THEORY OF MAN PRECEDES THEORY OF HEALTH
In my analysis, there can be no ‘Theory of Health’ without sharing ‘Theory of Man’. The question, “What is health?” cannot be asked without raising the question, “What is man?”
In my view, ‘existence of man always precedes essence of man’. For that reason, biological basis of man’s existence must be identified to define living entity called man.
Man’s existence in any condition, good health or ill health, at any age, at any given time and place, depends upon Mercy, Grace, and Compassion( Sanskrit. KRUPA or KRIPA) of LORD God Creator. Man does not exist in Natural World because of his physical and mental work. Man needs input of matter and energy, from an external source, from the moment of conception until conclusion of his entire life journey. Man’s existence is always conditioned as he cannot regulate either internal, or external factors that determine the fact of his existence.
I invite my readers to review article titled “What is health?” published in Microbial Biotechnology by Dr. Harald Brüssow. I took freedom to add few comments to his article to help my readers to examine the topic in a critical manner.
What is health?
Clipped from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3917469/
Microbial Biotechnology. 2013 Jul; 6(4): 341–348.
Published online 2013 May 6. doi: 10.1111/1751-7915.12063
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.
Medical Science fails to define the term ‘health’ for it fails to define the term ‘man’. To attach meaning to health, I must attach meaning to word called ‘man’.
Classical medical research is disease focused and still defines health as absence of disease. Languages, however, associate a positive concept of wholeness with health as does the WHO health definition. Newer medical health definitions emphasize the capacity to adapt to changing external and internal circumstances. The results of the 2010 Global Burden of Disease study provides keys for a quantifiable health metrics by developing statistical tools calculating healthy life expectancy. Of central social and economic importance is the question whether healthy ageing can be achieved. This concept hinges on theories on the biological basis of lifespan determination and whether negligible senescence and the compression of morbidity can be achieved in human societies. Since the health impact of the human gut microbiome is currently a topical research area, microbiologists should be aware of the problems in defining health.
Man represents biological community of trillions of individuals; independent, living cells with individuality. Man is also natural host to trillions of microbes. Human life must be defined in terms of biotic interactions; both intraspecific, and interspecific biotic interactions.
Science has its fashions. Suddenly the leading science journals are full of articles about a specific topical research area. Sometimes, this wave of popularity follows a technological break-through which permits asking questions that were previously impossible to tackle or at least very hard to address experimentally. At other occasions, this cumulating of top-level research reports is the consequence of large international research efforts where grant agencies provided large amounts of money, which attracted many scientists to the field. In still other situations, the scientific community realizes that a certain field of scientific inquiry has simply been overlooked or neglected and the view offered by the new insights is exiting theoretical interest and promising practical applications. The human microbiome is currently such a fashionable field. Novel DNA sequencing techniques combined with new bioinformatic tools and the general progress of ‘–omics’ technologies offer the methods; major research grants on both sides of the Atlantic provided the money and the field has been an eye-opener for microbiologists which might be compared with the time of Leeuwenhoek when microbes in our mouth were first seen in the microscope and the time of Koch when the first isolated bacterial colonies were seen by the naked eye and linked to human disease. We perceive the human microbiome metagenome as our second human genome, as a source of human genetic variability (Schloissnig et al., 2013) and as a factor influencing human health (Clemente et al., 2012). The human gut microbiome has been associated with health issues of central importance such as obesity (Turnbaugh et al., 2006), healthy ageing (Claesson et al., 2012) and most recently cancer (Arthur et al., 2012), to quote only the most prominent fields. Probiotic bacteria have also been fashionable for a while (Thomas et al., 2010) and were judged to have a scientific basis (Neish, 2009), but scientific reports aroused less attention than gut microbiota research. Probiotics carry in their definition as ‘live health-promoting bacteria’ the concept that microbes can influence our health. But what is health? If you want to boost health, you must know what it is and how to measure it.
Health: ask the experts
I ask Medical Science to apply principles of Clinical Medicine not only to diagnose ill health but also to diagnose good and perfect or ‘Whole Health’ for man is created by entity called God who is always Perfect and Whole.
At school we heard of Socrates who asked people who are supposed to be experts and to get an answer from a dialogue with them. Therefore, I first went to health authorities like medical doctors and their authoritative textbooks that guided generations of medical students like Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine (Longo et al., 2011). In the 18th edition you find ample material on pathogens, even a chapter on the human microbiome (Gordon and Knight, 2011), a chapter on women’s health, but no definition of health. Overall, one gets the impression that medicine deals with disease and not health. In a recent meeting, one of my colleagues said that the US National Institutes of Health (NIH) should correctly be called National Institutes of Diseases reflecting this disease focus of medical research. Health is currently fashionable as ‘Global Health’, but again scientists working at institutes called like this or in such programmes deal mostly with diseases. After this disappointment, the author turned to PubMed with ‘health’ and ‘definition’ as search terms and got less than 20 papers – a quite surprising outcome for such a central question of the human society. Clearly there is a problem with the definition of the term ‘health’.
Health: ask the languages
None of the living functions performed by man involve the use of any known human language.
