN COCKROACH IS EXISTING ON EARTH BASICALLY  UNCHANGED  FOR  300   MILLION   YEARS . MOST  ABUNDANT  DURING  THE  CARBONIFEROUS  PERIOD  DURING  WHICH  A  VARIETY  OF  INSECTS  APPEARED .
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  EVOLUTION  :  ARCTICA  ISLANDICA .
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  ARCTICA  ISLANDICA .  OCEAN  QUAHOG  OR  CLAM  .  MOLLUSKS  ARE  ORGANISMS  WITH  SHELLS  DATE  BACK  TO  THE  CAMBRIAN  PERIOD,  500  MILLION  YEARS  AGO .
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  THE  CONSTANCY  OF  THE  GENETIC  CODE  GIVES  THE  ABILITY  TO  IDENTIFY  THE  EXISTENCE  OF  INDIVIDUAL  SPECIES  WHICH  MAINTAIN  THEIR  SPECIES-SPECIFIC  TRAITS .  OVER  MILLIONS  OF  YEARS,  SHARKS  HAVE  MAINTAINED  THEIR  MORPHOLOGICAL  APPEARANCE .
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION : THE CONSTANCY OF THE GENETIC CODE GIVES THE ABILITY TO IDENTIFY THE EXISTENCE OF INDIVIDUAL SPECIES WHICH MAINTAIN THEIR SPECIES-SPECIFIC TRAITS . OVER 350  MILLION   YEARS,  SINCE  THE  END  OF  DEVONIAN  PERIOD  SHARKS HAVE MAINTAINED THEIR MORPHOLOGICAL APPEARANCE .
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  SPHENODON  TUATARA  .  THIS  LIZARDLIKE  REPTILE  OF  NEW  ZEALAND  IS  KNOWN  AS  A  LIVING  FOSSIL .  THIS  SPECIES  IS  IN  EXISTENCE  FOR  ABOUT  200-225  MILLION  YEARS .
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION : SPHENODON TUATARA . THIS LIZARDLIKE REPTILE OF NEW ZEALAND IS KNOWN AS A LIVING FOSSIL . THIS SPECIES IS IN EXISTENCE FOR ABOUT 200-225 MILLION YEARS .
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  : BASED  UPON  THEIR  UNIQUE  GENETIC  CODES,  ORGANISMS  ARE  KNOWN  TO  BE  EXISTING  UPON  EARTH  FOR  SEVERAL  MILLIONS  OF  YEARS .  CROCODILES  LIVED  ALONG  WITH  DINOSAURS .
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION : BASED UPON THEIR UNIQUE GENETIC CODES, ORGANISMS ARE KNOWN TO BE EXISTING UPON EARTH FOR SEVERAL MILLIONS OF YEARS . CROCODILES LIVED ALONG WITH DINOSAURS . ORIGINATED  DURING  THE  LATE  TRIASSIC  PERIOD  200  MILLION  YEARS  AGO .
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  THE  ORIGIN  OF  THE  GENETIC  CODE  IS  UNKNOWN .  THE  VAST  MAJORITY  OF  ORGANISMS  BREED  WITH  OTHER  MEMBERS  OF  THEIR  OWN  SPECIES  PROPAGATING  THEIR  OWN  UNIQUE  GENETIC  CODES .  WE  KNOW  ABOUT  LONG-LIVED  ORGANISMS  LIKE  SEA  TURTLES  BECAUSE  OF  THE  CONSTANCY  OF  THEIR  GENETIC  CODES .
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION : THE ORIGIN OF THE GENETIC CODE IS UNKNOWN . THE VAST MAJORITY OF ORGANISMS BREED WITH OTHER MEMBERS OF THEIR OWN SPECIES PROPAGATING THEIR OWN UNIQUE GENETIC CODES . WE KNOW ABOUT LONG-LIVED ORGANISMS LIKE SEA TURTLES BECAUSE OF THE CONSTANCY OF THEIR GENETIC CODES . TURTLES  ARE  IN  EXISTENCE  FROM  THE  TRIASSIC  PERIOD,  200  MILLION  YEARS  AGO.
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  ALASKA  BOWHEAD  WHALE .  WHALES  ORIGINATED  IN  THE  EARLY  TERTIARY  OR  UPPER  CRETACEOUS  ABOUT  70  MILLION  YEARS  AGO.
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION : ALASKA BOWHEAD WHALE . WHALES ORIGINATED IN THE EARLY TERTIARY OR UPPER CRETACEOUS ABOUT 70 MILLION YEARS AGO.
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  MONOTREMES .  DUCK-BILLED  PLATYPUS  ORNITHO  RHYNCHUS  ANATINUS  IS  A  SPECIES  SURVIVING  SINCE  AUSTRALIAN  PLEISTOCENE  ABOUT  2  MILLION  YEARS  AGO.
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION : MONOTREMES . DUCK-BILLED PLATYPUS ORNITHO RHYNCHUS ANATINUS IS A SPECIES SURVIVING SINCE AUSTRALIAN PLEISTOCENE ABOUT 2 MILLION YEARS AGO.

While describing Genetics as the area of Biology concerned with the study of inheritance, the process by which certain characteristics or traits of organisms are handed down from parent to offspring, I would like to suggest that a creative mechanism, a creative process or a creative operation could be at work when Genetics accounts for variations in similar or related animals and plants. I would like to emphasize the fact of all organisms existing as Individuals with Individuality. In Nature, living things have no choice other than that of existence as Individuals with Individuality. Even a mob of genetically identical(“CLONES”) colony of bacteria of E. coli are experimentally proved to behave as Individuals with Individuality.

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :
MENDEL’S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN EVOLUTION  : DOUBLE –  HELIX DEOXYRIBO NUCLEIC  ACID  OR  DNA  IS  FOUND  IN  CHROMOSOMES,  THE  STRUCTURES  FOUND  INSIDE   THE   NUCLEUS  OF  CELLS  OF  HIGHER  ORGANISMS.  THE  DNA  MOLECULE  ALWAYS  EXHIBITS  INDIVIDUALISTIC  VARIATION  IN   ITS   BEHAVIOR .

In higher organisms with cells that contain a Nucleus, the genetic material called DNA(deoxyribonucleic acid) is carried by structures known as Chromosomes in the Nucleus, and the cytoplasmic structures known as Mitochondria. The genetic material called RNA(ribonucleic acid) is found in the Nucleolus(present inside the Nucleus) and structures called Ribosomes found in the Cytoplasm.

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  THE  UNITS  OF  INHERITANCE  ARE  KNOWN  AS  GENES.  THE  GENES  ARE  FOUND  INSIDE  CHROMOSOMES  THAT  ARE  PRESENT  IN  THE  NUCLEUS  OF  CELLS  OF  HIGHER  ORGANISMS .  DNA  IS  FOUND IN  CHROMOSOMES,  MITOCHONDRIA,  AND  RIBOSOMES .
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION :  CELL  IS  THE   BASIC  BUILDING  BLOCK  OF  LIVING  THINGS . THE UNITS  OF  INHERITANCE  ARE KNOWN  AS GENES. THE GENES  ARE  FOUND  INSIDE  CHROMOSOMES THAT ARE PRESENT IN THE NUCLEUS OF CELLS OF HIGHER ORGANISMS . DNA,  IS FOUND IN CHROMOSOMES, MITOCHONDRIA, AND  RNA  IS  FOUND  IN THE NUCLEOLUS AND  RIBOSOMES .

The Ribosomes are the sites of protein synthesis present in the Cytoplasm. DNA interacts with ‘transfer RNA'(t-RNA), ‘Messenger RNA'(m-RNA), and Ribosomal RNA in the process of protein synthesis. The Chromosome is divided into Units called Genes. Each Gene is responsible for a particular trait  and hence Gene is the Unit of inheritance. The term ‘allele’ describes either of a pair of genes at the same position on both members of a pair of chromosomes and conveying traits that are inherited by Mendelian Laws.There could be small chemical differences in genes that are expressed as different versions of the same trait (‘alleles’). Each gene is responsible for the manufacture of a particular protein which is involved in  development of a trait associated with it. Each chromosome of each species of higher organisms has a definite number and arrangement of genes which govern the structure and functions of the cells.  It is important to note that, while genes are located inside the Nucleus of the cell, the actual protein synthesis occurs in structures called Ribosomes present in the Cytoplasm outside the Nucleus. While we appreciate the role of genes as Units of Inheritance, we should give equal importance to the Living Substance, the Living Material, or the Living Matter called Cytoplasm that is found inside the living cells, outside the Nucleus of the cell. There are basically three classes of Genes: 1. Structural genes which determine the sequences of amino acids that go to makeup proteins or the smaller chain of molecules known as polypeptides, 2. Coding genes which specify molecules that function in the processes involved in protein synthesis, and 3. Regulatory genes which are called Noncoding genes for they act solely as “Recognition” sites for enzymes and other proteins involved in controlling protein synthesis.

THE  GENETIC CODE AND THE ROLE OF MUTATIONS:    

 

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :

MENDEL’S LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION   :  GENETIC  CODE  DESCRIBES  THE  RELATIONSHIP  BETWEEN  THE  COMPOSITION  OF  DNA  AND  THAT  OF  PROTEINS  PRODUCED  BY  GENES .

The Genetic Code describes the relationship between composition of DNA and that of proteins produced by genes. Genetic Code is the chemical equation by which hereditary information is translated from genes into proteins. Changes in the genetic code are called Mutations. Mutations can cause a change in protein synthesis. In higher organisms, when mutation involves the germ-line cells that eventually develop into sperm or egg cells, the mutation and its consequence of altered protein synthesis is inherited by offspring. A mutation can be minor and relatively insignificant, or it can cause serious deformity or metabolic deficiency in the organism. Most mutations tend to be harmful. Fortunately, a typical gene in higher organisms is segmented and the entire genetic information of a gene is not contained in a single, unbroken strand of DNA molecule. The value of having the genetic code in segments is to reduce the chances of mutations causing harmful changes in protein synthesis. Certain self-repair mechanisms also exist to deal with the damage done to DNA. Very often, the damaged DNA is repaired or the cell carrying the damaged DNA is killed and destroyed. For this reason, it is important to recognize the simple fact of DNA damage associated with mutations irrespective of its cause. The Theory of Evolution proposes that random, unguided, and apparently purposeless mutations lead to gradual changes in a species and eventually lead to its descent as a new species. As per the Theory of Evolution, mutations may bring about three kinds of changes; 1. Changes in the morphological appearance of an organism, 2. Changes in the skeletal and other anatomical structures of an organism, and 3. Changes in the behavior displayed by an organism.

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  MUSCLE  TWITCH  IN  FROG  MUSCLE  EXPERIMENT .  MUTATIONS  CANNOT  ACCOUNT  FOR  GUIDED,  SEQUENTIAL,  AND  PURPOSEFUL  NATURE  OF  MUSCLE  CONTRACTIONS  WHICH  HAVE  SEVERAL  CREATIVE  APPLICATIONS  IN  THE  NATURAL  WORLD .
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION : MUSCLE TWITCH IN FROG MUSCLE EXPERIMENT . MUTATIONS CANNOT ACCOUNT FOR GUIDED, SEQUENTIAL, AND PURPOSEFUL NATURE OF MUSCLE CONTRACTIONS WHICH HAVE SEVERAL CREATIVE APPLICATIONS IN THE NATURAL WORLD .

In higher organisms, the cells are differentiated to perform special functions. For example, muscle cells have ability of contraction. This physiological function of contraction is easily demonstrated by applying an electrical stimulus to muscle as done in Muscle Twitch in Frog Experiment. Animals have different abilities of locomotion; some crawl or creep, or slide on a surface, some swim, or move in water, some fly or glide in air, and others walk, run, climb, and swing in a variety of amazing manners. Whatever may be the mode of locomotion, all animal muscle cells display the same physiological function of contraction. While the physiology remains the same, the muscles of each animal species display individualistic functional characteristics. For mutations are random, unguided, and purposeless, they cannot account for guided, sequential and purposeful nature of muscle contractions which have several creative applications in the natural world.

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION :   CHIMPANZEE  AND  OTHER  APES HAVE  48  CHROMOSOMES  WHEREAS  MAN  HAS  ONLY  46  CHROMOSOMES .  CHROMOSOMES 2a  AND  2b  FOUND  IN  APES  IS  OF  PARTICULAR  INTEREST .
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION : CHIMPANZEE AND OTHER APES HAVE 48 CHROMOSOMES WHEREAS MAN HAS ONLY 46 CHROMOSOMES . CHROMOSOMES 2 a AND 2 b FOUND IN APES ARE  OF PARTICULAR INTEREST .
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  THERE  IS  NO  NATURAL  MECHANISM  OF   SEXUAL  REPRODUCTION  THAT  CAN  FUSE  CHROMOSOME  2 a  AND  2 b  TO  ASSEMBLE   CHROMOSOME  #  2   FOUND  IN   MAN .  MENDEL'S   LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  WHAT  IS  GENETIC  DRIFT  ????   CAN  IT  ACCOUNT  FOR  THE  ARRIVAL  OF  ANATOMICALLY  MODERN  HUMANS  ???   CAN  WE  EXPLAIN   MAN  AS  A  PRODUCT  OF  HYBRIDIZATION  AND  THE  PHENOMENON  CALLED  GENETIC  DRIFT  ????

MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION : WHAT IS GENETIC DRIFT ????  CAN  IT  ACCOUNT  FOR  THE ARRIVAL OF  ANATOMICALLY  MODERN  HUMANS ??? CAN  WE EXPLAIN  MAN  AS  A PRODUCT  OF  HYBRIDIZATION AND  THE PHENOMENON CALLED  GENETIC  DRIFT ????

In ‘Evolution’ the term ‘Genetic Drift is used to describe a random change in gene frequency within a small population, resulting in mutations which regardless of their adaptive value, become fixed within the group. Variations in diet, variations in physical activity, variations in reproductive behavior, and variations in external environmental conditions may contribute to minor variations in ‘allele’ frequencies without transforming an old species into a new species.

MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE  AND  THE  MISSING  LINK :

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION : TAXONOMY  IS  A  BRANCH  OF  BIOLOGY  THAT  FORMULATES  THE  BASIS  FOR  SYSTEMATIC  CATEGORIZATION  OF  ORGANISMS  INTO  CATEGORIES  SUCH  AS  PHYLUM(OR DIVISION), CLASS,  ORDER,  FAMILY,  SUB-FAMILY,  GENUS,  AND  SPECIES .  WITHIN  THE  GENUS  HOMO  SAPIENS,  ANATOMICALLY  MODERN  MAN  IS  UNIQUE,  AND  DISTINCT  FOR  HUMAN  NATURE  STANDS  BY  ITSELF .
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION : TAXONOMY IS A BRANCH OF BIOLOGY THAT FORMULATES THE BASIS FOR SYSTEMATIC CATEGORIZATION OF ORGANISMS INTO CATEGORIES SUCH AS PHYLUM(OR DIVISION), CLASS, ORDER, FAMILY, SUB-FAMILY, GENUS, AND SPECIES . WITHIN THE GENUS HOMO SAPIENS, ANATOMICALLY MODERN MAN IS UNIQUE, AND DISTINCT FOR HUMAN NATURE STANDS BY ITSELF .
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION : CHIMPANZEE  IS  NOT  THE  MISSING  LINK  BETWEEN  MAN  AND  ANIMAL .
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION : CHIMPANZEE IS NOT THE MISSING LINK BETWEEN MAN AND ANIMAL .  CHIMPANZEES  ARE  NATIVE  TO  AFRICA .
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION :  MOUNTAIN  GORILLA  IS  NOT  THE  MISSING  LINK  BETWEEN  MAN  AND  ANIMAL .
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION : MOUNTAIN GORILLA IS NOT THE MISSING LINK BETWEEN MAN AND ANIMAL .  GORILLAS  ARE  NATIVE  TO  AFRICA .
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE   VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  NO   EXTINCT  OR  LIVING  SPECIES  IS  ABLE  TO  BRIDGE  THE  GAP  BETWEEN  MODERN  MAN(HOMO  SAPIENS  SAPIENS)  AND  HIS  NEAREST  ALLIES  AMONG  HOMINID  FAMILY .  WHO  IS  THE  MISSING  LINK  BETWEEN  MAN  AND  ANIMALS  LIKE  CHIMPANZEE  AND  GORILLA ????

The above image reveals a fundamental problem  faced by Darwinism when it attempts to account for Human Evolution.  No extinct or living species is able to bridge the gap between modern man(Homo sapiens sapiens) and his nearest allies among Hominid Family and other Primates such as Chimpanzee and Gorilla.

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE   VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  SOME  EVOLUTIONARY  GENTICISTS  CLAIM  THAT  MODERN  HUMANS HAVE  DESCENDED  BY  INTERBREEDING  AND  REPRODUCING  WITH  OTHER  SPECIES  OF  THE  GENUS  HOMO . INTERBREEDING  OR  INBREEDING  CANNOT  TRANSFORM  AN  OLD  SPECIES  INTO  A  NEW   SPECIES .
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE   VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  THERE  IS  NO  NATURAL  MECHANISM,  NO  NATURAL  PROCESS,  NO  NATURAL  CONDITION,  OR  NATURAL  CAUSE  THAT  CAN  TRANSFORM  NEANDERTHAL  SPECIES  INTO  ANATOMICALLY  MODERN  HUMANS. ANATOMICAL  TRAITS  PECULIAR  TO  NEANDERTHALS  WILL  NOT  BE  WIPED  OUT  BY  SEXUAL  REPRODUCTION,  EITHER  INBREEDING  OR  INTERBREEDING .
MENDEL'S   LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE   VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  DENISOVA  HOMINIDS  DISCOVERED  IN  DENISOVA  CAVE ,  ALTAI  MOUNTAINS ,  SOUTHERN  SIBERIA,  RUSSIA .  DENISOVA  MORE  SIMILAR  TO  NEANDERTHALS  AS  COMPARED  TO  ANATOMICALLY  MODERN  HUMANS .  THEY   LIVED  41, 000 YEARS  AGO . CAN  ONLY  BREED  TRUE  TO  THEIR  OWN  SPECIES .
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE   VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  ARTISTIC  RENDITION  OF  DENISOVA  CHILD .  DNA  EXTRACTED  FROM  A  FRAGMENT  OF  PHALANX  OF  HAND  AND  A  MOLAR (TOOTH).  THIS  DENISOVA  GIRL IN  APPEARANCE  IS  MORE  SIMILAR  TO  NEANDERTHAL  THAN  TO  MODERN  HUMANS .
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE   VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  NEANDERTHALS  LIVED  FOR  ABOUT  300, 000  YEARS .  NEANDERTHAL  BELONGS  TO  MIDDLE  PALEOLITHIC  PERIOD  OF  OLD  STONE  AGE .  NEANDERTHAL  HAD  A  PRECISION  GRIP  SIMILAR  TO  THAT  OF  MODERN  HUMANS  BUT  DID  NOT  DISPLAY  WRITING  SKILLS .
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE   VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  NEANDERTHAL  HAD  POWER  GRIP  AND  PRECISION  GRIP  LIKE  ANATOMICALLY  MODERN  HUMANS .  BUT  HIS  ANATOMICAL  TRAITS  WERE  NOT  ENOUGH  FOR  HIM  TO  ADVANCE  INTO  MESOLITHIC  PERIOD  OF  OLD  STONE  AGE .  THIS  SPECIES  LIVED  FOR  A  LONG  TIME  WITHOUT  THE  POTENTIAL  TO  DEVELOP  WRITING  SKILLS .                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  :

MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE   VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :   SAHELANTHROPUS  TCHADENSIS  NICKNAMED  “TOUMAI.”

NATURAL HISTORY OF HOMINID FAMILY :

Senckenberg Natural History Museum, Frankfurt, Germany prepared replicas of Hominid species using the fossils  discovered at different geographical locations. Sahelanthropus tchadensis lived 6.8 million years ago. It is one of the oldest Hominid specimens, found in 2003 in Djurab desert in Chad, Africa. 

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE   VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  AUSTRALOPITHECUS  AFARENSIS, AFRICAN  HOMINID  LIVED  3.2  MILLION  YEARS  AGO .

Australopithecus afarensis discovered in Afar region of Ethiopia, Africa in 1975. This Hominid lived 3.2 million years ago.

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE   VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  HOMINID  AUSTRALOPITHECUS  AFRICANUS   LIVED  2.5  MILLION  YEARS  AGO .

 Australopithecus africanus ,this Hominid replica nicknamed “Mrs Ples” lived 2.5 million years ago. Discovered in 1947, at Sterfontein, South Africa.

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE   VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  PARANTHROPUS AETHIOPICUS  LIVED  2.5  MILLION  YEARS  AGO .

Paranthropus aethiopicus lived 2.5 million years ago. Discovered near Lake Turkana in Kenya, Africa, in 1985.

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  PARANTHROPUS  BOISEI  LIVED  1.8  MILLION  YEARS  AGO .

Paranthropus boisei, nicknamed “Zinz” lived 1.8 million years ago. Discovered in 1959 in the Olduvai Gorge of Tanzania, Africa.

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE   VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  HOMO  RUDOLFENSIS  LIVED  ABOUT  1.8  MILLION  YEARS  AGO .