When a term is so self-evident and at the same time so elusive that no definition is provided in the scientific literature, it is frequently helpful to investigate the words we use when speaking about it. Naming is the first activity of human beings when trying to make order of things surrounding us. Words reflect the experience of many generations and words constitute a collective subconsciousness that determines still today our unexpressed thoughts and actions, more than we are aware of consciously. In the Oxford Dictionary ‘health’ is defined as ‘the state of being free from illness and injury’. It is obviously a negative definition. Such a definition reflects the current use of the words in the spoken language, but not necessarily its development over time. The English ‘health’ derives from Old English ‘hælth’, which is related to ‘whole’ ‘a thing that is complete in itself’ (Oxford Dictionary) derived from Old English ‘hal’ of Germanic origin (the addition of the w in whole/hal reflects a dialect pronunciation of the 15th century). In Middle English ‘hal’ also became ‘hail’ with the meaning of health in greetings and toasts. ‘hal’ is related to the Dutch ‘heel’ and the German ‘heil’. In German the connections between health, wholeness and salvation becomes even clearer than in English. ‘Heil-kunde’ and ‘Heil-kunst’ are still common German words for medicine, ‘Heiler’ is a traditional or alternative health provider; ‘heilfroh’ means wholly happy and refers to a relationship between health and happiness. ‘Heil’ has also religious meanings as seen from the German word ‘Heiland’ for the Christ as Savior (or for false prophets as in ‘Heil Hitler’). The German word conserved clear links with the religious and cultic realm in ‘heilig’ (English: holy) where ‘Heil’ is equivalent with salvation in the religious meaning (‘Seelen-heil’). These connotations are still vibrating consciously or unconsciously in native speakers when using these words. In fact, from this quasi-religious context the constitution of the WHO adopted in 1948 becomes understandable when stating ‘the following principles are basic to the happiness, harmonious relations and security of all peoples: Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social wellbeing and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity’. The definition has not been revised but was variously challenged for its ‘complete wellbeing’ as reflecting a fundamentalist view, referring to an ideal world of messianic expectations. Some scientists have therefore asked for redefining health to make it a realistic, measurable quantity (Saracci, 1997).
Since this language approach turned out to be revealing, let’s follow the relationship between health and wellness (are they synonyms or do they express distinct concepts?) and between health and disease (are they antonyms?). Disease is defined by the Oxford Dictionary as ‘disorder of structure or function in an organism that produces specific symptoms and is not the result of physical injury’; ‘dis-ease’ derives from the Old French ‘desaise’ (lack of ease). Wellness and illness is clearly a pair of antonyms. Illr is a Norse word for evil and was taken into Middle English with the meaning of wicked, malevolent. ‘Well’ (German: wohl) derives from a word common to many Germanic languages and means ‘in a good way’, initially as a contrast to wicked. As an adjective one of the meaning of ‘well’ is specifically ‘in good health’ (Oxford Dictionary). In German ‘wohl’ goes beyond good health, it alludes to psychological and emotional aspects (‘Wollust’: English: lust, but in Old English as in current German still in the sense of ‘pleasure’ and ‘delight’) and material wealth (‘Wohlstand’). Wellness thus goes beyond physical health and has a strong connotation of happiness, but also of hedonism (where pleasure is the chief good).
One might argue that these are linguistic associations restricted to Germanic languages. However, this is not the case: the Latin word pair ‘salus’–’malus’ has very similar connotations which were transmitted into modern Romanic languages (French: salut–maladie). In Latin ‘salus’ means health, rescue, redemption and wealth. It derives from ‘salvus’, Old Indian ‘sarvas’, which meant initially nothing else than ‘whole’. We see here again the notion of completeness with health. Malus which leads then to malady shares with the Germanic word ‘small’ a common root and thus refers to incompleteness. Malus has also moral connotation (Eritis sicut deus scientes bonum et malum – the snake in Genesis: you will be like God knowing the good and the evil). Disease has long been regarded as a celestial punishment for moral failing. In many traditional societies, health surveys should not miss to ask about ‘the evil eye’, underlining the widespread magic concepts on disease.
Redefining health: medical approaches
What is Spiritual Sickness? Lust, Avarice, Anger, Arrogance, Jealousy, Infatuation, and Miserliness are symptoms of Spiritual Sickness. Spiritual well-being is integral component of Whole Health.