Homo Rudolfensis lived about 1.8 million years ago. Discovered in 1972 in Koobi Fora, Kenya, Africa.

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE   VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  HOMO  ERGASTER . LIVED  ABOUT  1.5  MILLION  YEARS  AGO.  NICKNAMED  “TURKANA  BOY.”

“TURKANA BOY” Homo ergaster lived about 1.5 million years ago. Initially thought to be an important “missing link” in Human Evolution.

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  HOMO  ERGASTER  IS  RELATED  TO  HOMO  ERECTUS  SPECIES  THAT  LIVED  IN  EASTERN  AND  SOUTHERN  AFRICA  FROM  ABOUT 1.89  MILLION  YEARS  AGO .
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION : HOMO ERGASTER IS RELATED TO HOMO ERECTUS SPECIES THAT LIVED IN EASTERN AND SOUTHERN AFRICA FROM ABOUT 1.89 MILLION YEARS AGO .

In Africa, Homo ergaster and Homo erectus are viewed as relatives and thought to be the ancestral forms of later Hominids such as Homo heidelbergensis, Homo neanderthalensis, and Homo sapiens. But, African Homo erectus is not related to Asian species of Homo erectus like Java Man, and Peking Man.

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION : REPLICA  OF  HOMO  ERECTUS(AFRICA), ERECT  MAN,  VERTICAL  GAIT,  LIVED  ABOUT 1.8  TO  0.3  MILLION  YEARS  AGO .
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION : REPLICA OF HOMO ERECTUS(AFRICA), ERECT MAN, VERTICAL GAIT, LIVED ABOUT 1.8 TO 0.3 MILLION YEARS AGO .

Homo erectus of Africa had prominent brow ridges, projecting face, and a brain volume of about a litre as compared to modern man’s average brain volume of about 1,360 cubic centimetres. Some evolutionary biologists suggested that Homo erectus migrated to Asia, and Southern Europe.

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE   VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  HOMO HEIDELBERGENSIS  ALSO  NAMED  HOMO  RHODESIENSIS  LIVED  ABOUT  500, 000  TO  350, 000  YEARS  AGO .

Homo heidelbergensis or Homo rhodesiensis. This replica is made from the fossils found in Sima de los Huesos, Spain in 1993. He lived about 500,000 to 350,000 years ago. Fossils also found in other places like Italy, France, and Greece. Homo sapiens may have appeared 300,000 years ago. Heidelbergensis could be the ancestor of Neanderthals which is often described as  a subspecies of Sapiens species.

Mendel's Laws-Human Evolution-Homo erectus
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE    VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  REPLICA   OF  HOMO  ERECTUS,  HOMINID  THAT  LIVED  1.5 MILLION  TO  300, 000  YEARS  AGO.

Homo erectus lived 1, 500, 000 to 300, 000 years ago. Homo erectus discovered in Republic of Georgia, China, and Indonesia lived until about 70,000 years ago.

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  PILTDOWN  MAN  OF  SUSSEX,  ENGLAND.  HOMINID  SPECIES  OF  THE  PALEOLITHIC  PERIOD  OR  OLD  STONE  AGE .
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE   VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  : PITHECANTHROPUS  ERECTUS ,  HOMO  ERECTUS .  THE  REPLICA  OF   “JAVA  MAN.”

Pithecanthropus, “JAVA MAN” discovered in 1891 could be the first to use fire. He used stone tools and belongs to the Lower Pleistocene Period.

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE   VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  RHODESIAN  MAN  HAD  A  BRAIN  LARGER  THAN  THAT  OF  MODERN  HUMANS.

It could be of interest to note that Rhodesian Man( Heidelberg Man – Germany) had a large, thick skull, a sloping forehead, a chinless jaw, a brain larger than that of modern  man. The height was about five feet(152 cm) or slightly over.

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  HOMO  ERECTUS  PEKINENSIS . SINANTHROPUS  OR  PEKING  MAN .

Sinanthropus, Homo erectus pekinensis, or PEKING MAN belonged to the Middle Pleistocene.

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE   VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  HOMO  SAPIENS  NEANDERTHALENSIS . THIS  REPLICA  IS  NICKNAMED “OLD MAN  OF  LA  CHAPELLE .”  HE  LIVED  56, 000  YEARS  AGO .

Homo sapiens neanderthalensis lived 56,000 years ago. The above is the replica nicknamed “OLD MAN OF LA CHAPELLE” found near La Chapelle aux-Saints in France in 1908.

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  HOMO  SAPIENS  FLORESIENSIS .  NICKNAMED  “HOBBIT. ”  LIVED  ABOUT  18, 000  YEARS  AGO .

Homo sapiens floresiensis, the FLORES MAN discovered in Liang Bua Cave, Flores, Indonesia in 2003. Lived about 18,000 years ago.

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  HOMO  SAPIENS FLORESIENSIS  –  FLORES  MAN  OF  INDONESIA  .
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE   VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  FLORES  MAN  .  HOMO  SAPIENS  FLORESIENSIS. IT  COULD  BE  OF  INTEREST  TO  NOTE  THAT  FLORES  MAN  WAS ONLY  ABOUT  3  FEET  IN   HEIGHT. Initially thought to be a subspecies of Sapiens and now considered as a separate species. This Hominid species disappeared without any trace for unknown reasons.
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE   VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  HOMO  SAPIENS.  LIVED  BETWEEN  100,  000  TO  90,  000  YEARS  AGO  BUT  NOT  A  TRUE  REPRESENTATIVE  OF  ANATOMICALLY  MODERN  HUMAN  SPECIES .

The above is a replica of Homo sapiens found in a cave in Israel in 1969. He lived between 100,000 to 90, 000 years ago. It is important to note that it is not representative of true, modern humans called Homo sapiens sapiens.

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  HOMO  SAPIENS  IDALTU . IDALTU  MAN   LIVED  ABOUT  160, 000  YEARS  AGO .  NOT  A  TRUE  REPRESENTATIVE  OF  ANATOMICALLY  MODERN  HUMAN  SPECIES .
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE   VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  : HOMO  SAPIENS  IDALTU  OR  “HERTO  MAN ”  DISCOVERED  IN  1997  AT  HERTO, ETHIOPIA ,  AFRICA  .

Homo sapiens idaltu lived about 160, 000 years ago in Pleistocene Period(Middle Paleolithic), in Ethiopia, Africa, may mark the origin of anatomically modern Homo sapiens, making  distinction between Homo erectus species and Homo sapiens species. They were at the threshold of modern anatomy but not fully modern humans.

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :   HOMO  SAPIENS  RED  DEER ,  SOUTHERN  CHINA   LIVED  11, 500  TO  14, 500  YEARS  AGO .

Homo sapiens Red Deer represents “Red Deer Cave” people who lived 11, 500 to 14, 500 years ago in Maludong, Yunnan Province, Southern China. Red Deer Man had high domed braincase, small eyebrow ridges, lower jaw ended in a prominent chin, with a body less muscular than those of earlier Hominids.

THE  ORIGIN  OF  MAN –  MONOGENISM  VS  POLYGENISM :

The term “RACE” is used to describe any of the different varieties or populations of human beings distinguished by physical traits such as hair, eyes, skin color, shape of body, head, facial features, and blood groups. These characteristics are transmitted by heredity but they are highly variable; not every member of a race will exhibit all distinguishing traits. It is apparent to claim that races arose in response to inbreeding. Across  majority of human cultures prevalent in Old World, inbreeding is the established cultural norm. In his ‘Systema Naturae'(1735) Carolus Linnaeus, Swedish botanist, gave a very precise description of man placing him among the Mammals in the order of Primates along the apes and the bat. Linnaeus presented a summary of the diverse varieties of human species. He described varieties such as The Asian, The African, and The European. Linnaeus created a system of classification that depended only on external characteristics to place objects into a rational set of categories. 

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  :

MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE   VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  HUMAN  VARIETIES  OR  RACES  AROSE  IN  RESPONSE  TO  INBREEDING . CAROLUS  LINNAEUS  DESCRIBED  HUMAN  VARIETIES  SUCH  AS  THE  ASIAN,  THE  AFRICAN,  AND  THE  EUROPEAN .

The French naturalist George Louis Leclerc comte de Buffon in his monumental compendium on Natural History(Histoire Naturelle general et particuliere, 44 volumes, 1749-1804) described man as a zoological species. Buffon determined species not by their physical appearances but by their reproductive history. He held the view that a species is known only through the history of its propagation. Buffon claimed that it is absurd to use the same principles for classifying living and nonliving things. Most important, apes and other animals lack the ability to speak. Buffon saw the rise of human intelligence as a product of development of an articulated language. For animals may lack the ability to attach meaning to their articulated sounds, human language can be used as a basis to define human species and its varieties. Monogenism is the theory that all human beings are descended from a single pair of ancestors. Polygenism is the theory that each race of people has descended from distinct, ultimate ancestors and hence asserts that races are created separately. If anatomically modern humans are products of interbreeding between different Hominid Family members, it would be difficult to suggest that hybridized humans stopped interbreeding and preferred inbreeding to establish the races or varieties that can be observed today. Johann Friedrich Blumenbach(1752-1840), Father of Physical Anthropology known for his work ‘De Generis Humani Varietate Nativa(1775-76), did his research in measurement of craniums. He divided mankind into five great families – Caucasian, Mongolian, Malayan, and Ethiopian. Physical anthropologists initially described three primary divisions of people, 1. Caucasoid, 2. Mongoloid, and 3. Negroid. Thomas Huxley in his paper titled “On the Geographical Distribution of the Chief Modifications of Mankind” (1870) described racial varieties such as 1. Bushmen, 2. Africoid, 3. Negritoes, 4. Melanochroi, 5. Australoids, 6. Xanthochroi, 7. Polynesians, 8. Mongoloids A, B, & C, and 9. Esquimaux. Today, some anthropologists entirely reject the concept of “RACE.” The apparent variations among members of human population have to be explained using Mendel’s Laws of Inheritance which alone can account for breeding behavioral patterns. 

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE   VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  THE  ORIGIN  AND  THE  EXTINCTION  OF DIFFERENT  MEMBERS  OF  HOMINID  SPECIES  CANNOT  BE  ACCOUNTED  ON  THE  BASIS  OF  NATURAL  CAUSES,  NATURAL  MECHANISMS ,  OR  NATURAL  CONDITIONS  THAT  INFLUENCE  LIFE  AND  DEATH  OF  LIVING  ORGANISMS .MENDEL'S  LAWS

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  :

MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE :  JOHANN FRIEDRICH BLUMENBACH(1752-1840), FATHER OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY DIVIDED MANKIND INTO FIVE GREAT FAMILIES  – CAUCASIAN, MONGOLIAN, MALAYAN, AND ETHIOPIAN .

CHARLES DARWIN – DARWINISM –  THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES(1859):

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE   VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  CHARLES  DARWIN(1809-1892) .  HIS  IMPORTANT  CONTRIBUTIONS  INCLUDE  THE  ORIGIN  OF  SPECIES(1859),  AND  THE  DESCENT  OF  MAN(1871).

Charles Darwin claimed that new species originate in the course of time. In his view, one species is transformed into another as a product of ‘Natural Selection’ of randomly produced genetic mutations. He formulated an opinion about the factors or circumstances under which some forms of life cease to have the status of species or become extinct. Darwin states, “The Origin of Species, like their extinction, is entirely a natural process which requires no factors other than those at work everyday in the life, death, and breeding of plants and animals.” To make  transition from an old species to a new species, certain intermediate forms become extinct combined with the survival of one or more of the extreme varieties. Darwin further attests, “If my theory be true, numberless intermediate varieties, linking closely together all the species of the same group, must assuredly have existed, but the very process of natural selection constantly tends as has been so often remarked to exterminate the parent forms and the intermediate links.” As per Darwin’s analysis, anatomically modern human species may have to be viewed as a variety of one of the Hominid species that simply survived while this ancestral species and all other Hominid species perished towards the end of Pleistocene(Ice Age).

Darwin’s theory of ‘The Origin of Species’ depends on causes that can be divided into two sets of factors:

1. Mechanism of Survival that includes causes or factors which determine the extinction or survival of organisms, and with their survival, their opportunities for mating and reproduction, and 

2. Mechanism of Heredity that includes causes or factors which determine transmission of characteristics from one generation to another and  variation of offspring from their ancestors and from each other.

In Darwin’s estimate, the factors of ‘Natural Selection’ operate on genetic variations that cause a range of differences within a group. At the same time it may be noted that the variations generated in the breeding process are never enough to change the basic criteria applied in  identification of any given species. For  perpetuation of group characteristics in organisms which manage to survive and reproduce,  inheritance of ancestral traits is of utmost importance. Darwin’s view on blending of hereditary factors is not supported by Mendel’s classic experiments in Hybridization. According to Mendel, inheritance is particulate. Distinct genetic factors combine to produce a certain somatic result without losing their separate identities. They can therefore be reassorted and enter into new genetic combinations in the next generation. If anatomically modern human species appeared suddenly due to abrupt mutations in a single generation of as yet unknown Hominid species, it will not validate Darwin’s view that new forms of life arise gradually as the result of a continuous accumulation of slight and imperceptible variations. According to Darwin, environment acts as a selective agency and it acts upon variations produced entirely by causes operating in the breeding process. During the period of the Great Ice Age, Pleistocene Series or Epoch, 1.8 million to 10, 000 years ago, 28 percent of Earth’s land area was covered by ice. Continental glaciers covered much of N. North America and NW Europe. Holocene Epoch or Series that began 10, 000 years ago witnessed a dramatic change in land area that is covered by ice. Now, about 10 percent of land area is covered by ice and continental glaciers are restricted to Antarctica and Greenland. In other words, areas of Earth’s surface have become more hospitable for all kinds of Hominid population. There was no geographical catastrophe and there was no environmental change of cataclysmic proportion with serious consequences for the survival of any variety of Hominid species. To adapt to changed environment was easy, food supply became abundant and there is nothing to suggest that Hominid Family members were preying upon one another in a bitter struggle of existence. 

COMPARATIVE ANATOMY  WILL  DEMOLISH  DARWINISM :

According to Geologic Time Chart which records the physical nature and history of planet Earth, we are living in the Cenozoic Era the beginning of which was marked by the K-T extinction. Most of the major and minor extinction events were the result of causes that are not natural to Earth or terrestrial factors. The exposure of living things to consequences such as collisions with asteroids, comets, or exposure to ionizing radiation  do not belong to a category of circumstances that can be called ‘natural’. I would prefer to use the term ‘supernatural’ to describe extinction events initiated by extraterrestrial factors. The origin, the beginning, appearance of anatomically modern man during Holocene Epoch or Series has no natural cause. No natural condition, no natural factor, no natural mechanism, no natural process and no natural event can alter the shape and size of man’s cranium. Inbreeding, or interbreeding do not change genes, the Units of Inheritance. The sudden, and abrupt change in man’s form and morphological appearance is not due to imperceptible changes and genetic variations that accumulated over a prolonged period of time. If skeletal structures undergo a change due to mutations caused by external factors like climate, physical activity, diet, and opportunities for breeding or reproductive behavior, the skeletal structures of all members of the diverse Hominid Family living at that time have to register a change that affects the germ cells and gets propagated to their offspring as stated by Mendel’s Laws of Inheritance. If a natural condition, a natural factor, or a natural cause can account for a mutation in anatomically modern human, I would like to examine the evidence for its operation in other members of Hominid Family such as Neanderthal who lived at the same time.

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  LIVING  FORMS  EMERGED  AND  DIVERSIFIED  IN  SUDDEN  SPURTS  AND  WERE  ELIMINATED  ABRUPTLY  IN  MAJOR  AND  MINOR  EXTINCTION  EVENTS  DURING  GEOLOGIC  PERIOD .
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE   VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  THERE  IS  NO  NATURAL  PROCESS  OF  SEXUAL  REPRODUCTION  EITHER  INBREEDING  OR  INTERBREEDING  THAT  CAN  TRANSFORM  ANATOMICAL  TRAITS  OF  NEANDERTHAL  INTO  ANATOMICALLY  MODERN  HUMANS .
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION :  CRO-MAGNON  SKULL  .
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN EVOLUTION : CRO-MAGNON SKULL .  CRO-MAGNON  MAN  IS  NOT  CONSIDERED  AS  A  SEPARATE  SPECIES  OR  SUBSPECIES  . LIVED  40, 000  TO  35, 000  YEARS  AGO .

Cro-Magnon Man lived 40, 000 to 35, 000 years ago. He was discovered in southwestern France in 1868. His height was about 6 feet(180 Cms), had high forehead, short and wide face, developed prominent chin, and large brain. His brain capacity of 1600 cubic centimetres is larger than the average 1,360 cubic centimetres for anatomically modern human species.  He belonged to upper paleolithic culture of Old Stone Age whereas anatomically modern human species had established its presence in the Mesolithic Period or Middle Stone Age at the end of the last glacial era about 10, 000 years ago. Anatomically modern human species developed a culture that included gradual domestication of plants and animals, formation of settled communities, use of the bow, development of delicate stone ‘Microliths’, and pottery.

THE ORIGIN OF HUMAN SPECIES – THE ORIGIN OF HUMAN LANGUAGE:

In my view, Human Speech(spoken and written) is the criteria by which the difference between anatomically modern man and other members of Hominid Family is made. Human Language is one of the principal characteristics of the specifically human world. Language is the peculiar possession of human beings. While Neanderthal, and Cro-Magnon Man share certain anatomical and physiological traits possessed by the zoological species identified as human beings, they were not true representatives of Homo sapiens sapiens. In the use of ‘Precision Grip’, both Neanderthal and Cro-Magnon Man fall short of the status called ‘human’. Paleolithic art, paintings, and drawings are not the same as human writing.

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION :  CRO-MAGNON  MAN  AND  PRECISION  GRIP .
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION : CRO-MAGNON MAN AND PRECISION GRIP . PALEOLITHIC  ART  IS  NOT  EQUIVALENT  TO  HUMAN  ARTISTIC  EXPRESSION .  DRAWINGS  AND  PAINTINGS  ARE  NOT  THE  SAME  AS  HUMAN  WRITING .
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION :  THE  ANATOMICAL  STRUCTURES  INVOLVED  IN  PRECISION  GRIP .
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION : THE ANATOMICAL STRUCTURES INVOLVED IN PRECISION GRIP .  HOMINIDS  LIKE  NEANDERTHAL  HAD  ANATOMICAL  STRUCTURES  THAT  GIVE  FUNCTIONAL  ABILITIES  CALLED 1. PRESSURE  GRIP,  AND  2.  PRECISION  GRIP .  NEUROMUSCULAR  COORDINATION  BETWEEN  BRAIN  AND  FINGERS  CONTRIBUTES  TO  A  CREATIVE  ABILITY  CALLED  WRITING .
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION .  PALEOLITHIC  ART  .  CAVE  PAINTINGS  IN  N  SPAIN  AND  SW  FRANCE  . c. 14,000- c. 13,500 B.C.  LASCAUX  CAVE  PAINTINGS  -  THE  AURIGNACIO - PERIGORDIAN  PERIOD .
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION . PALEOLITHIC ART . CAVE PAINTINGS IN N SPAIN AND SW FRANCE . c. 14,000- c. 13,500 B.C. LASCAUX CAVE PAINTINGS – THE AURIGNACIO – PERIGORDIAN PERIOD .
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  PALEOLITHIC  ART .  MURALS  AT  ROUFFIGNAC,  NIAUX,  AND  CAVE  PAINTINGS  OF  ALTAMIRA ,  SPAIN . c. 14,000 -c. 9500 B.C. THE  SOLUTREO - MAGDALENIAN  PERIOD  .
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION : PALEOLITHIC ART . MURALS AT ROUFFIGNAC, NIAUX, AND CAVE PAINTINGS OF ALTAMIRA , SPAIN . c. 14,000 – c. 9500 B.C. THE SOLUTREO – MAGDALENIAN PERIOD .
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  KUNDA  TOOLS ,  MICROLITHS, c. 10,000 -c.8000 B.C. MESOLITHIC  PERIOD  OR  MIDDLE  STONE  AGE .  THE  BEGINNING  OF  ANATOMICALLY  MODERN  MAN .
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION : KUNDA TOOLS , MICROLITHS, c. 10,000 -c.8000 B.C. MESOLITHIC PERIOD OR MIDDLE STONE AGE . THE BEGINNING OF ANATOMICALLY MODERN MAN . HUMANS  ARE  KNOWN  BY  THEIR  CULTURE .

The reproductive history of modern man does not support Darwinism and its assumptions about breeding . To identify and to recognize man as a zoological species, the yardstick has to be defined as morphological appearances are inadequate. I coined the phrase ‘Whole Linguistics’ to use Human Language as the chief characteristic of human species. Whole Linguistics involves three entities, namely 1. A Language User, 2. A Language Interpreter and 3. A Language Creator. It introduces a concept about the Creative Beginning of Man and his Language.

HUMAN IDENTITY, INDIVIDUALITY, AND THE MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX:

All said and done, man has no choice about the nature of his physical existence in natural world. Each man without any choice exists as an Individual with Individuality. Man deploys protein molecules called antigens to identify ‘self’ and ‘non-self’. The antigens causing the immune response that results in  rejection of a tissue allograft are known as ‘Major Histocompatibility Antigens'(HLA). In man, the Major Histocompatibility Complex(MHC) is the HLA cluster on Chromosome 6. As MHC antigens were originally described on human Leukocytes(White Blood Cells), they are still referred to as Human leukocyte Antigens(HLA). The role of MHC is not limited to transplantation rejection as the proteins encoded in this region are involved in many aspects of immunological recognition and immunity  response. The HLA antigens are remarkable for the extensive degree of genetic polymorphism which makes  variability between individuals very great . Even among members of human population, most unrelated persons possess different HLA . This antigenic specificity established at molecular level is the evidence for a creative process, a creative mechanism, and a creative principle which determines the Subjective and Objective Physical Reality of Man’s Status in Nature.

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  HUMAN  LEUKOCYTE  ANTIGEN .  MAN  DEPLOYS  UNIQUE  PROTEIN  MOLECULES  TO  IDENTIFY  SELF  AND  NON-SELF .  HUMAN  EXISTENCE  AND  HUMAN  IDENTITY  IS  DEFINED  BY  MOLECULES .
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION : HUMAN LEUKOCYTE ANTIGEN . MAN DEPLOYS UNIQUE PROTEIN MOLECULES TO IDENTIFY SELF AND NON-SELF . HUMAN EXISTENCE AND HUMAN IDENTITY IS DEFINED BY MOLECULES .
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION :  MAN  IS  ABLE  TO  EXIST  IN  NATURE  FOR  HE  IS  ABLE  TO  DEFEND  HIS  EXISTENCE  BY  DEPLOYING  MOLECULES  THAT  CAN  MAKE  THE  RECOGNITION  AND  DISTINCTION  BETWEEN  SELF  AND  NON-SELF.
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION : MAN IS ABLE TO EXIST IN NATURE FOR HE IS ABLE TO DEFEND HIS EXISTENCE BY DEPLOYING MOLECULES THAT CAN MAKE THE RECOGNITION AND DISTINCTION BETWEEN SELF AND NON-SELF.

THE PROOF OF PUDDING IS IN THE EATING :

Greek philosophers Plato and Aristotle introduced  notion of Form, Nature, or Essence. Plants and animals are derived from seeds that already contain within them the Form, Nature, or Essence of the species from which they were derived and into which they would subsequently develop. To exist as a thing of a given kind, there could be an innate tendency to strive to develop into a perfect example of itself to fulfill its nature and to realize its full potential. In a purposive or teological view of the natural world, each natural thing by its intrinsic nature strives to realize its own ideal Form or Essence. Darwinism proposes a view that explains  development of a natural thing in a “mechanistic” and nonpurposive manner. If a new form of life is a product of unguided, random, and purposeless genetic mutations, it will be hard to explain and account for its Form, Nature, and Essence.

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE   VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  GREGOR  MENDEL  CONDUCTED  EXPERIMENTS  ON  GARDEN  PEA(PISUM  SATIVUM)  PLANTS  TO  DISCOVER  THE   NATURAL  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  AND  VARIATION  .  I  DISCOVER   THE  ‘MAGIC  OF  CREATION’  BY   SIMPLY   TASTING   A  FEW   SWEET   PEAS  .

All living things define their existence using about 20 Amino Acids. Protein Synthesis involves unique and creative ways of arranging these amino acids into chains called polypeptides. Protein Synthesis is a creative process for the product created by one species has ability to impart unique sensory experience in an unrelated species.  Man can distinguish plant and animal proteins by using his organs of sense perception. The creative aspect of protein synthesis is in the taste, smell, flavor, color, texture, and palatability of plant and animal proteins. Man further improves palatability of proteins he consumes by refining his culinary skills.To refute the concept called ‘DARWINISM’, the Proof or Verification is in Eating Sweet Garden Peas and recognizing them from their color, taste, smell, flavor, texture, and palatability. Plants and animals do not use sensory functions like vision, olfaction, and taste in protein synthesis. The sensory experience of man is possible for living things exist with an innate tendency to express their Form, Nature, and Essence. I am asking my readers to contemplate upon supernatural circumstances that may define Form, Nature, and Essence of living things that are not explained by a study of their genes and genetic code.

Related Articles:

1SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE – MAN IS A SPIRITUAL BEING

2. SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE – THE HUMAN SPECIES

3. SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE – THE ORIGIN OF HUMAN SPECIES

 

 

WHOLE MECHANICS – WHOLE DYNAMICS – WHOLE DEVOTION

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CELESTIAL MECHANICS – A DEVOTIONAL INQUIRY:

Celestial mechanics is the study of the motions of astronomical bodies as they move under the influence of their mutual gravitation. This article will explore the event named ‘AUTUMNAL EQUINOX’ that will occur in Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA on Monday, September 22, 2014 at 10.29 P.M.

CELESTIAL MECHANICS - A DEVOTIONAL INQUIRY: AUTUMN IS THE SEASON THAT COMES BETWEEN SUMMER AND WINTER. BY OBSERVING CELESTIAL MOTIONS MAN CAN PREPARE CALENDARS FOR HIS TIMEKEEPING AND TO PREDICT THE ONSET OF SEASONS WITH PRECISION. I ADD THE PRINCIPLE CALLED DEVOTION TO INTERPRET CELESTIAL DYNAMICS.
CELESTIAL MECHANICS – A DEVOTIONAL INQUIRY: AUTUMN IS THE SEASON THAT COMES BETWEEN SUMMER AND WINTER. BY OBSERVING CELESTIAL MOTIONS MAN CAN PREPARE CALENDARS FOR HIS TIMEKEEPING AND TO PREDICT THE ONSET OF SEASONS WITH PRECISION. I ADD THE PRINCIPLE CALLED DEVOTION TO INTERPRET CELESTIAL DYNAMICS.

The calculation of celestial motions is complicated because many separate forces are acting at once and all bodies are moving simultaneously. Issac Newton’s Laws of Motion and Theory of Universal Gravitation provided a physical, dynamic basis for the merely descriptive Laws of Kepler that explain the elliptical orbits of planets.

CELESTIAL MECHANICS - A DEVOTIONAL INQUIRY: EQUINOX IS THE TIME WHEN THE SUN CROSSES THE CELESTIAL EQUATOR MAKING NIGHT AND DAY OF EQUAL LENGTH IN ALL PARTS OF THE EARTH. TO INTERPRET THIS CELESTIAL MOTION, I USE THE PRINCIPLE CALLED DEVOTION TO GUIDE MY SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY OF MY WORLD EXPERIENCE.
CELESTIAL MECHANICS – A DEVOTIONAL INQUIRY: EQUINOX IS THE TIME WHEN THE SUN CROSSES THE CELESTIAL EQUATOR MAKING NIGHT AND DAY OF EQUAL LENGTH IN ALL PARTS OF THE EARTH. TO INTERPRET THIS CELESTIAL MOTION, I USE THE PRINCIPLE CALLED DEVOTION TO GUIDE MY SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY OF MY WORLD EXPERIENCE.

The term ‘Equinox’ is used to describe the time when the Sun crosses the celestial equator making day and night of equal length in all parts of the Earth. Equinoctial point is either of the two points on the celestial sphere where the Sun’s path crosses the celestial equator. In the Northern Hemisphere, the autumnal equinox occurs around September 22-23 when the Sun appears to cross the celestial equator from north to south.

CELESTIAL MECHANICS - A DEVOTIONAL INQUIRY:  CELESTIAL SPHERE IS AN IMAGINARY SPHERE THAT HAS THE OBSERVER AT ITS CENTER.  THE CELESTIAL EQUATOR IS THE PROJECTION OF THE EARTH'S EQUATOR ONTO THE CELESTIAL SPHERE. ECLIPTIC IS THE APPARENT PATH TAKEN BY SUN IN THE CELESTIAL SPHERE. I USE THE FACTOR CALLED DEVOTION TO UNDERSTAND THE EXPERIENCE CAUSED BY CELESTIAL DYNAMICS.
CELESTIAL MECHANICS – A DEVOTIONAL INQUIRY: CELESTIAL SPHERE IS AN IMAGINARY SPHERE THAT HAS THE OBSERVER AT ITS CENTER. THE CELESTIAL EQUATOR IS THE PROJECTION OF THE EARTH’S EQUATOR ONTO THE CELESTIAL SPHERE. ECLIPTIC IS THE APPARENT PATH TAKEN BY SUN IN THE CELESTIAL SPHERE. I USE THE FACTOR CALLED DEVOTION TO UNDERSTAND THE EXPERIENCE CAUSED BY CELESTIAL DYNAMICS.

Astronomical Coordinate Systems are used to indicate the positions of celestial bodies on the celestial sphere. Celestial sphere is an imaginary sphere that has the observer at its center and all other celestial bodies imagined as on its inside surface. The celestial equator is the projection of the Earth’s equator on the celestial sphere. It is simply an imaginary line in the sky above the Earth’s equator from west to east. The Ecliptic describes the apparent path taken by the Sun in the celestial sphere.

CELESTIAL MECHANICS - A DEVOTIONAL INQUIRY: ASTRONOMY IS THE SCIENCE THAT STUDIES THE MOTIONS AND NATURE OF CELESTIAL BODIES. MODERN ASTRONOMY MADE A GREAT PROGRESS IN THE UNDERSTANDING OF THE UNIVERSE. BUT, FOR TIMEKEEPING MAN STILL DEPENDS UPON THE OBSERVED APPARENT MOTIONS OF THE SUN ACROSS THE SKY. A DEVOTIONAL INQUIRY WILL BRING CONSISTENCY BETWEEN REAL AND APPARENT MOTIONS.
CELESTIAL MECHANICS – A DEVOTIONAL INQUIRY: ASTRONOMY IS THE SCIENCE THAT STUDIES THE MOTIONS AND NATURE OF CELESTIAL BODIES. MODERN ASTRONOMY MADE A GREAT PROGRESS IN THE UNDERSTANDING OF THE UNIVERSE. BUT, FOR TIMEKEEPING MAN STILL DEPENDS UPON THE OBSERVED APPARENT MOTIONS OF THE SUN ACROSS THE SKY. A DEVOTIONAL INQUIRY WILL BRING CONSISTENCY BETWEEN REAL AND APPARENT MOTIONS.

Astronomy is the branch of Science that studies the motions and nature of celestial bodies such as planets, stars, and galaxies. It is perhaps the oldest of the pure sciences. Astronomical observations provided a basis for the Calendar by determining the Units of Month and Year. It helps as a tool in timekeeping. Modern Astronomy has indeed made a great progress in the understanding of the Universe in which man finds his existence.

CELESTIAL MECHANICS - A DEVOTIONAL INQUIRY: THE MILKY WAY GALAXY SYSTEM IS JUST ONE OF THE BILLIONS OF GALAXIES THAT MAKE UP THE UNIVERSE. SUN'S PERIOD OF REVOLUTION, ITS CIRCULAR ORBIT ABOUT THE GALACTIC CENTER TAKES ABOUT 200 MILLION YEARS. HOW SHOULD WE INTERPRET THIS INFORMATION???
CELESTIAL MECHANICS – A DEVOTIONAL INQUIRY: THE MILKY WAY GALAXY SYSTEM IS JUST ONE OF THE BILLIONS OF GALAXIES THAT MAKE UP THE UNIVERSE. SUN’S PERIOD OF REVOLUTION, ITS CIRCULAR ORBIT ABOUT THE GALACTIC CENTER TAKES ABOUT 230 MILLION YEARS. HOW SHOULD WE INTERPRET THIS INFORMATION???

The Sun’s period of revolution about the Milky Way galactic center takes about 230 million years. How should we interpret this celestial motion??? It appears like a random, purposeless, unguided motion that is entirely governed by the mechanistic principles of the Laws of Physics.

CELESTIAL MECHANICS - A DEVOTIONAL INQUIRY: I AM ASKING MY READERS TO INTERPRET CELESTIAL DYNAMICS IN THE CONTEXT OF HUMAN EXISTENCE. THE UNIVERSE AS A SYSTEM SHOWS THE EVIDENCE OF UNIVERSAL ORDER WHEN CELESTIAL MOTIONS ARE EXPLAINED AS PURPOSIVE, GUIDED, AND GOAL-ORIENTED ACTIONS.
CELESTIAL MECHANICS – A DEVOTIONAL INQUIRY: I AM ASKING MY READERS TO INTERPRET CELESTIAL DYNAMICS IN THE CONTEXT OF HUMAN EXISTENCE. THE UNIVERSE AS A SYSTEM SHOWS THE EVIDENCE OF UNIVERSAL ORDER WHEN CELESTIAL MOTIONS ARE EXPLAINED AS PURPOSIVE, GUIDED, AND GOAL-ORIENTED ACTIONS.
CELESTIAL MECHANICS - A DEVOTIONAL INQUIRY: THE APPARENT MOTIONS OF CELESTIAL BODIES LIKE THE SUN AND THE MOON HELPS MAN IN HIS TIMEKEEPING AND IN SYNCHRONIZING HIS BIOLOGICAL RHYTHMS WITH EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE CALLED DAY AND NIGHT. THIS PERCEPTION OF TIME BASED UPON APPARENT MOTION HAS REAL CONSEQUENCES AND IT GIVES MAN INDIVIDUALISTIC EXPERIENCE OF HIS OWN LIFE-SPAN.
CELESTIAL MECHANICS – A DEVOTIONAL INQUIRY: THE APPARENT MOTIONS OF CELESTIAL BODIES LIKE THE SUN AND THE MOON HELPS MAN IN HIS TIMEKEEPING AND IN SYNCHRONIZING HIS BIOLOGICAL RHYTHMS WITH EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE CALLED DAY AND NIGHT. THIS PERCEPTION OF TIME BASED UPON APPARENT MOTION HAS REAL CONSEQUENCES AND IT GIVES MAN INDIVIDUALISTIC EXPERIENCE OF HIS OWN LIFE-SPAN.

I am asking my readers to interpret information about celestial dynamics in the context of human existence. To establish life on planet Earth and to account for the existence of life, we need a Universal System that is operated by a Universal Order.

CELESTIAL MECHANICS - A DEVOTIONAL INQUIRY: I AM INVITING MY READERS TO USE THE VALID, SCIENTIFIC PRINCIPLE OF INQUIRY CALLED DEVOTION TO ACCOUNT FOR CELESTIAL DYNAMICS. IN THIS PHOTO IMAGE, THE SUNRISE DESCRIBES A PURPOSIVE, GUIDED, AND GOAL-ORIENTED ACTION.
CELESTIAL MECHANICS – A DEVOTIONAL INQUIRY: I AM INVITING MY READERS TO USE THE VALID, SCIENTIFIC PRINCIPLE OF INQUIRY CALLED DEVOTION TO ACCOUNT FOR CELESTIAL DYNAMICS. IN THIS PHOTO IMAGE, THE SUNRISE DESCRIBES A PURPOSIVE, GUIDED, AND GOAL-ORIENTED ACTION.
WHOLE TEAM - WHOLE LABOR - WHOLE MECHANICS - WHOLE DYNAMICS:WHOLE TEAM MEMBERS WHO VISIT THIS BLOG POST AND LIKE THE POST AND LEAVE A COMMENT WILL GET A WHOLE BOX OF WHOLE CREME COOKIES AS A WHOLE PRIZE.
WHOLE TEAM – WHOLE LABOR – WHOLE MECHANICS – WHOLE DYNAMICS:WHOLE TEAM MEMBERS WHO VISIT THIS BLOG POST AND LIKE THE POST AND LEAVE A COMMENT WILL GET A WHOLE BOX OF WHOLE CREME COOKIES AS A WHOLE PRIZE.

I am inviting my readers to use the valid, scientific principle of Inquiry called ‘Devotion’ to account for celestial dynamics. Celestial Mechanics need the principle of ‘Devotion’ to account for purposive, guided, and goal-oriented actions. For the subjective, and the objective experience of life, man needs the guidance from the apparent motions of astronomical bodies such as the Sun and the Moon across the sky. A devotional inquiry would lead man to interpret Celestial Mechanics in terms of his own individualistic experience of his life-span.

What Would Krishna Do? Or Shiva? Or Vishnu?

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DEVOTION AS A METHOD OF INQUIRY:

WHAT WOULD KRISHNA DO? : Professor Jonardon Ganeri, The School of Oriental and African Studies(SOAS), University of London studies philosophy of self, consciousness, and self-knowledge and brings Indian Sanskrit philosophical traditions into focus.
WHAT WOULD KRISHNA DO? : Professor Jonardon Ganeri, The School of Oriental and African Studies(SOAS), University of London studies philosophy of self, consciousness, and self-knowledge and brings Indian Sanskrit philosophical traditions into focus.

We started this discussion to show our appreciation to Jonardon Ganeri, Professor of Philosophy, Department of the Study of Religions, The School of Oriental and African Studies(SOAS), University of London, who displayed a commendable understanding of Indian Schools of Thought in an interview that was published and shared with us by one of the members of this forum. Kindly read the interview and the Hyperlink is given at the end of this blog post. The basic purpose of this exchange of views is about knowing man and the world in which he exists.

WHAT WOULD KRISHNA DO?: MAN'S LIFE JOURNEY ON THE SURFACE OF EARTH IS GOVERNED BY THE ILLUSION THAT GENERATES THE APPARENT MOTION OF SUN ACROSS THE SKY. MAN'S LIFETIME OR LIFE-SPAN IS MEASURED BY USING ENVIRONMENTAL STIMULI CAUSED BY SUNRISE AND SUNSET WHILE IN REALITY THE SUN SHINES ALL THE TIME.
WHAT WOULD KRISHNA DO?: MAN’S LIFE JOURNEY ON THE SURFACE OF EARTH IS GOVERNED BY THE ILLUSION THAT GENERATES THE APPARENT MOTION OF SUN ACROSS THE SKY. MAN’S LIFETIME OR LIFE-SPAN IS MEASURED BY USING ENVIRONMENTAL STIMULI CAUSED BY SUNRISE AND SUNSET WHILE IN REALITY THE SUN SHINES ALL THE TIME.

In that context, I discussed the motions of Earth. The Milky Way Galaxy is moving at about 1.2 million miles/hour(not all the stars of the Milky Way Galaxy System move at this speed). Sun is moving at about 140 miles per second. Earth is revolving around Sun at about 66,660 miles/hour and is spinning around its axis at about 1,000 miles/hour. In my life journey on the surface of planet Earth, I partake in all these motions as I have no other individual choice, no freedom of action or ability to rule or govern myself according to my individualistic desires.

WHAT WOULD KRISHNA DO?: NICOLAUS COPERNICUS(1473-1543), POLISH ASTRONOMER DESCRIBED THE HELIOCENTRIC SOLAR SYSTEM, THE SUN IS THE CENTER OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM.
WHAT WOULD KRISHNA DO?: NICOLAUS COPERNICUS(1473-1543), POLISH ASTRONOMER DESCRIBED THE HELIOCENTRIC SOLAR SYSTEM, THE SUN IS THE CENTER OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM. MAN’S EXPERIENCE OF THE WORLD STILL DEMANDS SUNRISE AND SUNSET, THE APPARENT MOTIONS OF SUN IN THE SKY.

Nicolaus Copernicus(1473-1543) Polish astronomer discovered that planets revolve around the Sun and that the turning of the Earth on its axis from West to East accounts for the apparent rising and setting of the stars( includes Sunrise and Sunset), and it forms the basis for modern astronomy.

WHAT WOULD KRISHNA DO? : JOHANNES KEPLER(1571-1630), GERMAN ASTRONOMER AND MATHEMATICIAN IS KNOWN FOR THE LAWS OF PLANETARY MOTIONS. MAN CAN DESCRIBE MOTIONS OF PLANETS BUT CANNOT ACCOUNT FOR THE FORCE THAT INITIATED EARTH'S ROTATION AROUND ITS AXIS.
WHAT WOULD KRISHNA DO? : JOHANNES KEPLER(1571-1630), GERMAN ASTRONOMER AND MATHEMATICIAN IS KNOWN FOR THE LAWS OF PLANETARY MOTIONS. MAN CAN DESCRIBE MOTIONS OF PLANETS BUT CANNOT ACCOUNT FOR THE FORCE THAT INITIATED EARTH’S ROTATION AROUND ITS AXIS.

Johannes Kepler(1571-1603) German astronomer and mathematician discovered the Kepler’s Laws of Motion.

WHAT WOULD KRISHNA DO? : SIR ISSAC NEWTON(1642-1727), ENGLISH PHYSICIST, MATHEMATICIAN, AND NATURAL PHILOSOPHER FORMULATED THE LAWS OF GRAVITY AND MOTION. THOSE LAWS OF PHYSICS MAY NOT ACCOUNT FOR EARTH'S ROTATIONAL SPIN.
WHAT WOULD KRISHNA DO? : SIR ISSAC NEWTON(1642-1727), ENGLISH PHYSICIST, MATHEMATICIAN, AND NATURAL PHILOSOPHER FORMULATED THE LAWS OF GRAVITY AND MOTION. THOSE LAWS OF PHYSICS MAY NOT ACCOUNT FOR EARTH’S ROTATIONAL SPIN.

Sir Issac Newton(1642-1727) English mathematician, physicist, and natural philosopher formulated the Laws of Gravity and Motion.