Recently the need for a new definition of health was expressed by the British Medical Journal (Jadad and O’Grady, 2008). A discussion via global blog conversation was initiated on ‘How should health be defined?’ The participation rate was weak: only 38 communications were counted. In an influential blog, R. Smith (2008) confessed that this issue is for most doctors an uninteresting question since they are interested in disease and not health. Medical textbooks are a massive catalogue of diseases. Health is an illusion and according to the strict standards of the WHO definition, most people are unhealthy for most of the time, so far, his comments. Research-oriented doctors complained that the WHO definition has no direct operational value – it is so widely formulated that health outcome cannot easily be measured. Health like beauty is in the eyes of the beholder. It turned out that redefining health is an extremely ambitious and complex goal. A conference held in 2009 in the Netherlands (‘Is health a state or an ability? Towards a dynamic concept of health’) (Huber, 2010), an editorial by the Lancet (‘What is health? The ability to adapt’) (Anonymous, 2009) and an analysis in the BMJ (‘Health: how should we define it?’) (Huber et al., 2011) proposed a few conclusions. The preferred view on health was the ability to adapt and to self-manage. With respect to physical health the term of ‘allostasis’ was introduced – the maintenance of physiological homeostasis through changing circumstances. In the field of mental health, a sense of coherence was identified as defining criterion. Social health included people’s capacity to fulfil their potentials and obligations, the ability to manage their life and to participate in social activities including work. R. Smith summarized this into the phrase ‘health is the capacity to love and work’ attributed to Sigmund Freud. The Dutch conference highlighted a few important aspects. When applied to ‘successful or healthy ageing’ only a very small percentage of people would fit the WHO definition. When self-rating of well-being was used a much higher percentage rated themselves as successfully ageing and this rating was roughly constant over lifetime. With an ageing population chronic disease become a life condition to many people. The Stanford Chronic Disease Self-Management Programme uses strategies to enhance self-efficacy which resulted in fewer healthcare requests. Also, the WHO has added to this discussion. In preparation of the Ottawa Charter of 1986, the WHO defined health as the ability of an individual to realize aspirations and satisfy needs and to cope with the environment. Health was thus seen as a resource for everyday life. The WHO has also developed an International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health assessing the performance of a task in real life situation. WHO surveys assessed an individual’s health state by asking for mobility, self-care, pain, cognition, interpersonal activities, vision, sleep and energy and affect. The answers go into a single metric reaching from death (0) to perfect health (1). The abovementioned Lancet editorial quoted the French physician G. Canguilhem who perceived health in his 1943 book The Normal and the Pathological not as something that can be defined statistically or mechanistically. Health is the ability to adapt to one’s environment and its own limitations. At the Dutch conference, a participant asked for the concept of ‘salutogenesis’ (becoming healthy) and more concrete research work in a field dominated by studies of pathogenesis (becoming ill). In practical terms it means that instead of carefully observing the conditions that lead from the healthy to the diseased state, research should also be conducted for the opposite process, i.e. the transition from the diseased to the healthy state. In some diseases the transition from health to malady is a way of no return and its inverse process of ‘salutogenesis’ is obviously difficult to study. However, for microbiologists the situation is easier. Many acute infectious diseases show a transition from health to disease followed by a return to the normal. Here ‘salutogenesis’ is commonly studied and had practical outcomes. For example, understanding the immune response to an infectious agent which led to the resolution of the disease was often instrumental for designing vaccine strategies.
Scaling health levels?
Scaling of health fundamentally relates to experience of satiation, satisfaction, or contentment from living condition. Dissatisfaction or lack of contentment is absence of health.
A fundamental question not yet addressed in our discussion is whether health is a state as opposed to the alternative state of disease. There are medical conditions that allow only two alternative conditions; a frequently quoted example is a woman in childbearing age who either is pregnant or is not pregnant. There is no condition where a woman is a bit pregnant, pregnancy is an all-or-nothing event allowing only a ‘plus’ and a ‘minus’ state and no transitions between both of them. At first glance, one might also take ‘health’ and ‘disease’ as alternative ‘plus’ and ‘minus’ states. The self-perception of a subject is a relative reliable measure differentiating a healthy state from a diseased state. In a prodromal phase of an infectious disease, we feel lousy before any overt disease symptoms are evident. During convalescence we feel the reverse process of returning vigor and strength. This distinction finds expression in our outer appearance allowing not only an experienced physician, but even an attentive layperson to differentiate these two states with a single look at a person. This experience speaks for health and disease as two alternative states. However, medical doctors use scoring systems to assess the health and disease status of patients to decide on medical interventions. To quote just two examples: the Karnofsky score runs from 100 (perfect health) to 0 (death) in steps of 10 and assesses the independence or dependence of patients on assistance for everyday activity or survival; its main purpose was to quantify the capacity of cancer patients to cope with chemotherapy. Another score rates the status of newborns: the Apgar score attributes up to two points each for the appearance, pulse, grimace, activity, respiration of the baby (despite this mnemonic, Apgar is named after an anesthesiologist). Apgar expresses the need for medical intervention by the pediatrician. Apgar scores of 7 or higher characterize healthy babies. These scoring systems are interesting since first, they put health and disease into the same measurable category and second, they anticipate that both health and disease states can be graded. By their design as indicators for medical intervention, these scoring systems have more graded disease levels than graded health levels, but this point can be quickly remedied by introducing a scoring system that depicts in analogy with the number line increasing positive integers to the right as indicators of a graded health level and increasing negative integers to the left as indicators of graded disease levels.
Around 0 is an indifference zone where the subject feels neither particularly healthy nor definitively ill. While numerous scoring systems exist to describe severity grades for many diseases, less scoring systems exist for assessing health levels. This situation could quickly be corrected: Physical strength or mental fitness could be measured quantitatively by performance tests on the subject or functional reserves could be measured by physiological tests on individual organ systems of the subject. Such physical types of test are frequently used in geriatric medicine.