WHAT WOULD KRISHNA DO? : ALBERT EINSTEIN(1879-1955), US PHYSICIST, BORN IN GERMANY FORMULATED THE THEORY OF RELATIVITY. MY ACADEMIC EXPERIENCE WILL NOT PREVENT THE SENSORY EXPERIENCE OF SUN'S APPARENT MOTION ACROSS THE SKY. IT IS THIS ILLUSION THAT SUPPORTS HUMAN EXISTENCE.
WHAT WOULD KRISHNA DO? : ALBERT EINSTEIN(1879-1955), US PHYSICIST, BORN IN GERMANY FORMULATED THE THEORY OF RELATIVITY. MY ACADEMIC EXPERIENCE WILL NOT PREVENT THE SENSORY EXPERIENCE OF SUN’S APPARENT MOTION ACROSS THE SKY. IT IS THIS ILLUSION THAT SUPPORTS HUMAN EXISTENCE.

Albert Einstein(1879-1955), US physicist, born in Germany formulated the Theory of Relativity. The most important matter and energy equation is that of the ability of the living things to exploit matter and energy to their advantage.

WHAT WOULD KRISHNA DO? : MAN CAN DESCRIBE THE REALITY OF EARTH'S MOTIONS FOR HE HAS NO DIRECT SENSORY AWARENESS OF THE SPEED OF EARTH. FROM THE APPARENT MOTIONS OF STARS MAN RECOGNIZES THE REALITY BUT STILL NEEDS THE ILLUSION TO SYNCHRONIZE HIS BIOLOGICAL FUNCTIONS WITH ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGES CALLED DAY AND NIGHT.
WHAT WOULD KRISHNA DO? : MAN CAN DESCRIBE THE REALITY OF EARTH’S MOTIONS FOR HE HAS NO DIRECT SENSORY AWARENESS OF THE SPEED OF EARTH. FROM THE APPARENT MOTIONS OF STARS MAN RECOGNIZES THE REALITY BUT STILL NEEDS THE ILLUSION TO SYNCHRONIZE HIS BIOLOGICAL FUNCTIONS WITH ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGES CALLED DAY AND NIGHT.

I respectfully acknowledge their contributions and there are several others who had verified the information provided by them. However, it may be noted that none of those contributors are physicians and their primary concern is not about the problems of human existence. For man is a mortal being, there is no escape from the problems of aging, and longevity. Man exists with a life-span, and has a lifetime which is measured by the time interval between two events that cause a significant environmental change that the human body recognizes as if it is operated by a precise clock. Of all the motions that I described, to account for the problems of human existence, I have to examine the spinning motion of Earth around its own axis. All other celestial motions are relevant but my life’s journey on planet Earth is involved and is impacted by Earth’s spinning motion. In Medical Science, we recognize Vital Functions, Vital Operations, and Vital Principles. A physicist has not accounted for any of the Vital Functions that govern or rule human existence. So, at a fundamental level, to understand the issues that involve human existence, we need a method of inquiry that a physicist may not use.

I am asking my readers to learn to make the distinction between mechanical actions and intelligent actions. We need to separate mechanical operations from vital operations. There is the difference between mechanical performance and intelligent performance. People make the distinction between Transitive Action and Immanent Action. The action performed by an inert body on another inert body is called Transitive Action. In contrast, Immanent Action perfects the agent that performs the action. To establish life, in the performance of the vital, living functions, the agent is perfected by its own actions such as growing, sensing, understanding, and developing. For example, heating is a Transitive Action for the hot thing loses its own heat. In the performance of Vital Functions and Intelligent Actions, the results of action remain in the agent to provide some benefit, advantage, or purpose. The term purposiveness describes actions that are guided to achieve a future end and it includes the selection or the choice of means to accomplish or obtain the desired goal.

The word ‘animal’ is derived from Latin name for “SOUL” the Vital Principle of animation. It helps to divide Matter into two kinds; animate, and inanimate, living, and nonliving, sensible, and insensible, or Physical Matter, and Living Matter. The biological property called consciousness describes the difference between Vital Powers and the Capacities of Inert or Physical Matter. Consciousness describes the difference between animate and inanimate things. Consciousness accounts for the power of Self-Nutrition( In Physiology called ‘NUTRITION’), which is the originative Power the possession of which leads us to speak of things as living or nonliving. Apart from Physics, Biology demands explanation for knowing Matter, Energy, and Motions of Objects. The Laws of Physics cannot account for the correct understanding of Vital Powers, Vital Functions, Vital Operations that are based on Intelligent Actions.

WHAT WOULD KRISHNA DO? : THE DIVINE SONG, THE BHAGAVAD GITA, CHAPTER VII, VERSE #25 EXPLAINS: "I AM NOT MANIFEST TO EVERYONE, BEING VEILED BY MY ILLUSORY POTENCY IN THE EXTERNAL ENERGY. THE IGNORANT IN THE WORLD CANNOT UNDERSTAND ME, THE UNBORN AND IMPERISHABLE."
WHAT WOULD KRISHNA DO? : THE DIVINE SONG, THE BHAGAVAD GITA, CHAPTER VII, VERSE #25 EXPLAINS: “I AM NOT MANIFEST TO EVERYONE, BEING VEILED BY MY ILLUSORY POTENCY IN THE EXTERNAL ENERGY. THE IGNORANT IN THE WORLD CANNOT UNDERSTAND ME, THE UNBORN AND IMPERISHABLE.”

In the Divine Song popularly known as The Bhagavad Gita, Chapter VII, verse #25, Lord Krishna speaks to Prince Arjuna: “Naham prakasah sarvasya Yoga-Maya-samavrtah; Mudho’ yam nabhijanati loko mam ajam avyayam.”  “I am never manifest to the foolish and unintelligent. For them I am covered by My eternal creative potency(“MAYA”) and so the deluded world knows Me not, who am unborn and infallible.”

WHAT WOULD KRISHNA DO? OR LORD MAHA VISHNU DO? : MAN'S PHYSICAL EXISTENCE ON THE SURFACE OF A FAST, SPINNING CELESTIAL OBJECT DEMANDS THE OPERATION OF FORCE/POWER/ENERGY THAT CAN IMPOSE ITS VEIL AND DEFEND MAN FROM EXPERIENCING THE REALITY OF MOTIONS THAT ARE INHERENTLY POWERFUL AND MAKE EARTH AN INHOSPITABLE PLACE. IF MAN NEEDS LIGHT AND ITS ENERGY, MAN EQUALLY NEEDS DARKNESS OR NIGHT FOR SLEEP AND REST.
WHAT WOULD KRISHNA DO? OR LORD MAHA VISHNU DO? : MAN’S PHYSICAL EXISTENCE ON THE SURFACE OF A FAST, SPINNING CELESTIAL OBJECT DEMANDS THE OPERATION OF FORCE/POWER/ENERGY THAT CAN IMPOSE ITS VEIL AND DEFEND MAN FROM EXPERIENCING THE REALITY OF MOTIONS THAT ARE INHERENTLY POWERFUL AND MAKE EARTH AN INHOSPITABLE PLACE. IF MAN NEEDS LIGHT AND ITS ENERGY, MAN EQUALLY NEEDS DARKNESS OR NIGHT FOR SLEEP AND REST.

The scientific method of inquiry is relevant to understand certain aspects of Matter, Energy, and Motion. There is an aspect of human existence that is operated by the Force of Illusion(“MAYA”) and this existence is not accounted by the realities of the world and the universe in which man finds his existence without any choice of his own. To account for this human existence which needs the operation of illusion, I make my inquiry using “DEVOTION” as my tool or method to investigate the problem.

Rudranarasimham Rebbapragada
Ann Arbor, MI 48104-4162, USA
SPECIALFRONTIERFORCE.ESTABLISHMENT22

On Tuesday, 9 September 2014 10:33 PM, R.Rudranarasimham  wrote:

MADHU, MADHAVI, AND MADHURYA:

WHAT WOULD KRISHNA DO?: IN INDIAN TRADITION LORD GOD IS THE CONTROLLER OF THE FORCE AND HAS A MASCULINE IDENTITY AND THE FORCE IS DESCRIBED AS HIS CONSORT WITH A FEMININE IDENTITY. GODDESS MADHAVI IS THE CONSORT OF LORD MADHAVA(THE LORD OF SPRING SEASON WHICH BRINGS A SENSE OF JOY AND SWEETNESS). THE WORD MADHAVI IS DERIVED FROM MADHU WHICH DESCRIBES SUGAR, WINE(FERMENTED SUGAR) AND NECTAR. WHEN MADHAVI IS KNOWN AS FORCE/POWER/ENERGY, ITS APPLICATION IS KNOWN BY THE SENSATION IT IMPARTS, THE SENSATION OF SWEETNESS CALLED MADHURYA, JOY, OR BLISS.
WHAT WOULD KRISHNA DO?: IN INDIAN TRADITION LORD GOD IS THE CONTROLLER OF THE FORCE AND HAS A MASCULINE IDENTITY AND THE FORCE IS DESCRIBED AS HIS CONSORT WITH A FEMININE IDENTITY. GODDESS MADHAVI IS THE CONSORT OF LORD MADHAVA(THE LORD OF SPRING SEASON WHICH BRINGS A SENSE OF JOY AND SWEETNESS). THE WORD MADHAVI IS DERIVED FROM MADHU WHICH DESCRIBES SUGAR, WINE(FERMENTED SUGAR) AND NECTAR. WHEN MADHAVI IS KNOWN AS FORCE/POWER/ENERGY, ITS APPLICATION IS KNOWN BY THE SENSATION IT IMPARTS, THE SENSATION OF SWEETNESS CALLED MADHURYA, JOY, OR BLISS.

Sugar, alcohol and sweetness are related terms. Photoreception is the basis for Photosynthesis and it always performs a creative action to produce sugars and other plant products. We often miss the point about the creative generation of sugars. Madhavi symbolizes a person associated with this creative power that is involved in the generation or production of sugar( the fermented liquid, wine or alcohol is called Madhu) and it is easily identified by the taste sensation it imparts. In other words, the creative power, potency can be physically experienced using the taste sensation. Creation is not an abstract idea. Man experiences the fact of creation using the five organs of sense perception.

Thanks for knowing the difference between propulsion and propellant. All said and done, man can only look at the distant stars and admiringly sing, “Twinkle, Twinkle Little Star, How I Wonder What You Are,” for man cannot devise a propulsion mechanism using all the expendable propellant and reach any of those stars that shine in the night sky. For that matter, man has no ability to make an experimental model of a solar system that sustains the varied motions using the operation of natural forces. Science is not a Power/Force/Energy. Knowing Science does not make man the Controller of Power/Force/Energy.

On 9 September 2014 07:17, Srinivasa Rao Kankipati  wrote:

Marvellous exposition Dr Rao garu. When I delete every other message in these emails, still I will retain yours forever for the precision and for the value of the no-nonsense, point-by-point and scientific information it contains. Thank you so much.
– Dr K Srinivasa Rao, MA CAIIB PhD, Chief General Manager (retd), State Bank of India.

On 9 September 2014 02:56, Dr. PVS Rao  wrote:

Thank you for your mails. Your sentences are in quotes ” ” and are followed by my responses.
“Thanks for your reply and thanks for that extra effort to answer the issues by including quotes from my letter.”

 Thanks for your kind comments. At first, a few clarifications.

“language that is called ‘Binary Code…”
There is no ‘language’ called binary code. Languages and codes are entirely different.
“All of our communications are made possible because the computer programmer has used this Binary Code.” 
Programmers do not use the binary code at all.
“Binary code … uses numerical symbols”
It uses only ones and zeroes.

“The word ‘Madhurya’ is derived from the word ‘Madhavi’ which means sweetness and the sweetness is compared to the sweetness imparted by honey, nectar and wine.”

The root word is Madhu which means honey besides many other things.
Madhurya means sweetness
Madhavi means a procuress, bawd, a brothel keeper, an intoxicating drink, sugar, a drink made from honey, tulasi, a white flower ….
To the best of my knowledge, it does not mean sweetness or honey.

“Apparently, I am doing better than last year when
most people simply ignored what I write and have not bothered to give a response. I will keep trying and give a chance to people to think over the issue.”

As for response, almost without exception, the people on our mailing lists are persons who have made their own individual mark in various professions (academicians, vice-chancellors, award-winning scientists, reputed engineers with many patents to their credit, CEO’s and heads of organizations, senior administrators, and so forth. They are a mature, knowledgeable lot…. How ever, they do not respond as often as one would like them to.

1. They may not respond to something which is obviously true, because they feel that there is no need to endorse the obvious.
They may keep quiet when they see something patently absurd, thinking it would be pointless.

2. They may not want to react when they read statements which can neither be proved nor disproved (e.g. God created the world in 6 days…..).
3. They may also hesitate if they get the feeling that some of us tend to be preachy, patronising, judgmental, do not take even constructive analysis or comments kindly and, simply because we do not agree with some one’s views, react with anger, sarcasm, or merely to score debating points rather than with an open mind, unemotionally, constructively and with mutual respect.
The language of a scholarly discourse on a spiritual subject, a discussion in a scientific conference room, a paper in a scientific journal or a an article in a popular science magazine is much different from that of a political squabble or a teenage spat.
Some of the language we see in the mails and exchanges makes me uncomfortable. Perhaps it makes others uncomfortable too.
This may account for several amongst us keeping quiet even if they have contributions to make… just to avoid possible unpleasantness.

“To understand man and the world in which he exists, we need to know the dynamics of a star called Sun and a planet called Earth and their relationship as members of a Solar System. Each planet and the star that form this Sun family exhibit different kinds of motions”
This, and some other things.

“no single Law or mechanism that can account for this variation in their motions.” 
The existing, well established sciences (Newton, Galileo, Kepler down to Einstein and the rest of the stalwarts) seamlessly explain all these and much more quantitatively ….
If you need separate sets of laws principles and explanations for individual cases, it will be an ad-hoc patchwork, not science.

“To postulate any hypothesis, basically it must be understood that planet Earth is a solid planet like Mercury, Venus, and Mars; whereas Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune are gaseous planets.” 
astrophysicists and physicists do understand this. Astronomy explains all these and black holes, neutrino stars, novae and supernovae …. It has even predicted the existence of unknown planets which were indeed discovered later. They were found at the exact locations that were predicted for them. There are innumerable other such predictions that science made which later turned out to be true (including the bending of light in a gravitational field and even the misleadingly named God Particle).

“It (the earth) is constantly moving and its position is constantly changing. We do not use the precise language called Mathematics to describe such a variable condition to which no value can be attached by using any kind of symbol that we can possibly imagine.”
It is for precisely such situations that the precision and power of various branches of mathematics are ideally suited, they have been and are being used for this purpose. (Mathematics is not a language.) In-depth knowledge of mathematics and physics will clarify how this is being done.

“To explain the complexity of Earth’s rotational spin, the Newtonian Mathematical Formula is inadequate and is imprecise.” 
Anyone who can prove that Newtonian and subsequent physics is inadequate and provide a more adequate way will become more famous than Newton.
Anyone who is able to throw out the current foundations and framework of physics, astrophysics and astronomy by replacing them with a better one will be a bigger scientist than Newton, Einstein and the entire Galaxy of scientists and Astrophysicists who have so far worked in this area from times immemorial. He will be immortalised and reverentially remembered for all times to come, as long as there is mankind..

“If you use the word, “EVOLUTION” like a Magic Formula, it does not provide any answers.” 
It is true that even in the 21st century, there is a Flat Earth Society and there are also people who junk Darwinian evolution. Often, opposition to Darwin is due to strong religious convictions. Therefore no comment.

“I state that cognition is a function of the living cell and not a function that could be performed by brain. It can be verified by simply studying amoeba which has cognitive abilities without having any special organs of sense perception.”
In case this is the currently accepted state of the art in this area, I would be grateful for a reference to the relevant scientific publication.

If on the other hand, it is a new idea, I suggest that you incorporate this claim in a ‘scientific paper’ and publish it in a reputed journal (perhaps even ‘nature’ because it appears very revolutionary.

“I am not sharing a romantic or poetic view about Love. In Indian tradition, the word Love is not used very often. Indian thinkers prefer to explain the experience of Love called Joy, Happiness, Bliss and use terms such as ‘ANANDA’, SANTOSH’, and ‘MADHURYA’.” 
No comment, religion and tradition become touch-me-not subjects.

“For Love is a Fundamental Force, it operates biological actions and interactions and the fact of its existence is known by both subjective and objective criteria that can be used to measure the degree of happiness or unhappiness.” 
Serotonin and endorphins.

“It is important to know that man is not the Controller of Energy/Power/Force for man leads an energy-dependent existence. If the fact of man’s energy dependence is not understood, you will not be ready to learn the first lesson of Spirituality Science.”

“The Laws of Physics and Chemistry are based on mechanistic principles. …. I am stating that you cannot explain the relationship between the energy-yielding, and energy-dependent molecules using the principles shared by Physics and Chemistry. I do not mind if you want to recognize what I call and describe as the ‘Spirituality Science’, the Science that is concerned with matter and energy acquisition and transformation to sustain biological actions and interactions.”

I feel that no one should conduct bhajans in an operation theatre or do post-mortem dissections (or even surgical operations) in temples.

“In the motions of planet Earth in relation to Sun, we can discern purposiveness, goal-oriented actions that can be subjectively and objectively experienced to understand the Magic of Creation.”
Obviously this is a statement of faith (It is like saying “there is God’ or that He pronounced the Ten Commandments). As far as I can see, it is not a scientific hypothesis that can be put to the rigours of very accurate quantitative testing and validation, which all theories and hypotheses of physical sciences have to pass and have passed before they were accepted. They can neither be proved nor disproved.

We scientists have therefore to leave these claims alone, because they fall outside the discipline of Science.

“To narrow the field of discussion to a few topics at a time, you can choose a topic of your choice; 1. The Laws of Thermodynamics-Entropy, and Temperature regulation by human body, 2. Oxidation-reduction Chemical reactions and control of H ion concentration as a subject of Spirituality Science, 3. Consciousness as a living function unexplained by Physics or Chemistry which explain chemical and physical interactions in the physical world, 4. Cognition, Intelligence which is unrelated to acquired knowledge or learned experience, and 5. Life span in relation to molecules and elements that are not perishable and immutable.” 
Thank you for the kind and generous offer. But thanks to my current professional and other commitments, I have to forsake that luxury. Once again, thanks for your offer.

Hence, please understand if I do not participate anymore in this stream.

Dr. PVS Rao

On 9 September 2014 06:14, R.Rudranarasimham  wrote:

What is Binary Code?

The computer that we use, may be using a language that is called ‘Binary Code’. All of our communications are made possible because the computer programmer has used this Binary Code and the instructions given to the Computer are easily recognized by this language of Mathematics that uses numerical symbols. But, if I write this letter using the Code, most of us would fail to know its contents. To experience the reality of man, and the reality of world, the medium called Mathematical Language is totally inadequate. You may be able to make statements using precise numbers with values and yet it will remain unintelligible.

To explain the complexity of Earth’s rotational spin, the Newtonian Mathematical Formula is inadequate and is imprecise. It is easy to describe the Conservation of Angular Momentum but it is extremely difficult to evolve a mathematical formula to describe the Momentum in its relationship to Earth’s precise location in this vast universe. From the moment planet Earth came into its condition called existence, there are never two identical instants in its long life which is measured as billions of years. At no instant in this long existence, planet Earth existed at the same location of the universe. It is constantly moving and its position is constantly changing. We do not use the precise language called Mathematics to describe such a variable condition to which no value can be attached by using any kind of symbol that we can possibly imagine.

Rudranarasimham Rebbapragada
Ann Arbor, MI 48104-4162, USA
SPECIALFRONTIERFORCE.ESTABLISHMENT22

On Monday, September 8, 2014 6:18 PM, Srinivasa Rao Kankipati  wrote:

It would be nice if all this longish narration is put in mathematical form and presented to a scientific journal for publication. It would benefit a wider audience, who otherwise have to reach your blog on their own and swim for the nuggets of truth. Newton, Einstein, Planck etc not only narrated their discoveries in a short form but also expressed them in mathematical form. For example, Newton’s Second Law of Motion takes the concise form
F = m a, where F and a are vector quantities. If F =0, it means a = 0, meaning that v = 0 or c, implying that the body is at rest or is having uniform motion in a straight line.
Similarly, it should be possible to frame your theory on Law of Love in mathematical form and regale your audience and edify them. Please try it with your vast capabilities you I am sure will not fail. Best Wishes.

On 8 September 2014 14:22, R.Rudra Narasimham <rebbapragada> wrote:

What is force?