This grading concept – oversimplified as it is – has interesting consequences. When physicians speak about health interventions, they speak mostly about disease interventions where a treatment shifts for example a person from disease level −7 to disease level −3 to remain in the analogy of this fictive scale. Over recent decades medical treatments were also increasingly applied on apparently healthy subjects, who show, but do not suffer, from pathophysiological states (e.g. hypertension, hypercholesterolemia) in order to prevent for example a shift from health level +3 to disease level −7 when the pathophysiological risk factor transforms into actual disease (e.g. myocardial infarct or stroke) (again in this fictive scale). However, physicians and the pharmaceutical industries have much less considered the possibility to increase health levels from for example health state +4 to health state +7 which increases physical and mental performance of the person or the functional reserves of the person’s organs. These health interventions were largely left to fitness centers and sport clubs and private activities of the individual. The aim of such nutrition and health interventions would be a better performance in everyday life, more pleasure (quality of life), but not necessarily disease prevention. However, increasing the functional reserve of the body necessarily creates a buffer such that extrinsic factors decreasing the health level do not result that quickly in disease as without this intervention.
Health: ask the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2010 survey
Burden of Disease, and Rewards of Health must be estimated after stating Purpose of Human Existence.
One might argue that health of an individual or a population is to a certain extent a lip service of the medical profession and the true interest of medical doctors is to cure or to prevent disease. Language-wise this focus is expressed by the now frequently used term of ‘ill health’ in the columns of leading journals like ‘Nature’ and ‘The Lancet’, which is of course a clear contradiction in terms and reflects the disease focus of medicine. One might suspect that economists and sociologists have a greater interest in the health of a population when focusing on the productivity and social ‘functioning’ of people. However, such an evaluation does not do justice to the epidemiological, statistical and intellectual efforts of the medical community to come to grip with these terms. The Herculean effort of the medical research field is illustrated by a whole issue of the Lancet describing the GBD Study 2010 in a series of articles (Das, 2012). Over 5 years 486 scientists from 302 institutions in 50 countries have collected data on ‘ill health’ and evaluated the data by using the most sophisticated statistical data treatment methods (Murray et al., 2012a). The results are stunning. It is here not the place to review these studies, but I want to share with the reader some excitement. From 1970 to 2010 global life expectancy at birth rose by 3–4 years every decade. The resolution of the data set is astonishing: you can for example compare life expectancy per region and per sex. You see then that women in Bangladesh increased their life expectancy from 47.5 years in 1970 to 71.0 years in 2010 (not a printing error). Or you get global life expectancy per 5-year intervals for both sexes, e.g. 80-year-old men had in 1970 a life expectancy of 5.8 years compared with 7.2 years in 2010 (‘the older you get, the healthier you have been’) (Wang et al., 2012). Or you get information on 235 leading causes of death separated by age and sex based on files compiling vital registrations, verbal autopsies and various surveillance data from 187 countries. You learn that mortality from communicable diseases has decreased over this time following major ameliorations in mortality from diarrheal diseases, measles and tetanus, but less so for respiratory infections and increases for HIV/AIDS. When the global years of life lost (YLL) is displayed separately for the causes and individual years between 1990 and 2010, the data analysis was so well performed that you see the 1995 famine in North Korea as a sudden increase in global death due to nutritional deficiencies and the 1994 genocide in Rwanda as an intentional injuries increase (Lozano et al., 2012).
In the context of our discussion another GBD 2010 report is even more interesting. Salomon and colleagues (2012) start their paper with the statement: ‘Improvement of population health means more than simply delaying death or increasing life expectancy at birth’. They continue: ‘With the trend of population ageing, the need to prioritize healthy ageing is increasingly recognized’. The authors of this paper focus on the description of ‘healthy life expectancy’ as a summary measure of population health. While this term has no philosophical or biological foundation, it is based on a lot of sound statistical reasoning. In fact, it goes back on a method developed 40 years ago by D. Sullivan. Healthy life expectancy is the number of years a person at a given age can expect to live in good health considering age-specific mortality, morbidity and functional health status. While health is here still largely defined negatively as the absence of disease, it becomes a measurable quantity and thus a simple logically appealing summary measure of population health. The GBD 2010 study goes even further by analyzing a composite metric that captures both premature mortality and the prevalence and severity of disease leading to the term of disability-adjusted life years (DALY) (Murray et al., 2012b). Health status was measured in other studies by the absence of disability expressed as activity restriction, or absence of dementia, or on a broader basis as a multidimensional expression of functioning. However, with a sufficiently large raw data set one can calculate the ‘healthy life expectancy’ in years. Then the difference between life expectancy minus healthy life expectancy can be interpreted as the average number of years of potentially healthy life lost to poor health. To get back to the above Bangladesh women who had in 2010 a life expectancy of 71 years, they had a healthy life expectancy of 59 years, for Canadian women the two figures were 83 and 68 years respectively. Despite different absolute numbers, women from both countries spent more than a decade with poor health. Interesting trends emerge: both for men and for women global healthy life expectancy has increased by about 4 years between 1990 and 2010 keeping with the overall trend of life expectancy increases. The gains in healthy life expectancy over the past 20 years have mainly been through reductions of child and adult mortality and not through reductions in years lost to disability (YLD). When looking into a study from member states of the European Union, larger variations were found for healthy life expectancy than for life expectancy (Jagger et al., 2008). These results are not just about statistics, they represent important elements for political decisions. The UN Millennium Development Goals have focused on the reduction of mortality from major killers like HIV, tuberculosis and malaria. With that focus life expectancy will (hopefully) increase, but it will have minor impact on healthy life expectancy. The computation of healthy life expectancy has changed over the years. Some used dichotomous weighting schemes categorizing people into either healthy or not. The new calculation accounts for the severity of disability calculated for 289 named diseases (Murray et al., 2012a) allowing thus a quantitative, gliding disability scale.
Every change or natural phenomenon such as aging is operated by underlying ‘Unchanging Principle’. For example, Chemical Compounds are operated by ‘Law of Definite Proportions’ or Proust’s Law of Definite Composition. Man, experiences aging changes while Chemical Elements and Chemical Compounds of his body remain unchanged.
The structure of the world population is dramatically changing with an increasing percentage of the human population living to old and very old age (Suzman and Haage, 2011). This phenomenon is not limited to the classical industrialized countries, until 2050 China is expected to reach 440 and 101 million inhabitants older than 60 and 80 years respectively (Shetty, 2012). This change in the population pyramid has not only important socioeconomic consequences (healthcare, pension funds), but affects also the health and disease discussion in an interesting way.
Like for health, everybody knows what ageing means, but definitions are again less obvious, and biologists have not yet developed a generally shared theory of ageing (Martin, 2011). Part of the problem might be that different organisms might have their own modes of ageing. Languages are not of much help: ‘age’ is something which can be very simply counted on a timescale. Different languages reflect a different attitude towards ageing: while in English ‘ageing’ implies deterioration, in Japanese it means just the advancement of age. A Japanese researcher has therefore defined ageing as a ‘regression of physiological function accompanied by advancement of age’ (Imahori, 1992). Medical doctors consequently differentiate a chronological and a physiological age of a person.
Medical gerontologists perceive ageing as a progressive decline in structure and function of the body (Ferruci and Studenski, 2011). Most prominent and very visible are the effects of ageing on body composition: lean body mass from muscles and visceral organs decrease steadily, muscle strength decreases (sarcopenia) and is a good predictor of mortality. Progressive demineralization leads to decline of bone strength that together with neurodegeneration induces unstable gait, poor balance and slow reaction times leading to falls and fractures resulting in increasing frailty. Memory decline and dementia are other neurological observations in some, but not all ageing persons. Decline of the sensory system is frequent (vision, hearing, taste). Another physiological change is declining resting metabolic rate with ageing, which is also a marker of illness. Homeostasis pathways (hormones, inflammatory mediators, antioxidants) change progressively with age inducing a lower resistance to stress. Normal ageing is also associated with a decline in food intake particularly in men which leads to malnutrition.
While ageing leads ultimately to death, great biological differences exist for lifespan and ageing process between different organisms. While the lifetime of fly’s measures in days, some ticks survive for decades and lobsters were reported to survive for more than 100 years without any apparent loss in fertility. Similar data have been reported for turtles, where older females lay more eggs than younger females, show no loss of vigor and no increase in mortality rate with increasing age (Finch, 2009). These observations led to the concept of negligible senescence and the Centenarian Species Project (Guerin, 2004). Negligible senescence contradicts Hamilton’s influential theory that natural selection shaped senescence (Hamilton, 1966) and ideas that late survival was sacrificed in evolution for reproduction (Kirkwood and Rose, 1991). Even today, Hamilton’s Forces of Natural Selection described in his 1966 paper were compared by evolution researchers to what is the Lorentz transformation for relativistic physics (Rose et al., 2007). Of course, working with long-lived animals which might have lifetimes longer than that of the researcher is not to the taste of geneticists who prefer short-lived animals like flies and worms or mostly mice where results are obtained within a grant period. However, negligible senescence would fit other theories, for example that of the French zoologist Buffon who suggested in the 18th century that the duration of life in animals corresponded to six to seven times that of the period of growth for the given animal. An animal which has undetermined growth like some reptiles (crocodiles for example grow as long as they live) could have a very long lifespan. Those zoologists might in fact be right who claim that lobsters die from predation, accident and infection but not as a consequence of ageing.
Many ideas have been developed by biologists on ageing: for example, Hayflick developed 40 years ago an argument that the finite number of cell doublings determines the lifespan of a species (Hayflick, 1968). Molecular biologists have added arguments to this idea by highlighting the importance of telomere length shortening with increasing cell divisions. Several other mechanisms and pathways have been revealed by molecular biologists and geneticists for the ageing process. Caloric restriction and longevity is another of the fruitful fields of ageing research. Whether it applies to monkeys as our closest relatives is currently the focus of much discussion (Mattison et al., 2012).