In Physics, force is defined as the cause or agent that puts an object at rest into motion or alters the motion of a moving object. This issue has come up for discussion to account for man’s existence on the surface of a fast spinning celestial object. The fundamental force called gravitation may explain planet Earth’s elliptical orbit but it cannot account for the Earth’s revolution around its own axis. Since the concern is about explaining human existence, as we belong to the Solar family, we have to initially give attention to the motions displayed by other members of this family. In this context, I have used the term fundamental force and mentioned that Love is a Fundamental Force. I am not speaking about feelings or thoughts of Love. I am trying to find a name to describe the force that has put Earth into its fast spinning motion. If there is a name in Physics, kindly feel free to reveal that name. The suggestion that a glancing collision can initiate or alter the motion of a moving object sounds good but cannot withstand simple scrutiny. We need a variety of celestial objects of different dimensions to collide with other celestial objects of varying dimensions and generate the angular momentum that establishes the uniqueness of the celestial object. For example, planet Earth, and Moon need two different kinds of objects to give them the rotational spins they display. Then, what happens to that agent that caused this motion? I would expect that agent to remain in the Solar system as it would be governed by Sun’s force of gravitation. If the agent is too small, it will not be able to exert enough force to cause a change in motion. We are able to develop and use a Lunar calendar and develop a concept of time for the motions of Moon are synchronized with motions of planet Earth. Apart from that living beings like man exist for a measured length of time in which the individual organism uses the length or duration of periods of light called day, and periods of darkness called night. While the living matter has its own kinds of motions, its living functions are operated by an environmental change that is recognized as Sunrise and Sunset while in reality there is no Sunrise or Sunset. Take your time, give the name from Physics. If Physics cannot name it, I would name the Force as Love.

What is Cognition?

Cognition involves the ability to process information( the act, the condition, and the state of knowing a range of facts). The living cell is separated from its external environment by its Plasma Membrane or Biological Membrane. This Membrane allows a highly controlled exchange of matter across the barrier it poses, some compounds are able to pass through the membrane easily, others are completely blocked. The selective absorption of ions, molecules may require the use of energy and it is not operated by laws of Physics which govern the movement of particles across semipermeable membranes and depends on partial pressures. At a fundamental level, every living cell has the cognitive ability to recognize the existence of other living cells that are present in its immediate, external environment. Kindly find time to read about Membranes, Membrane transportation, Membrane Structures and functions. The Outer Unit Membrane of Mitochondria controls the passage of material into and out of the Mitochondria and govern their internal environment. This Membrane recognizes and controls the flow of nearly 1,500 different peptides. Actually, my brain may not even know all the names of these compounds. My cognitive power and ability is far inferior when compared to the cognitive abilities of individual cells and other membrane-bound structures like nucleus, mitochondria, and ribosomes.

I describe ‘consciousness’ as the biological function that is concerned with knowing the fact, state, and condition called existence at a given place and time. At a fundamental level, consciousness is not a function called thinking which is a mental function or cortical function.

WHOLE DUDE – WHOLE CONSCIOUS

Rudranarasimham Rebbapragada
Ann Arbor, MI 48104-4162, USA
SPECIALFRONTIERFORCE.ESTABLISHMENT22

On Monday, September 8, 2014 12:57 PM, Srinivasa Rao Kankipati  wrote:

We all know that the feeling of love guides human affairs and even the behaviour among animals though not in plants. But it is news that there is a Law of Love which governs all other forces. If so, the way it governs has not been indicated, only postulated. And postulation is not proof. By authoritarian means, it can be rubbed down the throats of gullible followers but even they will not be convinced after the initial newness of the theory wears off.
One person says the Law of Love governs the universe. He does not define the terms Law and Love. The same man at another point says that cells have the power of cognition, without caring to define what cognition is. If cognition is the ability to carry out certain prescribed functions but not others, then even a computer chip is able to do that and it is ridiculous to endow them with the ability of cognition. All that is required for certain functions to be carried out is that the proper structure must be there in the agent that carries out the function, and there must be the energy supply to the agent to enable this to be done. Thus both structure and energy are essential. I am not prepared to call this combination cognition, because it is just a new word for a known function.
Another man loosely says that the entire universe is governed by Consciousness. And he is not even conscious that consciousness is nothing but a recording of some information and the ability to recall it, carried out by remarkable swiftness and accuracy by brain cells in human beings and other beings. But 99.0099% of the universe is not conscious of any aspect of the rest of the universe! Still the man theorizes that Consciousness governs the universe. He is even so preposterous as to hypothesise that God is Consciousness Incarnate, without caring to define consciousness and personification
thereof.
Even Swami Vivekananda defines the goal of life as Freedom. The way he defines Freedom is to say: “In Freedom we arise, in Freedom we exist, and in Freedom we merge”. Try as I did with due to respect to this great man, I could never decipher the meaning of this statement. The maximum meaning that can be squeezed into this statement is that man has no existence before his birth, and that he has no existence after his death. This again flies in the face of the assertion of the Gitacharya Krishna that there is a previous birth and an after-birth, and some vasanas are carried forward by an entity called Atma. He has generously allotted an atma to even plants, but has not bothered to explain what a prebirth for a given plant is and what is going to be its next birth, and what vasanas are carried forward by its atma. Meanwhile atma itself is a nebulous entity simply carrying the vasanas, and after all the vasanas are worked off, atma just disappears.
My own feeling is that man is a superior structure evolved over at least two hundred thousand years by Nature, having the apparatus to imagine, think and postulate. His very imagination makes him drunk with the feeling that whatever he imagines must be real. That is why every Tom, Dick and Harry floats his own theory of the creation, existence and decease of the universe and collects his own following to shout support to that theory. The modern equivalent is to create a blog, and use a loudspeaker to cry to everybody, “Love me, Love my blog”, or “See my twitter, See my flutter”.
The great goals before science are to find out how genes inherited also enable the inheritance of certain behaviour patterns in each man, and how inheritance, instructions and impressions, which are the chief factors governing a man’s life during his existence between his Conception and his Death, are getting embedded in one’s own genes and are passed on to his offspring. No need for atmas, suvasanas or durvasanas, and no previous births and no future births. A man’s Beginning is his Conception, and his Breakup is his Death, and no Existence prior to Conception and posterior to Death, and his ability to interact with the world of other human beings, other beings and things, and his ability to be interacted upon by them, exists only during the brief period starting with his Conception and his Death. Men must allow time for Science to investigate this fact seriously, and not license Religion to speculate it furiously. Because the so-called religionists by definition abjure all responsibility to explain their theories, claiming an exclusive divine authorisation for all their prattle. Unfortunately, Divinity seems to be conveying different conflicting messages to different messengers whereas scientists always try to employ repeatable and objective experiments to arrive at verifiable, logical and consensual results. Scientists have a lot of work to do on their hands but have no more than 24 hours a day in which to do this. But most other men with no worthwhile work to do also cannot have less than 24 hours a day. They have to spend this forced time duration to speculate and to collect followers, who otherwise spend their own 24 hours a day in perpetrating mutual violence and destruction. Religion has its origin in this fact of nature which compels man to use his 24 hours a day in at least some useless activities such as religious rituals so long as they are not harmful, as otherwise the worse alternative is to spend that time in violent activities. The best preoccupation for man could be pursuit of science and adoption of humanism to find out how the human misery found everywhere can be mitigated. The worst preoccupation is to indulge in crime and in heaping violence on others under “motive less malignity” as Shakespeare describes about Iago. In between stand various religions and their sects, the greatest being the Vedic thought of equality of all men, their essential divinity and tolerance towards all religions, and the worst being those which enjoin on their followers the dictum “Convert or Kill”.

On 7 September 2014 09:14, R.Rudra Narasimham <rebbapragada> wrote:

WHOLE SPIRITUALITY – WHOLE BIOLOGY

Dear Mr. Xavier,

Thanks for your very kind response. I am glad to write that you are the first person, who for the first time, asked me to explain the term called ‘spirituality’. That gives me a chance to attach the meaning to the word that I use. Kindly find time to visit the blog post on this subject and it takes about five minutes to read. I derive the understanding of spiritualism or spirituality from the work done by scientists such as Jan Evangelista Purkinje(1787-1869 Czech Physiologist), and Hugo Von Mohl(1805-1872 German Botanist) and it is very important to recognize these names and to pay tribute to their living memory and honor them for their work and contributions.

Whether people sing Bhajans or Keertans, eat Chicken after ritualistic killing, or consume flesh from cadavers, or drink alcohol(Soma or others), the basic motivation is attributable to the tensions inherent to the human condition called existence. There are two strong, and opposing forces that are at work while man lives in the real world; 1. Dependence, and 2. Freedom. Man leads a dependent existence that demands continuous supply of energy from an external source and man uses the power called imagination to seek Freedom, Liberation, Release, Vimochan, Salvation, Mukti, or Moksha from the misery of his conditioned, dependent existence. There is a fundamental drive to discover a theory that may provide a solution to this human problem caused by inherent contradictions or dualism or dichotomy. Humans are searching for an answer and they hope to find it in the religious doctrines they formulate or inspired to reveal. To that extent, I describe Spirituality or Spiritualism as the quest to discover peace, harmony, and tranquility in the living human condition. For man is a social animal, it should not be of any surprise if several people come together and behave as a group sharing certain beliefs and practices.

In the Indian tradition, thinkers are directed to look inwards rather than outwards. This is a method of inquiry, investigation, or observation and it is scientifically valid. As a scientist, I look at myself, I am the Observer and at the same time, I am the object of scientific inquiry or the Observed. I use the term Spirit or Soul to describe the animating, vital, life principle of all living things. The Principle is known by the functions it operates. In Biology, and Physiology, the structures and their functions are discovered through careful observations and experimental verification. When I speak about Spirituality, I visualize the living substance, living matter, or living material called Protoplasm described by scientists like Purkinje and Hugo Von Mohl. Since Spirit and Soul are associated with a material substance that can be studied, the Spirituality Science that I describe is ready for testing and verification. In my view, my Theory of Spirituality is already verified and the dispute if any pertains to the reasoning process that I use to interpret the scientific body of information. I do not ask people to agree with my statements and I do not ask people to approve my statements, and I am rather challenging people to contest my interpretation of verified scientific knowledge that already shared by text books on Biology, Anatomy, and Physiology. I simply curious as to why people are silent.

Rudranarasimham Rebbapragada
Ann Arbor, MI 48104-4162, USA
SPECIALFRONTIERFORCE.ESTABLISHMENT22

On Sunday, September 7, 2014 10:53 AM, Srinivasa Rao Kankipati  wrote:

Well said, Xavier. Out of politeness, we refrain from calling a spade a spade. But this is taken as a lack of strength in our arguments and the opponents make a downright attack on our views. As you say, in almost all cases, people who put up a show of spirituality actually fall for the music in the songs or the rhythm in the poems and do not understand what exactly the words therein stand for.
If A and B both have admiration for X, then it is human weakness that A, B together form a tacit or explicit brotherhood. Next to their own selves, the object of their protection and promotion is this brotherhood. This is done by adding more members in the brotherhood, and attacking C and D who similarly have developed an admiration for Y. This is how sects, political parties and religions are formed. Meanwhile, X and Y do nothing to benefit their followers. If X and Y are dead, moreover, they also cannot do anything for their followers. If they have spirits as is popularly supposed, then their spirits also keep fighting in heaven. Perhaps Jesus and Muhammad are still fighting in heaven, instead of reaching an amicable settlement and conveying to their followers here on earth, by dint of their powers, the urgent need to live a happy human life instead of spilling blood.

On 6 September 2014 19:18, Xavier William  wrote:

Dear Rudra,In your extensive and no doubt erudite treatise you have dwelt upon many things which are way over my head though I am a qualified engineer. In your treatise you also mention the word spirituality a number of times. The naive, uneducated idiot that I am (according to Rabindra Kaul) I simply cannot understand what spirituality means. And as a rationalist I think there is no sense whatsoever in discussing a thing which does not mean anything to me. According to my idiocy the first thing to do in a discussion is to define the words used. So I looked up dictionaries and encyclopedias and I find that they too are as much in the dark as I am in defining exactly the word spirituality, except that it has something to do with religion and beliefs. So Mr.Rudra can you please enlighten me on exactly what you mean by spirituality.

Take the song or keerthan ‘Jai Jagdish Hare’ from the movie ‘Purab Aur Paschim’ It has a certain rhythm to it and as you swing your head left and right in accompaniment to the drums and bells you feel something. This I think is called spirituality. But people who do not cater to your beliefs do not feel anything about the keerthan or other like it.
There is a temple at Kodungalloor some 70 km from my place where spirituality comes by drinking and dancing and biting off the head of a chicken and drinking the blood that squirts from the chicken. But I am sure that such practices are obnoxious to you and hold no spiritual value to you.
Then there are the aghoris of Benares who consume morsels of burnt human flesh from the funeral pyres along the Ganges banks. They do it in the belief that such cannibalism will liberate them from the endless cycles of births and rebirths. For them such cannibalism has a spiritual dimension to it whereas the very thought of consuming human flesh would make you throw up. However thousands of years ago human sacrifice and cannibalism were practiced by our ancestors and these practices had spiritual values associated them. Similarly for Vedic people animal sacrifices and consumption of liquor (soma) had spiritual dimension. But now …
Obviously spirituality is highly subjective and depends on one’s beliefs which in turn depends on your parents and society. What is spiritual to one is profane to another. Spirituality is also an instance of self-hypnotism or self-delusion. If you delude yourself into the belief that singing Jai Jagdish song will elate you to nirvana it will. If you don’t believe in such stuff there is no spirituality. So my dear Rudra do no put up such subjects as spirituality up for discussion since such things mean vastly different and often incompatible things to different people.

On Sat, Sep 6, 2014 at 11:37 PM, R.Rudra Narasimham <rebbapragada> wrote:

SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE – THE DOCTRINE OF CREATION:

Thanks for your reply and thanks for that extra effort to answer the issues by including quotes from my letter. Apparently, I am doing better than last year when most people simply ignored what I write and have not bothered to give a response. I will keep trying and give a chance to people to think over the issue.

You made an attempt to explain the rotational spin of planets and your own explanation is not consistent with your own statements. Initially, you suggested that a glancing collision can cause the rotational spin of a planet( this is a theory to explain the rotational spin of Venus) and later you state with a profound sense of optimism, nothing can stop or suddenly slow down Earth’s rotational spin. You have to reconcile your own views.

The thing called rocket uses a mechanism of propulsion called ‘thrust’, and a variety of propellants are used to produce the desired ‘thrust’. To send a rocket at the speed of light, we may have to use the entire mass of this universe as a propellant to obtain or generate the power or force using the mechanism of thrust propulsion. I do hope that you understand as to why I am giving this explanation. The size of the particle is of great importance. You may have to imagine the size of photon or light particle as compared to the size of rocket with or without man.

Again, I ask all of you to discuss one concept at a time so that we may have a better understanding of the subject. If you use the word, “EVOLUTION” like a Magic Formula, it does not provide any answers. The Biological Clock is the same and we really know that life is existing on planet Earth for billions of years. The Clock is the same and it is unchanging and it is not evolving. The living substance or matter is the same and it is not evolving. The Biological Clock serves to maintain existence and it also serves to determine the life span of the individual organism. It is a plan for dissolution after a predetermined lifetime.

The Laws of Physics and Chemistry are based on mechanistic principles. They explain interactions that are random, unguided, and purposeless. These are the most common interactions that we observe in the vast universe. But, we observe living things only on planet Earth in this vast universe that we have explored and known. The biotic interactions are guided, sequential, purposeful, and goal-oriented. There is a principle called ‘altruism’ that aims at the survival of the organism. The Four Fundamental Interactions; Strong Nuclear, Weak Nuclear, Electromagnetism, and Gravitation cannot account for biotic interactions and actions. When we explain the term food chain, it describes the movement of matter and energy. It speaks about the relationships between energy-yielding molecules, and energy-dependent molecules. I am stating that you cannot explain the relationship between the energy-yielding, and energy-dependent molecules using the principles shared by Physics and Chemistry. I do not mind if you want to recognize what I call and describe as the ‘Spirituality Science’, the Science that is concerned with matter and energy acquisition and transformation to sustain biological actions and interactions.

You have stated that cognition is a function of the brain. I state that cognition is a function of the living cell and not a function that could be performed by brain. It can be verified by simply studying Amoeba proteus which has cognitive abilities without having any special organs of sense perception.

To narrow the field of discussion to a few topics at a time, you can choose a topic of your choice; 1. The Laws of Thermodynamics-Entropy, and Temperature regulation by human body, 2. Oxidation-reduction Chemical reactions and control of H ion concentration as a subject of Spirituality Science, 3. Consciousness as a living function unexplained by Physics or Chemistry which explain chemical and physical interactions in the physical world, 4. Cognition, Intelligence which is unrelated to acquired knowledge or learned experience, and 5. Life span in relation to molecules and elements that are not perishable and immutable. I am not sharing a romantic or poetic view about Love. In Indian tradition, the word Love is not used very often. Indian thinkers prefer to explain the experience of Love called Joy, Happiness, Bliss and use terms such as ‘ANANDA’, SANTOSH’, and ‘MADHURYA’. The word ‘Madhurya’ is derived from the word ‘Madhavi’ which means sweetness and the sweetness is compared to the sweetness imparted by honey, nectar and wine. In other words, Indian tradition claims that Love can be experienced like a sensation and it can be subjectively and objectively verified. Indian tradition uses term like ‘MADHAVA’ to describe the Controller of a Force/Power/Energy/Shakti called ‘MADHAVI’ and that Force is known from knowing the experience it generates. For Love is a Fundamental Force, it operates biological actions and interactions and the fact of its existence is known by both subjective and objective criteria that can be used to measure the degree of happiness or unhappiness. It is important to know that man is not the Controller of Energy/Power/Force for man leads an energy-dependent existence. If the fact of man’s energy dependence is not understood, you will not be ready to learn the first lesson of Spirituality Science.

Rudranarasimham Rebbapragada
Ann Arbor, MI 48104-4162, USA
SPECIALFRONTIERFORCE.ESTABLISHMENT22

On Saturday, September 6, 2014 3:13 AM, Dr. PVS Rao  wrote:

Thank you for your mail. Your sentences are in black and my responses are in blue.
There are reasons as to why man is not able to design rockets that can travel faster.
There could be technological issues but no fundamental barriers to achieving non-relativistic velocities using a variety of known propulsion methods.
Man is not a Controller of Force/Power/Energy.
Not an issue.
.. you make no attempt to explain the relation between Earth’s rotational spin and Force of Gravitation.
Either you have not understood the inquiry or you know that Force of Gravitation cannot account for it.
The physics involved in the rotation of stellar objects is as follows.
Consider a set of gas clouds in a region of space. While moving at their own speeds, these are also subject to mutual attraction due to gravity. So they tend to move closer to each other, in fact towards their common centre of gravity. Since they were all moving independently to start with, they would have a lateral velocity component (in addition to the radial component due to attraction towards the centre of gravity). If they were stationary to start with, they would have moved directly (straight) to the centre, but due to the lateral component of their velocity, they would be moving in converging, (concentric) spiral paths.
Also, since (angular) momentum has to be conserved, their angular velocities will increase as the radius of curvature decreases. The circular movement gets faster and faster as they get close to the centre. (An apt analogy would be a pirouetting ballerina or ice skater – when she moves her hands and feet close to her body, she spins faster.) As the distance to the centre decreases, the clouds merge and their combined rotational (angular) velocity would be the weighted vector sum of the velocities of the individual clouds.
This (adiabatic) contraction increases the temperature and pressure, eventually making nuclear fusion possible. We now have a bright, hot, concentrated, spinning mass of gas, generating (nuclear) energy – i.e. a spinning star.
Thus, gravitation does play a prominent role in causing the stars to form and spin.
Planets and satellites spin due to retention of rotational energy from the parent star as well as due to glancing collisions with other celestial bodies.
The rotational spin does not significantly affect the ‘force of gravitation’. The centrifugal force due to the earth’s rotational spin acts counter to the force of gravity, so that the resultant effective downward pull is reduced slightly. This reduction can be calculated.

We started this discussion about speed, and velocity in the context of man’s physical existence on the surface of a fast spinning, and moving object.

I claim that man has no ability to have direct sensory experience of the speed of Earth.

In that case, you are in agreement with my explanation.
The fact is that this inability is not really only a human characteristic. Man cannot experience the velocity of the earth because movement with constant velocity has zero effect on physical matter (animate or otherwise). There is therefore no scientific experiment by which one can determine or feel movement at constant velocity in a straight line. Consequently, man too, who uses physical matter for sensory inputs, cannot have any sensory awareness of such movement. (As regards rotation, a Foucault pendulum or Gyroscope will tell him about this.)

The first experiment in physiology is often the study of muscle contraction. (common school science exhibition demos with dead frogs leaping when given an electrical shock.) When the nerve is stimulated using an electrical impulse, the muscle contracts and it is recorded on a paper. There are physiological limits to this ability called contraction. When the nerve is repeatedly stimulated, the muscle contraction fails; rather we see the problem of twitching, fibrillation, or seizure in which the contractions cannot perform any useful task. (tonic and tetanic contractions, muscle twitch, nerve refractory time, need for sodium ion replenishment, tetanus, are accepted facts).
I agree entirely with your paragraph. However, there is and there can be no scope for overstimulation as a consequence of the earth’s movement in space (discussed in later paragraphs).

The Vestibular function is concerned with motion and balance and over-stimulation does not produce recognizable sensory experience.
This is true.

Astronauts are trained to test their physiological functions and pilots use simulators to experience the effects of speed and motion.
(I would say, to experience the effects of acceleration and deceleration. The simulator of course has many other features which are most important for pilot training).

When you watch a film, if you move the film at a fast forward rate, you see a blur on the screen. The Visual sensory function fails if the images are moving too fast.
I agree.

Man is placed on a fast-moving Earth.
Scientists say he is there as a result of Darwinian evolution.

Man is protected from the sensory experience of speed as the physiological mechanism gets overstretched.
We do experience sensory overload if we look at the close-by girders when in a fast train negotiating a bridge.
When I traveled on the Bullet train in Japan for the first time in the sixties, I knew from physics that I would not be able to feel the linear speed, but I was thrilled at the prospect of experiencing this sensory overload that I expected to occur as nearby trees rushed by. Sadly, when in the bullet train, I was so disappointed. There was absolutely no sensory overload even at this high train speed – simply because I could see absolutely nothing rushing by. Why? Because the Japanese made sure that there were no trees or other discontinuities anywhere near the train tracks. No telephone or other track-side poles either. The only thing visible was the distant landscape, and thanks to this distance this appeared to move ever so slowly. This is what happens even when we fly and see the landscape below. Everything appears to be moving slowly, because of the great height, and there is no sensory overload (except, to a small extent, while landing and take off because of seeing nearby objects in fast apparent motion). Conversely, seen from below, the plane too appears to be moving slowly, because of the distance and its small-size, relative to the distance.
This is also what happens when we, traveling on our planet, see the other fast-moving celestial objects. They don’t appear to be moving at all.
Now, man moving at ‘high’ speed, riding the earth: The earth is moving at whatever speed in space – space which is practically empty. There are a few relatively small objects sun, moon, planets and stars) in the vastness of space, at great distances from each other. We must remember that the earth takes one year to cover the near-circular orbit!
Also, what is important when we talk of sensory overload is the rapidity with which the image moves on our retina; this depends not on the actual speed but only on the angular velocity of the object(s) with respect to the eye, as I mentioned in the case of the bullet train and the aeroplane.

Thanks to the great distance and consequently the very small angular velocity, there is no sensory overload on us despite the speed of the planet(s). A visual overload would have occurred if the neighbouring objects had been close enough to have a high angular velocity with respect to the retina. In such a case of course, this would have been the least of our problems. Their gravitational pull would probably have devastated the earth as we know it.

Hence, no special protection mechanism is needed for man… and there is none.

Man experiences severe giddiness if the speed comes down suddenly. 

We can blissfully live on the surface of Earth as long as it will not slow down. Venus moves very slowly around its axis and man cannot tolerate if the speed of Earth suddenly changes.

I agree entirely ,,,, BUT…
There is no — absolutely no.. way by which the earth’s rotation can change even quickly, let alone suddenly.
The earth, like a spinning top, will continue spinning, thanks to the law of conservation of angular momentum. I can liken it to a spinning merry-go-round. It can never stop abruptly. Even the brake on the merry-go-round takes time to bring it to a stop.
There are no forces in the universe that can make the earth to change its spin velocity suddenly, so we are very safe.
The earth does in fact slowdown … very slowly … due to energy loss because of the tidal action due to the sun and the moon, but even this slow down is very small. The tidal action of the sun did slow down the speed of rotation of Venus but one has to remember that Venus is much smaller and closer to the sun … also that even so, it has taken eons for this slow down to happen. The same is the case with the rotation of the moon which also slowed down due to tidal action caused by the earth’s gravitation (again very slowly) till it ended up always showing the same face to us (period of rotation became equal to period of revolution round the earth).

Similar arguments apply regarding the earth suddenly slowing down in its orbit. It just cannot do that … any more than a train or a car can stop suddenly. Conservation of momentum means it takes much force applied over much time for a moving heavy object to stop.

But, man’s existence on Earth is synchronized with the speed of Earth for it gives man day and night and changing seasons with expected frequency.
Due to the process of evolution, many flora and fauna ended up having biological clocks which are circadian. Lunar cyclicity is also known in human body functions. In fauna, this annual cycle runs driven to a considerable extent by varying lengths of days and nights, temperature, humidity and other parameters which have an annual cyclicity.

The rules and laws of Physics do not determine the physiological abilities and functions like motion that living matter exhibits.
It is true that understanding living matter requires a vastly interdisciplinary approach. But doesn’t your above statement amount to saying that physiological abilities and functions are beyond or contrary to scientific laws and hence outside the capabilities of scientists and of the medical profession to understand and systematically cure?
Such beliefs (putting living matter in a special ‘this-is-not-physics- or-chemistry’ category) were indeed prevalent in the initial stages of scientific development. However, scientists, by their efforts, have lifted the veil that blocked our vision and made various branches of science (which deal with living matter, including medical science) possible. For example. it was believed at one time that organic compounds (such as urea) cannot be synthesized in the laboratory ( i.e. outside living organisms) because they required a mysterious life force which, it was claimed, existed only in living organisms. Now, not just urea but we synthesize the most complex organic molecules; even DNA can be manipulated. We know a lot about how the brain works. Scientific research is expanding the frontiers of knowledge. The entire edifice of medical knowledge and practice is based on how well we understand the various physiological functions of living matter. Belief that medical science works is based on the assumption thatthese functions can and have largely been understood using scientific methods in terms of the laws of physics, chemistry and so on.
Scientists are working to further push forward the frontiers of knowledge, to understand and explain all biological processes (including even complex brain functions like cognition).
Another thought: one can see physics and chemistry systematically at play in every biological function: kidneys and the bladder, digestion and excretion, retinal processing and transmission of visual images to the brain including the mechanics of stereoscopic vision, the auditory system including recognition of speech and non-speech sounds, the hand bowling, batting or catching the ball in cricket, the foraging bee communicating information to other bees about a cache of honey bearing flowers that it has located, finally even the simple act of a human just standing still …. The scientist has understood these in terms of (laws and rules of) physics and chemistry – without if’s or but’s. In each of these, there is no mystery at all.
(I am leaving out scientific work relating to ‘intelligence. For the time being, because that is still on.)

It is the belief that science is the proper and effective tool to understand the functions of living matter (and that this is a proven fact) which is the solid base and premise on which medical science and practice stand.

Hence, there is a Law that brings unity, harmony, and tranquillity in the human living condition and experience, and I claim that Law is LOVE, a Fundamental Force that operates all other forces.

“A fundamental force of love operating all other forces” is an interesting thought, and reminds me of Einstein’s radical prediction that light bends in a gravitational field. Science accepted this only after it was tested and verified (during a total solar eclipse).

Thoughts about he force of love are common in (romantic) literature. After Einstein, an immortal poem comes to mind

for mightier far – Than strength of nerve and sinew, – or the sway Of magic potent over sun and star, – Is love”
.
.. almost exactly what you are saying.

The next lines, say
“though oft to agony distrest – And though his favourite seat be feeble woman’s breast.”.

What beautiful poetry, WIlliam Wordsworth be praised!

I wish this love force is identified, controlled and used for the common good.

In the meanwhile, no one should be able to repeat to us, men of science, a few more words from the same poem,
“And Thou, though strong in love, art all too weak in reason”

Prof PVS Rao

On 2 September 2014 23:10, R.Rudra Narasimham <rebbapragada> wrote:

Thanks for basically evading the discussion and presenting speculation as a possibility. There are reasons as to why man is not able to design rockets that can travel faster. You can easily find out these reasons for yourself. Man is not a Controller of Force/Power/Energy. Secondly, you make no attempt to explain the relation between Earth’s rotational spin and Force of Gravitation. Either you have not understood the inquiry or you know that Force of Gravitation cannot account for it. We started this discussion about speed, and velocity in the context of man’s physical existence on the surface of a fast spinning, and moving object. I claim that man has no ability to have direct sensory experience of the speed of Earth. Some basic understanding of physiology is needed to know the ability of nerve to conduct a nerve impulse. The first experiment in physiology is often the study of muscle contraction. When the nerve is stimulated using an electrical impulse, the muscle contracts and it is recorded on a paper. There are physiological limits to this ability called contraction. When the nerve is repeatedly stimulated, the muscle contraction fails, rather we see the problem of twitching, fibrillation, or seizure in which the contractions cannot perform any useful task. The Vestibular function is concerned with motion and balance and over-stimulation does not produce recognizable sensory experience. Astronauts are trained to test their physiological functions and pilots use simulators to experience the effects of speed and motion. The limits of tolerance are understood. When you watch a film, if you move the film at a fast forward rate, you see a blur on the screen. The Visual sensory function fails if the images are moving too fast. Man is placed on a fast-moving Earth and man is protected from the sensory experience of speed as the physiological mechanism gets overstretched. Man experiences severe giddiness if the speed comes down suddenly. We can blissfully live on the surface of Earth as long as it will not slow down. Venus moves very slowly around its axis and man cannot tolerate if the speed of Earth suddenly changes. But, man’s existence on Earth is synchronized with the speed of Earth for it gives man day and night and changing seasons with expected frequency. The rules and laws of Physics do not determine the physiological abilities and functions like motion that living matter exhibits. Hence, there is a Law that brings unity, harmony, and tranquility in the human living condition and experience, and I claim that Law is LOVE, a Fundamental Force that operates all other forces.

Rudranarasimham Rebbapragada
Ann Arbor, MI 48104-4162, USA
SPECIALFRONTIERFORCE.ESTABLISHMENT22

On 1 September 2014 23:19, Dr. PVS Rao  wrote:

Thanks for your interest. Here are the answers. The questions are in black and the responses in blue.

There is no device that can accelerate man to make him travel at the speed of light.
Pl note my qualifier in my last mail:(We shall be considering speeds much less than that of light (0.3 million km/sec- in vacuum) so we will not consider relativistic effects.)
It is inconsistent or the statement that suggests that speed has no effect on man is flawed.
Not applicable; as clarified at the beginning of my last mail, I am talking only about speeds much less than that of light.

The Linear Velocity of Earth is 66,660 miles/hour, or 107278.87km/hour, or 18.5 miles/second with a slight variation due to Earth’s elliptical orbit. This Velocity is apparently greater than the Escape Velocity that you have mentioned.
This is earth’s velocity relative to the Sun and the earth’s orbit. Escape velocity relates to escaping the earth’s gravitation and is defined relative to the earth. The speed with which the earth is travelling relative to some to other frame of reference (e.g. the sun) is of no consequence. In other words, when we are at rest on the earth, we are already travelling at this velocity, along with the earth. We need only to add only another 7 mph ie 11.2km to this speed which we already have. Only this escape velocity, relative to the earth, is needed.

Kindly describe the device such as a Rocket that man may use to travel at the Linear Velocity of 18.5 miles/second. Is there a device that can carry man into space at that speed
As clarified above, such speeds are not needed to get out of the earth’s gravitational pull; we need only 7 mph or 11.2 kmph. Men have already used such devices to reach the moon (somewhat less than 7 mph is needed to reach the moon). They are planning to use them for manned Mars missions. (Unmanned missions are already on).
What kind of fuel or energy or force that man may use to accelerate himself into space to attain that Speed?
Answered above.
How long and how far man would travel at that Speed?
As needed; no limit except food, supplies and lifetime.
What would happen if man has to decelerate to get back to planet Earth or any other destination?
Nothing would happen to the man. He has to have a rocket or similar device to provide him controlled deceleration (to keep G forces during the deceleration within limits) that will bring him to landing speeds in reasonable time. Before landing any planet, say, you have to match its speed in the solar system. This requires careful planning of the trajectory (including the expected position and velocity of the target planet at landing time) to start with. This is a bit like a circus acrobat jumping from one swing to another.
The problem of speed, acceleration, velocity, direction and duration of motion is not over until you talk about the motion performed by living things ….
The movement of living beings (land, air or water) is well understood.
The living substance called Protoplasm or Cytoplasm….
I am sure there are scientists who can talk to you about this.

Dr PVS Rao

On 31 August 2014 23:15, R.Rudra Narasimham <rebbapragada> wrote:

LOVE IS A FUNDAMENTAL FORCE

Thanks for that kind explanation. I do hope that you are not in a hurry to make an interpretation that is not supported by the information that you have shared. We live in the era of ‘Particle Accelerators’ and people have designed devices to impart acceleration and study the effects.

To state that man can travel at any speed may not stand the test of verification. There is no device that can accelerate man to make him travel at the speed of light. Light consists of pockets of energy called photons which can race through space at that amazing speed. Man needs Light and its energy but man’s structural and functional organization is described by molecules and man does not exist if he is transformed into particles and be given the acceleration. It is inconsistent or the statement that suggests that speed has no effect on man is flawed.

The Linear Velocity of Earth is 66,660 miles/hour, or 107278.87km/hour, or 18.5 miles/second with a slight variation due to Earth’s elliptical orbit. This Velocity is apparently greater than the Escape Velocity that you have mentioned. Kindly describe the device such as a Rocket that man may use to travel at the Linear Velocity of 18.5 miles/second. Is there a device that can carry man into space at that speed? What kind of fuel or energy or force that man may use to accelerate himself into space to attain that Speed? How long and how far man would travel at that Speed? What would happen if man has to decelerate to get back to planet Earth or any other destination?

The Force of Gravitation can account for Earth’s Linear Velocity and elliptical orbit. The problem is about accounting for Earth’s rotational spin around its own axis. The Force of Gravitation cannot account for this Angular Speed. Each celestial object that is explored by man and is observed by man shows a rotational spin and a spin with its own characteristics apart from the rate of spin or speed. You cannot name two celestial objects of this vast universe with “identical” rotational speeds and inclination of the axis for that rotation. To say that the Force of Gravitation is acting in a mechanistic manner will not account for this observed variation in the behavior of celestial objects.

The problem of speed, acceleration, velocity, direction and duration of motion is not over until you talk about the motion performed by living things in the physical universe where all interactions are accounted by the Four Fundamental Interactions. The living substance called Protoplasm or Cytoplasm shows its own characteristic motion called ‘Amoeboid’, and Cytoplasmic Streaming that can be easily observed. What are the Laws that govern this motion exhibited by the living things? What are the Fundamental Interactions that determine this motion or movement? How to explain the change in direction of movement of living things?

In my native language of Telugu, a proverb recommends that it is better to drink water while standing rather than drinking milk while running. Man can run but there is no place that he can hide. If man is saved, he is saved by the Fundamental Force called ‘LOVE’ and it can be observed in behavioral characteristics such as Krupa, Daya, Prema, Vatsalya, Maryada, or Mercy, Grace, Compassion. These are often grouped together as ‘PROVIDENCE’.

Rudranarasimham Rebbapragada
Ann Arbor, MI 48104-4162, USA
SPECIALFRONTIERFORCE.ESTABLISHMENT22

On 30 August 2014 21:24, R.Rudra Narasimham <rebbapragada> wrote:

GOD IS ONE INFINITE SUBSTANCE:

Baruch(Benedict) Spinoza(1632-77), Dutch philosopher taught there is but one infinite substance, God or Nature having infinite attributes of which only thought and extension are knowable. He was excommunicated from Jewish community. He held that mind and body as merely different aspects of a single substance. He defined God as Nature in its fullness.

Whatever may be the problems of religion, and whatever other people choose to do is not the purpose of our discussion. The purpose of Science is to describe and codify observations and experiences. Natural Sciences provide accepted body of information about the world and human body. We need to arrange this information into a meaningful pattern and interpret it to describe the reality or truth about man. We need to apply a reasoning process which involves analysis of basic concepts to determine their consistency.

In modern science, the investigator looks at problems in a very narrow, and specific field, we are gathering enormous amounts of information which has no meaningful pattern and is not easy to interpret. We may study human physiology for the duration of our entire lifespan and yet we may not know as to how the body performs all the functions it performs. While scientific study is useful, it may not entirely solve the problem unless the information coming from different directions is reviewed and is rearranged for proper interpretation. When I interpret information provided by Biology, I describe man as a Spiritual being for man has the substance that has the spiritual attribute that promotes cooperation, tolerance, altruism, and functional subservience. Even a cruel or wicked person exists in the world because of the spiritual nature of his substance that makes his cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems to serve him and provide him a benefit. If the world is full of crooks, Science cannot solve the problem. The body refuses to learn from Science Journals. The body has the fundamental nature and it cannot be changed by exposure to scientific information. Human nature and human behavior are not equivalent terms. Behavior refers to actions performed in the external world due to stimuli in the environment. My ability to be wicked or cruel still demands that the cells, tissues, and organs of the body have to act together in a harmonious manner. I will be able to get the insight about my body and its nature if I reflect on its ability to perform functions without any assistance from Science or Scientific experience. If I am not alienated or estranged from my body’s true nature, I will be able to easily reflect that nature in my actions and behavior. A wicked or cruel man cannot change his actions and behavior by reading Science Journals. It is very likely, it is very reasonable to suggest that a wicked or cruel man may change his behavior if he reflects inwards and tries to know the nature of his own body and its abilities to perform actions to keep him alive. In Indian tradition, this internal reflection is called Adhyatma Vidya or Self-Knowledge. There is no speculation here. I am not quoting religious scriptures. I am not asking you to give me flowers or fruits. I am asking for no money or favors. I am saying that you cannot change human actions and behavior by promoting the study of Science Journals. To begin with, Science cannot deal with that problem.

Rudranarasimham Rebbapragada
Ann Arbor, MI 48104-4162, USA

SPECIALFRONTIERFORCE.ESTABLISHMENT22

On Saturday, August 30, 2014 3:09 PM, Srinivasa Rao Kankipati  wrote:

What must be left as subject matters for serious investigation by science are often taken up for furious speculation by religion. That is why so many charlatans thrive in religion. With due respect, it must be noted that 99% of the masses are afraid of logic and commonsense and are content with untrue beliefs. They also have money and influence and the gift of the gab.

On 28 August 2014 10:05, R.Rudra Narasimham <rebbapragada> wrote:

WholeDude – WholeDesigner – Whole Perspectivism

Perspective is stated as the relationship or proportion of the parts of a ‘Whole’ regarded from a particular standpoint or point in time. In knowing things, we need to know the true relationship of the parts to one another. We can have an “all-inclusive” perspective about Illusion but not an “all-inclusive” perspective on Truth and Reality for human existence demands both Illusion and Reality. We have the ability to investigate and explore the problem of Truth and Reality for we maintain our existence because of the influence called illusion. While publishing in Science Journals gives many people the opportunity to earn income, fame, and livelihood, the living cells perform complex, sequential, guided functions without knowing what may be published in those Science Journals.

Rudranarasimham Rebbapragada
Ann Arbor, MI 48104-4162, USA

SPECIALFRONTIERFORCE.ESTABLISHMENT22

On Thursday, August 28, 2014 5:24 AM, Dr. PVS Rao  wrote:

Since the topic has come up, it may be in place to mention the process involved in publishing a paper in a scientific journal.
In the first place, the paper is written in a structured format (abstract, introduction, … experimental results, discussion, conclusion, references etc.
The editor, after receiving the paper, sends it to three or more referees/reviewers who are experts in the field/subfield with established accomplishments, reputation and ability, and who are chosen depending on the subject that the paper is concerned with. The referees then carefully read and review the paper and give recommendations: accept, accept with suggested modifications without another review, paper to be modified as suggested and to be reviewed again, or reject straight way. In some cases, a paper may go through multiple cycles (3-4 modifications and review) and still get rejected at the end.
Reviewers are generally very meticulous, thorough and tough and take the responsibility very seriously. (There is no payment).
The review process follows a single (or double) blind system, where the author is not told who the reviewers are (and vice versa).
This process can take even up to two years or more and ensures to the maximum extent possible that the review process is rigorous, objective and that the papers published are of the highest quality. In view of this delay in publication, journals publish the date of receipt of the original paper and the final; revised paper so that issues regarding precedence and originality of the work are clear.
Researchers advance in their careers depending on the number and quality of publications and the reputation of the journals in which their papers are published.

Prof PVS Rao

On 26 August 2014 05:19, R.Rudra Narasimham <rebbapragada> wrote:

Indeed a great composition. In a way, you sum up the ideas shared by Blaise Pascal(1623-62), French scientist, mathematician, and religious philosopher who founded the modern Theory of Probability and discovered the Pascal’s Laws in Physics(Hydraulics):
“Man is infinitely removed from comprehending the extremes; the end of things and their beginning are hopelessly hidden from him in an impenetrable secret; he is equally incapable of seeing the Nothing from which he was made, and the Infinite in which he swallowed up.”
For that reason, I would just prefer to talk about existence, the thing in a condition called being.

Rudranarasimham Rebbapragada
Ann Arbor, MI 48104-4162, USA
SPECIALFRONTIERFORCE.ESTABLISHMENT22

On Monday, August 25, 2014 6:30 PM, Srinivasa Rao Kankipati  wrote:

Dear Rudra Narasimham, If you think that your blog has more readers than scientific journals, it is great news. All the same, please do publish your discoveries in some reputed scientific journals, by first removing all sarcasm in your writings and then giving too many unjustified references to medicine, where you would like to be known as an expert.

On 17 August 2014 21:23, R.Rudra Narasimham <rebbapragada> wrote:

THE SCIENCE OF CONSCIOUSNESS

Thanks for your very kind response and suggestion about publishing my blog posts. The blog is published using World Wide Web and hopefully reaches a wider audience than those published in Science journals. I welcome you and all others to respond to the views shared by me and the readers of my blog posts would really appreciate your effort. I have already shared your view in my recent blog post and kindly feel free to defend your statements and respond to my view that I shared. I am particularly happy to read about your concern about Science and for you may not be able to accept my interpretations of basic information provided by Science, you must speak to your friends or check reference materials or search on the Internet.