However, all what we have discussed so far fit more the fundamental interest of biologists than that of the medical doctor. For the present review let’s therefore focus on the human condition and the medical view on healthy ageing.
Man’s experience of time and its consequence called aging is operated by sensory experiences that are fundamentally false. Man’s existence demands influence of grand illusion that protects man from experiencing speed of planet Earth.
Thirty years ago, Fries (1980) published in The New England Journal of Medicine a seminal paper on ‘Ageing, natural death, and the compression of morbidity’ which heavily influenced the medical discussion on ageing. He starts with the statement that the length of life is fixed; speculations on immortality are rooted in human hope. The medical field assumes that death is always the result of a disease process, but due to his hypothesis of a set human lifespan, death might occur without overt disease when the normal span is lived. In his paper he depicted the ‘ideal’ human mortality curve in the absence of premature death: it is a sharp peak around the ‘naturally set’ human lifespan of 85 years. He arrived at this value from the extrapolation of life expectancy data at birth and at age 20 and 65 measured over the last century which intersect in his graph at 85 years. With that idealized model the survival curve of humans has a sharp rectangular form while the actual survival curve for humans at 1900 looked more like a triangle with a continuous decline of survival with age. In 1980 the survival curve took already a substantial rectangular form: much of the 1900-typical attrition over increasing age had been eliminated and the actual survival curve started to approach the ideal curve. He admitted that the average length of life was increasing, but he argues that this was due to a decrease in childhood mortality, not to a secular trend for an increase of life expectancy at age of 75 years. He highlighted that acute, usually infectious diseases determined mortality in the USA at 1900 and that chronic diseases have now superseded acute diseases. In his view health improvement must address chronic instead of acute diseases, morbidity and not mortality, quality of life rather than duration of life. Postponement of disease is more important than cure of a disease. Weight control, regular exercise, treatment of hypertension, elimination of smoking and alcohol over-consumption (today we would add an equilibrated diet) were the practical measures. With that focus of medical interventions, one could achieve what he called the compression of morbidity. A postponement of chronic disease would also result in a rectangularization of the morbidity and not only the mortality curve. Since loss of reserve function represented his operational definition of ageing, one could theoretically also achieve a compression of senescence. He postulated a plasticity of ageing against a non-elasticity of the human ideal lifespan.
It is interesting to compare the Fries’ model with the actual data set from the GBD 2010 study. Already in an analysis of demographic data from 2002, the WHO reported that precisely the very old age groups are growing the fastest worldwide. A cornerstone of Fries’ model is the lack in increase of centenarians over one century of observation. The WHO projects in contrast a 13-fold increase in centenarians over the next decades (Kalache et al., 2002). Better hygiene, nutrition and healthcare have increased life expectancy as also seen in GBD 2010. When the life expectancy of females in the most advanced nations is plotted against historical time, a straight line is observed showing a steady increase of 2.5 years longer life expectancy per decade between 1850 and 2000 (Suzman and Haage, 2011). Humans in some industrialized countries have now nearly reached the lifespan limits of Buffon’s formula, but the asymptotic behavior requested by a genetically fixed life expectancy was not yet observed. One central tenet of the Fries’ model is thus not confirmed. What about the compression of morbidity? GBD 2010 showed that countries with high life expectancy had mostly also lower age-specific disability than countries with low life expectancy. While an analysis of disability-adjusted life expectancy (DALE) with data from the GBD 1999 study (Mathers et al., 2001) showed still ‘some evidence to suggest that compression of morbidity may be occurring in some low mortality countries’, later analyses did not concur with this interpretation. According to GBD 2010, years lived with disability (YLD) rose despite a decrease in the prevalence of age-specific disability (Salomon et al., 2012). Simply, the decrease in disability did not keep pace with the increase in survival. A compression can only occur if healthy life expectancy would rise faster than life expectancy.
Globally, YLD rose from 583 million in 1990 to 777 million in 2010 (Vos et al., 2012). The main contributors at the global level were mental and behavioral disorders, musculoskeletal disorders, diabetes and endocrine diseases. The leading specific causes were the same in 2010 as in 1990: low back pain, major depressive disorders, iron-deficiency anemia, neck pain, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, anxiety disorders, migraine, diabetes and falls. Rates of YLD per given number of people did not change, but since YLD rise steadily with age, population growth and ageing were the major drivers for the increase in YLD (Vos et al., 2012). The health system is thus confronted with a rising number of individuals with a range of disorders that largely cause disability but not mortality.
John Milton in his epic poem of Paradise Lost, Book XI shared the golden principles of healthy aging. Nothing too much, the Law of Temperance helps man to live to his fullest potential.
I yield it just, said Adam, and submit.
But is there yet no other way, besides
These painful passages, how we may come
To Death, and mix with our connatural dust?
There is, said Michael, if thou well observe [ 530 ]
The rule of not too much, by temperance taught
In what thou eat and drink, seeking from thence
Due nourishment, not gluttonous delight,
Till many years over thy head return:
So may thou live, till like ripe Fruit thou drop [ 535 ]
Into thy Mothers lap, or be with ease
Gathered, not harshly plucked, for death mature:
In summary, GBD 2010 showed clear evidence of expansion, not compression of morbidity. An increase of the number of years lived in reduced health has implications beyond the person suffering from restricted health. Healthy ageing is a socioeconomic need since otherwise national health systems will not be able to stem the cost associated with managing increasing numbers of individuals suffering from various disease sequelae. If by preventive measures a healthy ageing could be achieved, the healthcare system could save cost and the individual could enjoy a greater quality of life for a longer period of life. This goal is quite ambitious though, but the incentive is great justifying the exploration of various associations with healthy ageing. In an accompanying review, I explore the data associating gut microbiota composition with healthy ageing and to what extent the gut microbiota composition can be changed by nutritional interventions (Brüssow, 2013).
I thank my colleagues Wolfram Brück for critical reading of the manuscript and Olga Sakwinska for stimulating discussions.
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PHYSICS OF SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE – LOVE IS FUNDAMENTAL FORCE
Physics of Spirituality Science – Love is Fundamental Force. PHYSICS MAY NOT ACCOUNT FOR INTERACTIONS BETWEEN LIVING AND NONLIVING MATTER. PHYSICAL FORCES CANNOT ACCOUNT FOR TWO TYPES OF MOTION. THESE ARE, 1. OBSERVED VARIATIONS IN ROTATIONAL SPINS OF PLANETS, AND 2. MOTION OF LIVING MATTER.
In Physics, the term ‘Fundamental’ is used to describe a Principle, Theory, Law etc., serving as a basis forming a foundation that could be essential to explain other interactions in the natural world. In Physics, the term ‘Force’ is used to describe the cause or agent that puts an object at rest into motion or alters motion of a moving object.
Physics of Spirituality Science – Love is Fundamental Force. Physics accounts for Four Fundamental Interactions. In Natural World, there are Interactions between Living and nonliving Matter which are fundamentally different from Interactions explained by Physics.
All known physical interactions of Matter occur through the agency of four basic, or ‘Fundamental’ kinds of ‘Forces’; 1. Strong Nuclear Force, 2. Weak Nuclear Force, 3. Electromagnetic Force, and 4. Gravitation Force. Most natural phenomena can be accounted for in terms of Four Fundamental Interactions. Gravitation and Electromagnetism act over long distances and it is easy to observe their effects. Strong and Weak Nuclear Forces act over subatomic distances and the range of their effects is limited.
Physics of Spirituality Science – Love is Fundamental Force: LOVE IS A FORCE THAT CANNOT BE MEASURED BY INSTRUMENTS INVENTED BY PHYSICISTS.
Gravitation is the pervasive Fundamental Interaction. Every particle of Matter seems to attract every other particle with a Force that is proportional to the Mass of each and inversely proportional to the square of their separation. This relationship was first proposed by Sir Isaac Newton. His Theory of Gravitation is ‘Fundamental’, in the sense that all Motion due to the gravitational forces exerted on all objects can be described as a result of the same Force. Gravitation causes apples to fall from trees and determines the orbits of planets around Sun.
Physics of Spirituality Science – Love is Fundamental Force: FUNDAMENTAL PHYSICAL FORCES CANNOT ACCOUNT FOR VARYING ROTATIONAL SPINS OF ASTRONOMICAL BODIES.
Mechanics is the branch of Physics that deals with motion of material bodies and the phenomena of action of forces on bodies. Celestial Mechanics is study of motion of astronomical bodies as they move under the influence of their mutual gravitation. If the forces acting on a System do not cancel, Motion will result. Calculation of such motions is complicated because many separate forces are acting at once and all bodies are moving simultaneously. Isaac Newton’s Laws of Motion and Theory of Universal Gravitation provide a great understanding of the simple elliptical orbits as described by Kepler’s Laws of Planetary Motion.
Physics of Spirituality Science – Love is Fundamental Force: KEPLER’S LAWS MAY ACCOUNT FOR ORBITAL MOTIONS OF PLANETS. HOW ABOUT EXPLAINING ROTATIONAL SPINS OF PLANETS???
It is interesting to note Hindu Scriptures called Vedas may describe or mention Earth’s rotational spin. Neither Vedas, nor Science have accounted for ‘Force’ that initiated rotational spin of various celestial bodies. Rotational Spin is different from orbital motion displayed by planets. Rotational Spin of planets cannot be explained as caused by physical forces of mutual attraction between celestial objects. Newton maintained that mere Motion does not require application of Force. In Space, there is no friction to restrain motions of celestial bodies.
Physics of Spirituality Science – Love is Fundamental Force: PHYSICAL FORCE SUCH AS GRAVITATION ACCOUNTS FOR EARTH’S ORBIT OR REVOLUTION AROUND SUN. THERE IS NO PHYSICAL FORCE TO ACCOUNT FOR EARTH’S ROTATION ON ITS AXIS.