To understand the effects of Speed on human body, you may have to seek some understanding of Aviation Medicine. There are recognized medical hazards in Aviation due to acceleration, deceleration, centrifugal force and you may have to know the terms like ‘jolt’ which indicates the force with which acceleration develops and is expressed as ‘Gs’ per second. Weight is the force with which a mass of body is pulled by the gravitational force of the Earth. Under 3G conditions, the same body will weigh 3 times its original weight. During the deceleration phase, pilot and crew of a bomber jet may lose vision and experience ‘black out.’ You may speak to a fighter jet pilot and can experience the effects by using a training module. You may want to read about ‘VERTIGO’, a medical condition in which the person has a subjective feeling of movement of the external environment or of the head. It may come suddenly and could be severe and very distressing. If you experience ‘VERTIGO’, you will immediately thank God for His Mercy, Grace, and Compassion in giving you a life without the distress caused by Vertigo while the Earth is moving at a speed that is beyond all human imagination. You cannot imagine, or dream about the Speed of Earth.

People on earth’s surface experience the effects of speed during travel and due to changes in atmospheric conditions. You may want to check the speed of air in F – 5 tornado, and I would assure you that you would lose your consciousness. Some people have set up high-speed records but you lose several mental abilities if you travel at very high-speed. The ‘escape velocity’ at the surface of the Earth is about 6.95 miles per second. Whereas, I am describing the speed of Earth as about 1,000 miles per hour and a linear speed of about 66, 660 miles/hour for Earth travels 584 million miles to complete its orbit around the Sun. Are you kidding me? Are you saying that you can experience the speed of Earth by sitting in a rocket? What are you trying to say? You are trying to make an argument simply to support a view that is not established upon valid, scientific information. I am not concerned about your experience with some Swamy or Baba. I am neither a Swamy nor a Baba. I am not expecting “Pada Puja.” I am not preaching the Gospel or Scripture, or Gita. I am simply asking you to account for the fact of your physical existence on the surface of a fast, spinning object. If you say, gravity, I would like to know as to how the Fundamental Force called Gravitation has made a decision to keep you conscious without giving you the chance to know the basic realities of Earth’s motions? What happens, if you have to live on the surface of Venus? If you answer me, I will refund you the Ten or Ten Thousand bucks you lost paying the Swami in Allahabad.

THE SCIENCE OF CONSCIOUSNESS

Rudranarasimham Rebbapragada
Ann Arbor, MI 48104-4162, USA
SPECIALFRONTIERFORCE.ESTABLISHMENT22

On Sunday, August 17, 2014 11:28 AM, Srinivasa Rao Kankipati  wrote:

What is meant by your last sentence? We have no mental experience of the speed of earth, because we move with the earth and our surroundings including air also move with the earth with the same speed. To have mental experience of the speed of earth, we have to attain a different velocity. ( I hope our knowledge of physics is sound enough to let us know that when speed, direction of movement or both are different, then the velocity is different). This is achieved when we go at a high enough speed in a rocket. So we can understand the reality of human existence when we are inside a rocket? This is a new discovery and should be published not in a private blog but in a scientific journal.

On 16 August 2014 21:47, R.Rudra Narasimham <rebbapragada> wrote:

SPIRITUALISM-THE THEORY OF CONSCIOUSNESS:

In the past, we have discussed the subject of ‘consciousness’ several times. It surprises to note that none of you have the time to talk about ‘consciousness’ to a doctor and ascertain as to how the doctor makes a determination about the level of consciousness. Some of you seem to be related to scientists and yet not able to quote or share any view or opinion of a person that you may believe to be credible.

Consciousness has to important aspects; 1. The Seat or the Capacity of Consciousness, and 2. The Contents of Consciousness. Most of us have the general experience of the Contents of Consciousness which must be correctly described as ‘Cortical Awareness’. The Seat or the Capacity of Consciousness is in the Brain Stem and is described as the Reticular Formation. You may have to see the photo images that appear in my blog post and you will be able to distinguish the difference between Cerebral Cortex and the Reticular Formation. You can also easily find information on Internet if you Google those terms. The person who is fully awake, or fully conscious because of the Reticular Formation which actively screens all information and relays information to the areas of Cerebral Cortex where the information is revealed as Cortical Awareness. Since the Brain Stem controls all the major functions including the state of Arousal and Sleep, it relays information selectively as needed. Thereby, it really helps us to live normal lives by protecting the Cerebral Cortex from receiving unnecessary information. In all states, fully awake, sleep, and dream, the Brain Stem is alert and keeps functioning until death intervenes. Several major organs continue to function at varying rates during all the days of life. For purposes of reference, from the moment called conception, there is consciousness and awareness. It never stops its functions. The electrical activity recorded is useful for certain types of neurological evaluations. I can easily determine if a person could be Brain Stem dead by clinical examination. I had certified death on numerous occasions without any assistance from a Neurosurgeon and no EEG recordings are needed. A person who is brain-dead is deeply unconscious and the Brain Stem reflexes will be absent. You should not be surprised if people give detailed account of their dreams.
I address the issue of Illusion and Reality from a different perspective. It is incorrect to call ‘Rainbow’ an illusion. I am sorry to state it; you need to learn basic Physics and understand the properties of Light. I can see the Rainbow, and I can describe the Colors and I can explain the mechanism involved. If God made a ‘Rainbow Covenant’; it cannot be refuted by claiming that Rainbow is an Illusion. It is time to learn Physics before talking about God, Covenant, and etc., The fundamental Illusion is about the Linear and Angular Speed of Earth. We live on the surface of Earth and we have no choice other than that of participating in those motions. Fortunately, our existence is defended as the Force of Gravitation imposes an Illusion that man cannot overcome. We can read and learn from books and we can measure the speed of Earth, but we have no mental experience of the Speed of Earth. Without this Illusion, the Reality of Human Existence cannot be established.

SPIRITUALISM-THE THEORY OF CONSCIOUSNESS

Rudranarasimham Rebbapragada
Ann Arbor, MI 48104-4162, USA

SPECIALFRONTIERFORCE.ESTABLISHMENT22

On Saturday, August 16, 2014 9:01 PM, Srinivasa Rao Kankipati  wrote:

Mr Xavier William suggests that there should be some commonality of experiences. Dr Ramarao feels there is some kind of continuity in wakeful state and dream state. I agree with both.
In both these states, there is the same you, with the same body and the same mind. In the awake state, the mind is influenced by the information brought to it by the sensory organs, together with the effect of the stock of past experience stored in the mind. In sleep, there is no conscious impact of sensory experiences. But it can be seen that the mind is at work though no impressions need be made on the memory mechanism for purposes of recall later.
But if the mind dreams, and if the dream is vivid, some recollection can be usually made on waking up, even though not every minute detail can be recalled in absolute clarity. The very fact that some issues contemplated deeply during the day are automatically solved (not always, but in quite a few cases) in the night shows that the mind is at work and does not go to sleep.
If we are similarly not able to recollect during a dream the incidents of the day, it goes to show that the recall function of the mind is weak during a dream. Our ability to recall dream details with some clarity in the day goes to show that during our awake state, the recalling capability of the mind is strong.
I therefore find it difficult to agree with Dr Ramesam garu that there is a dreamer-you and there is a waker-you and that these are mutually exclusive. There is only one you, with one body and one mind.
But we can say that dreamer-you is different from waker-you if we are talking of dreamer-you of one person A and waker-you of another person B.
Another notable feature is that among all waking persons, there is reasonable commonality of experience as regards events, as per Mr Xavier’s precondition. But if you take a survey of all people who have gone to sleep and have dreamt, there is no commonality of experience. All you can collect is a heap of narrations of disjointed and disconnected and stray personal experiences which have nothing in common. Often each person regards his dream as a divine revelation specially granted to him.
Apart from the dream state, there are other states: (1) the inebriated state, (2) the lunatic state, (3) the post-anesthesia state, and so on. In the fully wakeful state that follows, the person concerned is able to call to mind some details, even if not in great clarity. For that matter, we are often unable to recall with dazzling brightness some incidents which have taken place during our full consciousness.

http://Opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2014/08/03/What-Would-Krishna-Do-Or-Shiva-Or-Vishnu/?

 

THE THREE FORMS OF GOD – CREATOR – MAINTAINER – DESTROYER

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SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE – THE THREE FORMS OF GOD:

SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE - THE THREE FORMS OF GOD: IF MAN IS THE INVESTIGATOR SEARCHING TO FIND GOD, IT IS MOST LIKELY FOR MAN TO DISCOVER GOD IN MORE THAN ONE FORM. INDIAN TRADITION DESCRIBES THREE FORMS OF GOD WHILE DESCRIBING GOD AS THE ULTIMATE REALITY OR ABSOLUTE TRUTH.
SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE – THE THREE FORMS OF GOD: IF MAN IS THE INVESTIGATOR SEARCHING TO FIND GOD, IT IS MOST LIKELY FOR MAN TO DISCOVER GOD IN MORE THAN ONE FORM. INDIAN TRADITION DESCRIBES THREE FORMS OF GOD WHILE DESCRIBING GOD AS THE ULTIMATE REALITY OR ABSOLUTE TRUTH.

Firstly, I want to express my thanks to Dr. K. Srinivasa Rao for sharing his view about the three forms of God in writing. In India, I grew up in a traditional family and a tradition that I still respect is that of not talking back to my elders. When elders speak, I just listen and I refrain and restrain myself from expressing any urge to respond to the view openly stated. Indian tradition is based upon respect and obedience. A person is considered to be stiff-necked, arrogant, or disobedient if he speaks to contradict the statement of an elder. However, the tradition has not stated that I may not refute an argument if the argument is submitted in writing. A view which is presented in writing can be rejected by using a written statement. To that extent, I respectfully seek the permission of Dr. K. Srinivasa Rao to reject his argument about the existence of God for it is based on information that cannot be verified. A thing is said to be true if it has correspondence with an external reality. Science uses a verification principle to make valid claims and if a thing is said to be true, Science asks as to why it could be true. However, there are problems in any discussion if the terms used in the conversation have no defined meanings. If the reality of the universe has to be discussed on the basis of three orders such as 1. God, 2. Man, and 3. Matter, disagreements surface immediately as there is no agreed definition of any of these terms. We should not be surprised to note that three Indian scholars such as Shankara, Ramanuja, and Madhva have shared three different opinions after reading the same books such as the Vedas, the Upanishads, the Bhagavad Gita, and other related texts. Firstly, I must remind all of you that there is no general agreement among scientists in defining the commonly used terms like man, life, and existence.

SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE - THREE FORMS OF GOD: MAN CANNOT COMMUNICATE HIS THOUGHTS AND CANNOT EXPRESS HIS FEELINGS ABOUT THE EXISTENCE OF GOD IF THE DIVINE ATTRIBUTE CALLED HUMAN LANGUAGE IS NOT PRESENT. TO SPEAK ABOUT THREE FORMS OF GOD, I MUST FIRST PAY MY RESPECTFUL TRIBUTES TO GODDESS SARASVATI, THE GODDESS OF SPEECH(VAK), PURE KNOWLEDGE, AND PERFECT WISDOM.
SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE – THREE FORMS OF GOD: MAN CANNOT COMMUNICATE HIS THOUGHTS AND CANNOT EXPRESS HIS FEELINGS ABOUT THE EXISTENCE OF GOD IF THE DIVINE ATTRIBUTE CALLED HUMAN LANGUAGE IS NOT PRESENT. TO SPEAK ABOUT THREE FORMS OF GOD, I MUST FIRST PAY MY RESPECTFUL TRIBUTES TO GODDESS SARASVATI, THE GODDESS OF SPEECH(VAK), PURE KNOWLEDGE, AND PERFECT WISDOM.

If the term human species is correctly defined, we will be able to identify man correctly. In my view, man has arrived on planet Earth about 10,000 years ago while Earth has a long, proven history of its natural existence. To that extent, all human languages are of recent origin and no language could be older than 6,000 years. In the practice of Medicine, we recognize three aspects of Human Speech function; 1.Written Speech, 2. Vocalized Speech, and 3. Reading. The function called Speech may also be helped by the sensory perception called hearing. To establish the identity of the Human Species(Homo sapiens sapiens), I depend upon identifying the ability to perform the Speech function in all its aspects. It could be true to claim that some members of the Human Species may not be able to read, write, or communicate using a human language. But, by simple physical, and medical examination of any human individual, I can easily establish that the individual has the potential ability to speak, read, and write. The origin or the Beginning of Human Speech is a creative event. All of us use the same anatomical structures, use the same neuro-physiological mechanisms, and yet we developed a variety of human languages and it makes communication a big challenge if not impossible. The Biblical story of The Tower of Babel tells as to how this confusion of languages was caused by the Creator. What I can easily verify and prove is the fact of the creative use of a mechanism to generate variety that could be aesthetically gratifying. If not proving the existence of a Creator, we have to still explain the creative process and the creative mechanism that is involved in the origin of Human Language and Speech.

THE CREATOR GOD – LORD BRAHMA – THE UNCERTAIN “GOD”:

SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE - THREE FORMS OF GOD: THE CREATOR GOD. IN INDIAN TRADITION, LORD BRAHMA IS THE CREATOR, THE CREATOR OF THE PHYSICAL UNIVERSE AND THE LIVING FORMS. EVERY OBJECT IN THE CREATED UNIVERSE CAN ONLY EXIST AS AN ORIGINAL OBJECT AND HAS NO CHOICE OF ITS OWN.
SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE – THREE FORMS OF GOD: THE CREATOR GOD. IN INDIAN TRADITION, LORD BRAHMA IS THE CREATOR, THE CREATOR OF THE PHYSICAL UNIVERSE AND THE LIVING FORMS. EVERY OBJECT IN THE CREATED UNIVERSE CAN ONLY EXIST AS AN ORIGINAL OBJECT AND HAS NO CHOICE OF ITS OWN.

Each living thing, including man exists in this world as an original, one of its own kind, distinctive, unique object that can be known as a specific individual using the current scientific identification technology. A colony of cloned bacteria with the same genome can be proved to be a mob of Individuals. No living thing has a choice about its nature of existence as an Individual with Individuality. Man cannot create two identical living things using the current reproductive technologies such as cloning. There could be a barrier between man and the Creator but there are no barriers to the creative process called The Law of Generation and Propagation. We cannot generate and propagate any living species without causing the creation of their Individuality. There is no uncertainty about a Creative Process, or Creative Principle that could be causing a Creative Beginning. Science has no power to overcome the Creative Principle that is operating the creation of living things. Man can create objects using mechanical principles and the process cannot be called ‘Natural Creation.’ If Science is concerned with Nature, Natural Science explains that all objects exist as created objects. In this vast universe to the extent man has explored and verified, planet Earth exists as an original object, one of its own kind. We have not yet discovered a second celestial object that can be known as Earth.

THE MAINTAINER GOD – LORD VISHNU – “THE UNAVAILABLE GOD”:

SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE - THREE FORMS OF GOD: THE MAINTAINER GOD. IN INDIAN TRADITION, LORD MAHA VISHNU IS THE MAINTAINER, THE SUSTAINER, AND THE PRESERVER OF THE CREATED BEINGS. ALL LIVING THINGS LIVE BY PERFORMING LIVING FUNCTIONS AND THE MOST IMPORTANT IS CALLED METABOLISM, THE MAKING, THE BREAKING, AND THE REPAIRING OF THE NUMEROUS BIOMOLECULES OF LIFE. MAN, WHO IS CONSTITUTED BY TRILLIONS OF INDEPENDENT LIVING CELLS HAS NO CORTICAL AWARENESS OF THESE MAINTENANCE ACTIVITIES.
SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE – THREE FORMS OF GOD: THE MAINTAINER GOD. IN INDIAN TRADITION, LORD MAHA VISHNU IS THE MAINTAINER, THE SUSTAINER, AND THE PRESERVER OF THE CREATED BEINGS. ALL LIVING THINGS LIVE BY PERFORMING LIVING FUNCTIONS AND THE MOST IMPORTANT IS CALLED METABOLISM, THE MAKING, THE BREAKING, AND THE REPAIRING OF THE NUMEROUS BIOMOLECULES OF LIFE. MAN, WHO IS CONSTITUTED BY TRILLIONS OF INDEPENDENT LIVING CELLS HAS NO CORTICAL AWARENESS OF THESE MAINTENANCE ACTIVITIES.

It must be properly understood that man cannot account for his own existence. In Nature, man does not exist on account of his physical, or mental work. In Nature, all living things depend upon an external source of matter and energy to establish the fact of their physical existence. The term ‘Life’ is the description of the living functions performed by things that possess Life. In Science, the term ‘Metabolism’ is used to describe as to how living things maintain their life by constantly making, repairing, and breaking a variety of molecules. There is no ‘LIFE’ if the function called ‘Maintenance or Metabolism’ is observed. The Knowledge to perform this living function called ‘Metabolism’ is not acquired from learning or experience. It is the most creative mechanism to transfer matter and energy from the nonliving to the living. This constant, cyclical movement of matter and energy in Nature can be easily observed and verified. The entire mechanism of Photosynthesis is scientifically verified and we can see the flow of Carbon molecules through both living and nonliving things. What we consume as food to maintain our daily existence is created on a daily basis. Plants do not buy sugars from the grocery stores. Each and every time, plants create new biomolecules that animals and man consume. We cannot refute the existence of this creative Maintenance Mechanism while we are uncertain about the Maintainer God. In the practice of Medicine which involves dealing with human pain, suffering, and misery, it can be observed that people have different levels of pain tolerance, pain resistance, stress tolerance, and stress resistance. Patients who tend to believe in a Maintainer God tend to tolerate pain better and cope with stress better and derive a sense of peace, harmony, and tranquility while facing challenges to their mortal existence. The concept of VISHNU as a Maintainer is about this living condition called Peace, Harmony, and Tranquility. For I observe the process of aging, maturity, and natural death, I can easily know that some people make the transition from Life to Death with a sense of Peace, Calm and Dignity. The Savior saves the human sense of Self-Respect, and Dignity even if the fact of death cannot be avoided.

THE DESTROYER GOD – LORD SHIVA – “THE UNNECESSARY GOD”:

SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE - THREE FORMS OF GOD: THE DESTROYER GOD. IN INDIAN TRADITION LORD SHIVA OR LORD MAHADEVA IS THE GOD OF DISSOLUTION. LIFE CANNOT EXIST WITHOUT THE OPERATION OF ORGANIC DECAY, DECOMPOSITION, AND DISSOLUTION OF COMPLEX FORMS INTO THEIR CONSTITUENT SIMPLER MOLECULES. GOD INSTITUTED THE MECHANISM OF DEATH TO CREATE LIFE USING THE LAW OF GENERATION AND PROPAGATION.
SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE – THREE FORMS OF GOD: THE DESTROYER GOD. IN INDIAN TRADITION LORD SHIVA OR LORD MAHADEVA IS THE GOD OF DISSOLUTION. LIFE CANNOT EXIST WITHOUT THE OPERATION OF ORGANIC DECAY, DECOMPOSITION, AND DISSOLUTION OF COMPLEX FORMS INTO THEIR CONSTITUENT SIMPLER MOLECULES. GOD INSTITUTED THE MECHANISM OF DEATH TO CREATE LIFE USING THE LAW OF GENERATION AND PROPAGATION.

Most people who know the Science about Human Growth and Development or Embryology understand the role of programmed cellular death events for the embryo and fetus to develop into a baby. The baby gets its existence from a Single, Fertilized Egg Cell called Zygote. This Cell divides, multiplies, differentiates to develop into a baby that we can easily recognize. This creative process demands the death of some of the newly born cells as per a predetermined program. Apart from external features like nose, ears, and lips, every organ has to grow to attain a specific size, shape, and defined features and this is accomplished by dissolution of life. Death and dissolution are not unnecessary and the reality is, there is no Life if the intervention called Death is not operating in Nature. Every living thing lives because of the fact of dying and death. We cannot establish the Physical Reality called Life without using the Principle of Dissolution and Death. In the cyclical flow of molecules like Carbon, Phosphorus and others in Nature, the creative mechanism of Death and Dissolution provides the driving force.

To account for human existence we need, 1. A Father Principle, the Originating Principle, the Sperm Cell, 2. A Mother Principle, the Provider Principle, the Egg Cell, the source of maternal cytoplasm, the provider of energy or mitochondria that the Cell uses to create Chemical Energy using Oxidative-Reduction Chemical Reactions, 3. The Creative Principle to get birth as an Individual with Individuality, 4. The Maintainer Principle to sustain Life using creative mechanisms to acquire matter and energy, and 5. The Destroyer Principle to get Life using the organic process of death, decay, and dissolution.

Rudra N Rebbapragada
Ann Arbor, MI 48104-4162, USA
SPECIALFRONTIERFORCE.ESTABLISHMENT22

SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE – THE HUMAN SPECIES

On Wednesday, August 13, 2014 5:13 PM, Srinivasa Rao Kankipati wrote:

Religion is an effort to explain Nature, not to explain God. In their attempt to explain Nature, with the help of the abilities possessed by them and the means at their disposal, early men posited God as the Originator, Maintainer and Destroyer of the universe.

They postulated that a God sitting outside the universe must have created the universe. To be fair to them, we cannot refute their postulate.
Man is a recent product in the universe. The date of birth is the universe goes back to billions of years. But the date of birth of modern man or even his primate ancestors is only some millions of years ago at most.
By the time man appeared on the scene, the universe was quite a developed affair. So man, in his early stage of his existence on this planet, had nothing but awe at the wonder of the universe and it was quite natural for him to attribute everything in the universe as the handiwork of an all-powerful Almighty. In fact, any other approach would have been preposterous and out of the intellectual grasp of contemporary men in general.
The great characteristic feature of the universe is that man, though part of nature, is endowed by the very same nature with some remarkable abilities. These abilities came in the form of a thinking mind, with its fantastic attributes of unusual memory power, unending inquisitiveness and urge to explore, and unbounded imagination. Not only so, man’s evolution through the millions of years of his existence has been vastly superior and faster than that of the surrounding nature itself.
So while in the early stages man with his limited abilities was looking at nature which was in an advanced and an almost completed stage, at his later stages a highly evolved man started looking at nature which was not much different from what it was at the beginning of his exploration.
But at the same time we cannot support his primitive hypotheses either. A little reflection would suggest that we are like an insect in an inflated opaque balloon: just as the insect cannot know anything existing outside the balloon, so also we do not know anything existing outside the universe.
Another view entertained by man in his early analysis of nature was that God is immanent in the universe and that He is manifesting himself as the universe, underlying every part of His creation, that He, the real One, has apparently become the Many. Let us call this the “OM” principle.
This explanation can be a more plausible one. It tries to unify all creation and to remove the feeling of difference and separateness between being and being. It even seeks to remove any difference between a being and a nonliving thing. This makes for harmony among all religions and peace among people. In fact, it is one of the grandest ideas of man. It compels our admiration for its simplicity and reach.
If only practiced by all men, the OM principle would have eliminated all ill-feeling and friction caused by religions which came into existence by and by. Religions, though advocating one God, also advocated that their own God is different from the God of other religions. This lead the blind followers of the prophets concerned to reject the generality of human beings and practice the killing of the followers of other prophets. They have the worst fanaticism and believe that their own God would be pleased if people not converted to their belief were eliminated. Never mind that reason tells that they are also children of the same God. They had to be labelled as the children of some other God if not of some Devil and had to be exterminated.
Philosophers are not sure whether the universe was created by any God at all or whether it has come into existence by the operation of some law without the intervention of an outside agency. However they give the benefit of doubt to the proponents of the existence of a Creator God, or Brahma in Hindu terminology. Many thinking men have stated that this issue can never be settled and have been candid enough neither to assert God’s existence nor to deny it. They have adopted agnosticism as their belief. They keep the question of the presence of God in abeyance or a state of suspense. But they have not adopted atheism as such as this means denial of God without proof. Until solid evidence of God as the creator of the universe is available, we cannot also assert such a God’s existence. Thus at the present stage we are left with only a neutral stand.
So, the Creator God, or Brahma, is an Uncertain God.
As regards the God who is supposed to be maintaining the universe answering the prayers of people who are in trouble or generally doing good to all, a moment’s analysis will lead us to doubt the existence of such a Maintainer God. The Creator God made laws for the behavior of the universe, or the universe itself by some strange mechanism is subject to specific laws of behavior on its own, without intervention from any superior force. While the laws may be only a few, the reacting agents subject to those laws are far too many and that is why we are not able to predict the exact course of events. Sometimes the consequences are favourable to us and sometimes not. Religionists have classified the former as the result of God as answering our prayers. They have stated that unfavourable occurrences as the result of our own bad actions, or our “prarabda.” When there is no clear reason as to why certain bad things happen to us despite our not doing anything deserving the bad things, the theory of previous birth is propounded and we are told that we are reaping the consequences of bad “karma” performed by us in a previous birth, though it is not possible to pinpoint exactly in which one of the many previous births. But if we sincerely accept the fact of the existence of so much evil in the world created by a merciful God, we can come to the conclusion that the evil is not the result of anything bad done by anyone, but just the result of interaction of various agents obeying the underlying laws. The result appears to be good or bad according to our own thinking. Good is not created by a merciful God or evil by a sinful man. Nor is the so-called evil the creation of any unkind God. In other words, there is no Maintainer God, or Vishnu in Hindu terminology, and there is no God at all to interfere with the workings of the Law of Causation at the behest of men or on His own.
Many others pray to God for fear that in case they do not pray, God may take some disciplinary action against them. It is fear of reprisal by God which motivates their prayers.
The vast majority of men and women pray to God for favours. They want this and that. They think that only God can easily furnish them what they want. They believe that prayer is the best means available, along with propitiating Him with offer of acts and substances which He is supposed to like. Since God has never furnished anyone with a list of His most-liked items, the earnest devotees think that what pleases them also pleases God. Alas, they also offer animals and other men at the sacrificial altar to win His conferments. As someone said though, our unanswered prayers are our best blessings.
Most people also pray to God for removal of their troubles, even though objective analysis of facts suggests that God does not interfere in the operation of the laws underlying the behavior of the universe, even though it is supposed by some that those laws were set in motion by Him.
But the vast majority of people pray with an eye on publicity. Each such devotee would like to see some persons watching him praying and then telling others how pious he has been. If nobody noticed his prayers, he would feel bitter that his prayer has gone waste. This is the reason for most people to pray in congregations, in churches, mosques and temples, instead of in their own prayer room at home, in solitude and managing not to be found out.

So, a Maintainer God, or Vishnu, is an Unavailable God, if He exists at all, being unable to come to the rescue of any being in the universe.
Let us now come to the Destroyer God, or Shiva in Hindu terminology, who is supposed to destroy the universe at the end.
But is it necessary for any God to undertake this work? Do not things in the universe which come into existence also automatically go out of existence as a matter of natural phenomenon? The adage “Jaatasya Maranam Dhruvam” applies to all beings without an exception and to non-living things, , does it not? The Laws in force in the universe only apply to the interaction of things in the universe, but not to ensure the permanence of those things.
The universe itself may not last forever, because it had a birth, a beginning. “Jatasya Maranam Dhruvam” ensures its end in due course. Everything will collapse eventually, and no God is necessary to undertake or supervise the destruction. Impermanence is the permanent characteristic of everything under the Sun and above the Sun.
So, the Destroyer God, or Shiva, is an Unnecessary God, if He exists at all, with no work to do.
We have thus a troika of three major Gods, the Uncertain One, the Unavailable One and the Unnecessary One.
What then is the fate of the thousands of minor Gods, said to be in charge of various portfolios in the universe? I don’t know about the innate immortality of these Gods, but their zealous and jealous “party workers” wont allow them to die.
Mankind can certainly afford to forget God for some centuries, let Him rest in His heaven during that period, and look for practical solutions for the problems afflicting mankind. Men will be none-the-worse for it, except self-appointed divine brokers such as priests and pastorabbimams who will suffer a lack of business. If this fails, we can always go to sleep ourselves after waking up the sleeping God to solve all the problems inherent in nature and those deliberately created by men to torment each other.
Srinivasa Rao, camp Fremont, California, Aug 08, 2014.

On 10 August 2014 19:48, Xavier William wrote:

Occam’s razor (also written as Ockham’s razor and in Latin lex parsimoniae) is a principle of parsimony, economy, or succinctness used in problem-solving devised by William of Ockham (c. 1287–1347). It states that among competing hypotheses, the one with the fewest assumptions should be selected. Other, more complicated solutions may ultimately prove correct, but—in the absence of certainty—the fewer assumptions that are made, the better. (See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Occam%27s_razor for more)

On 10 August 2014 10:36, Ramesam Vemuri wrote:

A well written comprehensive bird’s-eye view of Hinduism without distortions and accurate in presentation:

http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2014/08/03/what-would-krishna-do-or-shiva-or-vishnu/?_php=true&_type=blogs&_php=true&_type=blogs&_php=true&_type=blogs&_r=2&

WHOLE SPIRITUALITY – WHOLE ORIGIN

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SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE – THE ORIGIN OF HUMAN SPECIES:

The appearance of the Human Species about 8,000 to 10,000 years ago cannot be explained as a natural event and it cannot be accounted for by The Law of Natural Generation. There are two important principles involved; 1. The Biogenetic Law which stipulates that living organisms are generated only by living organisms, and 2. The Law of Natural Generation that states that offspring will always be of the same Species as the parent Species. In my view, the Origin of Human Species as a new form of life cannot be explained by the operation of natural causes. At the same time, I would like to respectfully avoid the term “Supernatural”, and would rather prefer to use the term “creative” to explain the Origin of Human Species and account for the Special Form of Man.

THE NATURAL HISTORY OF MAN:

SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE - THE ORIGIN OF HUMAN SPECIES:  The Science called Geology describes the physical nature and history of planet Earth. Pleistocene, First Epoch of the Quaternary Period in the Cenozoic Era, is known as the Period of the Great Ice Age records the appearance of the members of the species that belong to the Homo Genus. Modern Human activity belongs to the Holocene Epoch that began about 10,000 years ago.
SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE – THE ORIGIN OF HUMAN SPECIES: The Science called Geology describes the physical nature and history of planet Earth. Pleistocene, First Epoch of the Quaternary Period in the Cenozoic Era, is known as the Period of the Great Ice Age records the appearance of the members of the species that belong to the Homo Genus. Modern Human activity belongs to the Holocene Epoch that began about 10,000 years ago.

During the Period of the Great Ice Age or Pleistocene, continental glaciers covered much of N. North America, and NW Europe. The Holocene Epoch or Series which started approximately 10,000 years ago began to witness a change in Earth’s surface. The continental glaciers are now restricted to Antarctica and Greenland. It was not a cataclysmic change with consequences for the survival of life. The climatic change has actually helped the development and spread of modern human culture. It is indeed very surprising to note that this improvement in Earth’s surface and climate was accompanied by the extinction of giant mammals and the disappearance of a large variety of the Hominid Species.

SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE - THE ORIGIN OF HUMAN SPECIES: PLEISTOCENE EPOCH IS DIVIDED AS UPPER PLEISTOCENE, MIDDLE PLEISTOCENE, AND LOWER PLEISTOCENE. THE EARLY HOMONID SPECIES SUCH AS THE HOMO ERECTUS ERECTUS OR THE JAVA MAN BELONG TO THE LOWER PLEISTOCENE.
SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE – THE ORIGIN OF HUMAN SPECIES: PLEISTOCENE EPOCH IS DIVIDED AS UPPER PLEISTOCENE, MIDDLE PLEISTOCENE, AND LOWER PLEISTOCENE. THE EARLY HOMONID SPECIES SUCH AS THE HOMO ERECTUS ERECTUS OR THE JAVA MAN BELONG TO THE LOWER PLEISTOCENE.

To trace the Origin of the Human Species, we may take a look at the different Hominid Species and the time periods during which they existed.

SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE - THE ORIGIN OF HUMAN SPECIES: The discovery of this Metacarpal Bone of the Middle Finger at Kaitio site, West Turkana, Kenya, that could be more than 1.42 million years old raised the hope of finding an intermediate link between the Human Species and other Anthropoid Apes.
SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE – THE ORIGIN OF HUMAN SPECIES: The discovery of this Metacarpal Bone of the Middle Finger at Kaitio site, West Turkana, Kenya, that could be more than 1.42 million years old raised the hope of finding an intermediate link between the Human Species and other Anthropoid Apes.
SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE - THE ORIGIN OF HUMAN SPECIES: COMPARATIVE ANATOMY IS USED AS EVIDENCE TO VALIDATE THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION. THIS PHOTO IMAGE OF METACARPAL BONES OF DIFFERENT SPECIES COMPARES THE STYLOID PROCESS AT THE END OF THE BONE THAT CONNECTS TO THE WRIST. THE BONE STRUCTURE IS SIMILAR IN MAN, NEANDERTHALS, AND OTHER ARCHAIC HOMINID SPECIES THAT HAVE GRASPING THUMB AND FINGERS AND GIVE THE FUNCTIONAL ABILITY CALLED THE PRECISION GRIP.
SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE – THE ORIGIN OF HUMAN SPECIES: COMPARATIVE ANATOMY IS USED AS EVIDENCE TO VALIDATE THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION. THIS PHOTO IMAGE OF METACARPAL BONES OF DIFFERENT SPECIES COMPARES THE STYLOID PROCESS AT THE END OF THE BONE THAT CONNECTS TO THE WRIST. THE BONE STRUCTURE IS SIMILAR IN MAN, NEANDERTHALS, AND OTHER ARCHAIC HOMINID SPECIES THAT HAVE GRASPING THUMB AND FINGERS AND GIVE THE FUNCTIONAL ABILITY CALLED THE PRECISION GRIP.

Comparative Anatomy is used by the evolutionary biologists as evidence to prove the origin of a new form of life from a previously existing form of life. However, the Human Species has a special form and the use of Comparative Anatomy may actually demolish the Theory of Evolution.

SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE - THE ORIGIN OF HUMAN SPECIES: HOMO ERECTUS, THE EARLY HOMINID SPECIES DATING FROM 1,500,000 to 300,000 YEARS AGO. THIS IS A REPLICA OF JAVA MAN, PITHECANTHROPUS ERECTUS FROM THE LOWER PLEISTOCENE.
SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE – THE ORIGIN OF HUMAN SPECIES: HOMO ERECTUS, THE EARLY HOMINID SPECIES DATING FROM 1,500,000 to 300,000 YEARS AGO. THIS IS A REPLICA OF JAVA MAN, PITHECANTHROPUS ERECTUS FROM THE LOWER PLEISTOCENE.
SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE - THE ORIGIN OF MAN: THIS IS A REPLICA OF HOMO ERECTUS PEKINENSIS, PEKING MAN OR SINANTHROPUS FROM THE MIDDLE PLEISTOCENE.
SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE – THE ORIGIN OF MAN: THIS IS A REPLICA OF HOMO ERECTUS PEKINENSIS, PEKING MAN OR SINANTHROPUS FROM THE MIDDLE PLEISTOCENE.
SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE - THE ORIGIN OF HUMAN SPECIES: A REPLICA OF HOMINID, HOMO ERECTUS FROM AFRICA.
SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE – THE ORIGIN OF HUMAN SPECIES: A REPLICA OF HOMINID, HOMO ERECTUS FROM AFRICA.
SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE - THE ORIGIN OF HUMAN SPECIES: REPLICA OF PILTDOWN MAN OF SUSSEX, ENGLAND, A HOMINID SPECIES OF THE PALEOLITHIC PERIOD OR OLD STONE AGE.
SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE – THE ORIGIN OF HUMAN SPECIES: REPLICA OF PILTDOWN MAN OF SUSSEX, ENGLAND, A HOMINID SPECIES OF THE PALEOLITHIC PERIOD OR OLD STONE AGE.
SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE - THE ORIGIN OF HUMAN SPECIES: HOMO SAPIENS MAY HAVE APPEARED 300,000 YEARS AGO. THIS IS A REPLICA OF RHODESIAN MAN, HOMO SAPIENS HEIDELBERGENSIS WHO COULD BE THE SAME AS RHODESIENSIS.
SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE – THE ORIGIN OF HUMAN SPECIES: HOMO SAPIENS MAY HAVE APPEARED 300,000 YEARS AGO. THIS IS A REPLICA OF RHODESIAN MAN, HOMO SAPIENS HEIDELBERGENSIS WHO COULD BE THE SAME AS RHODESIENSIS.
SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE - THE ORIGIN OF HUMAN SPECIES: AN ARTISTIC RENDITION OF FLORES MAN, HOMO FLORESIENSIS.
SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE – THE ORIGIN OF HUMAN SPECIES: AN ARTISTIC RENDITION OF FLORES MAN, HOMO FLORESIENSIS.
SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE - THE ORIGIN OF HUMAN SPECIES: A REPLICA OF HOMO SAPIENS NEANDERTHALIS, NEANDERTHAL MAN WHO LIVED BETWEEN 100,000 TO 40,000 YEARS AGO DISCOVERED IN 1856, NEANDERTHAL, WEST GERMANY. HE BELONGED TO THE MIDDLE PALEOLITHIC CULTURE. MODERN HUMANS MAY HAVE STARTED IN UPPER PALEOLITHIC CULTURE AND DEFINITELY BELONG TO THE BRONZE AGE.
SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE – THE ORIGIN OF HUMAN SPECIES: A REPLICA OF HOMO SAPIENS NEANDERTHALIS, NEANDERTHAL MAN WHO LIVED BETWEEN 100,000 TO 40,000 YEARS AGO DISCOVERED IN 1856, NEANDERTHAL, WEST GERMANY. HE BELONGED TO THE MIDDLE PALEOLITHIC CULTURE. MODERN HUMANS MAY HAVE STARTED IN UPPER PALEOLITHIC CULTURE AND DEFINITELY BELONG TO THE BRONZE AGE.

None of these Hominid Species could be  considered as the intermediate link or intermediate species from which the Human Species has arrived. The precise physical form of man has special features and it has to be explained if there is a connection between the Origin of the Human Species and of other Hominid Species. Comparative Anatomy makes the explanation of Man’s Evolution a very controversial subject.

SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE - THE ORIGIN OF HUMAN SPECIES: COMPARING HUMAN SKULL WITH THAT OF NEANDERTHAL SKULL HELPS TO UNDERSTAND THE PROBLEM OF HUMAN EVOLUTION. MODERN HUMANS SHARE SEVERAL FEATURES AND CHARACTERISTICS OF OTHER HOMINID SPECIES BUT THOSE SIMILARITIES MAKE THE ISSUE MORE DIFFICULT TO EXPLAIN.
SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE – THE ORIGIN OF HUMAN SPECIES: COMPARING HUMAN SKULL WITH THAT OF NEANDERTHAL SKULL HELPS TO UNDERSTAND THE PROBLEM OF HUMAN EVOLUTION. MODERN HUMANS SHARE SEVERAL FEATURES AND CHARACTERISTICS OF OTHER HOMINID SPECIES BUT THOSE SIMILARITIES MAKE THE ISSUE MORE DIFFICULT TO EXPLAIN.
SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE - THE ORIGIN OF HUMAN SPECIES: THERE IS NO NATURAL CAUSE, NATURAL FACTOR, NATURAL CONDITION, OR NATURAL MECHANISM TO ACCOUNT FOR THE VARIATION SEEN WHEN THE NEANDERTHAL SKULL IS COMPARED WITH THE HUMAN SKULL.
SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE – THE ORIGIN OF HUMAN SPECIES: THERE IS NO NATURAL CAUSE, NATURAL FACTOR, NATURAL CONDITION, OR NATURAL MECHANISM TO ACCOUNT FOR THE VARIATION SEEN WHEN THE NEANDERTHAL SKULL IS COMPARED WITH THE HUMAN SKULL.

THE ORIGIN OF THE SPECIAL FORM OF MAN:

SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE - THE ORIGIN OF HUMAN SPECIES: CHARLES DARWIN(1809-1892) MADE IMPORTANT CONTRIBUTIONS AND HIS PUBLISHED WORKS INCLUDE THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES(1859) AND THE DESCENT OF MAN(1871). HE FAILED TO DESCRIBE THE CREATIVE PROCESS, THE CREATIVE MECHANISM, OR THE CREATIVE EVENTS THAT CAN ACCOUNT FOR THE APPEARANCE OF NEW SPECIES AND THE EXTINCTION OF SPECIES FOR WHICH THERE IS NO NATURAL CAUSE.
SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE – THE ORIGIN OF HUMAN SPECIES: CHARLES DARWIN(1809-1892) MADE IMPORTANT CONTRIBUTIONS AND HIS PUBLISHED WORKS INCLUDE THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES(1859) AND THE DESCENT OF MAN(1871). HE FAILED TO DESCRIBE THE CREATIVE PROCESS, THE CREATIVE MECHANISM, OR THE CREATIVE EVENTS THAT CAN ACCOUNT FOR THE APPEARANCE OF NEW SPECIES AND THE EXTINCTION OF SPECIES FOR WHICH THERE IS NO NATURAL CAUSE.

In my view, there is no extinct or living Species that can bridge the gap between the Human Species and its nearest Hominid allies. About, 10,000 years ago, Earth’s surface had changed. The land area covered by Ice has steadily decreased; in Upper Pleistocene about 28 percent land area was covered by Ice and in Holocene, only about 10 percent land area is covered by ice. The warming of the climate has increased the area of habitation available to the various Hominid Species. Environmental conditions are entirely favorable to the survival of all the Hominid Species. If Darwin’s Theory of Evolution is a valid theory, we must witness the simultaneous co-existence of all intermediate varieties that may have progressed through incremental changes leading to the Origin of the Human Species. There was no geological catastrophe, it is relatively easy to adapt to the changed environment, food supply is adequate and particularly the Hominid Species were not preying upon one another in their struggle for existence. Actually, Darwin’s view on blending of hereditary factors is not supported by Gregor Mendel’s classic experiments in hybridization. According to Mendel, Inheritance is particulate and his theory is fully validated. Distinct genetic factors combine to produce a certain somatic result without causing the loss of separate identities carried by specific genes. The genetic factors can therefore be assorted and enter into new genetic combinations in the next generation. There is no evidence to suggest that the new Human Species has arrived because of some abrupt mutations in a single generation of any particular Hominid Species. It may be noted that Darwin’s Theory claims that new species originate through natural processes of Heredity and Selection. The Natural Laws of Heredity, and the natural process named Natural Selection are not sufficient for the production of the new Human Species that replaced all other Hominid Species that survived until Middle and Upper Pleistocene.