Man’s existence on surface of Earth cannot be fully accounted by physical force of Gravitation that explains Earth’s orbit or revolution around Sun. Man travels about 67, 000 miles per hour during Earth’s yearly orbit around Sun. Man’s lifetime or lifespan on Earth is determined by alternating periods of Day and Night caused by Earth’s rotational spin. Physical Forces act mechanically without sense of purpose or goal. Earth’s rotational spin serves a specific purpose for it directs Biological Rhythms of Living Systems.
Physics of Spirituality Science – Love is Fundamental Force: Physical Force may account for the Speed of a point on the surface of Earth. Living Systems have synchronized their Biological Rhythms with Rotational Spin of Earth which serves specific purpose by causing alternate periods of Light and Darkness.
Physics of Spirituality Science – Love is Fundamental Force: Man travels nearly 67,000 miles per hour in yearly orbit around the Sun. Earth’s Orbital Motion does not determine Man’s lifetime or lifespan. Man’s lifetime is measured by alternating periods of Day and Night caused by Earth’s rotational spin.
Within our Solar System, no celestial object shares rotational spin characteristics of another object. Each planet spins at a different speed or exhibits different rotational axis. On each planet, we will experience Day and Night and Seasons in different manners as they orbit around Sun. Each planet is unique, distinctive, original, and one of its own kind of celestial object. Space Exploration discovered thousands of planets, but none of them share identical rotational spins, in fact each planet displays individualistic variation in its spin characteristics. So, we need to recognize existence of “UNKNOWN” Force that may have imparted energy to initiate rotational spin of each celestial object.
Physics of Spirituality Science – Love is Fundamental Force: TILT AND ROTATION AXIS OF PLANETS SHOW INDIVIDUALISTIC VARIATIONS. EARTH’S TILT AND ROTATION AXIS ARE PURPOSIVE AND GOAL-ORIENTED AS IT DRIVES BIOLOGICAL RHYTHMS.
I am using the term ‘LOVE’ to define it as Fundamental Force that brings Unity and Harmony in Interactions between Inanimate and Animate Matter to establish Natural Order. LOVE is Fundamental to existence of Sensible or Living Matter. Living Things have ability to perceive LOVE which instruments developed by man cannot measure.
Ann Arbor, MI 48104-4162 USA
SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE – WHOLE LINGUISTICS – WHOLE LANGUAGE:
SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE – WHOLE LINGUISTICS – WHOLE LANGUAGE: LINGUISTICS IS DESCRIBED AS THE SCIENCE OF HUMAN LANGUAGE. I AM USING THE PHRASE WHOLE LINGUISTICS TO DESCRIBE THREE ENTITIES; 1. LANGUAGE USER, 2. LANGUAGE INTERPRETER, AND 3. LANGUAGE CREATOR.
Language is how human beings, as members of a social group and participants in its culture, communicate. Language is the peculiar possession of human beings. Human Speech (spoken and written) is the criteria by which we can easily recognize the difference that exists between man and other species. In this article, I inform my readers about the requirement to develop concepts that I name as “Whole Linguistics” and “Whole Language” to understand nature of Human Life and Human Existence.
SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE – WHOLE LINGUISTICS – WHOLE LANGUAGE: I CALL THESE 365 EVERYDAY VALUE MISMATCHED SANDWICH CREMES AS “WHOLE COOKIES.” TO ACCOUNT FOR HUMAN LIFE AND HUMAN EXISTENCE, I NEED TO USE “WHOLE LINGUISTICS”, AND “WHOLE LANGUAGE.” THE WHOLE COOKIE SYMBOLIZES THE CONCEPT OF “WHOLE LOVE.”
SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE – WHOLE LINGUISTICS – WHOLE LANGUAGE: LANGUAGE IS DEFINED AS A SYSTEM OF VOCAL SOUNDS AND COMBINATION OF SUCH SOUNDS TO WHICH MEANING IS ATTRIBUTED, USED FOR THE EXPRESSION OR COMMUNICATION OF THOUGHTS AND FOR SHARING INFORMATION. TO EXPLAIN AND ACCOUNT FOR HUMAN LIFE AND HUMAN EXISTENCE THERE IS NEED FOR “WHOLE LINGUISTICS”, AND “WHOLE LANGUAGE.”
I want to define “Whole Language” as the particular form or manner of selecting and combining words characteristic of a “Whole Man”, “Whole Person”, or “Whole Dude.” It is a style of expression in words to explain and account for Human Life and Human Existence which does not depend upon the ability to attach meanings to the words and languages man uses. The structure and properties of human language do not formulate the basis for man’s biological existence. Linguistics which is described as the Science of Language includes phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, and semantics. Linguistics is sometimes subdivided into Descriptive, Historical, Comparative, Theoretical, Applied, and Geographical Linguistics. Since Linguistics is concerned with Language it must include the study of vocalized human speech, human writing, human reading, and human sensory perception of sounds and their interpretation. In proposing to use the phrase “Whole Linguistics”, I am visualizing the existence of three entities, 1. Language User, 2. Language Interpreter, and 3. Language Creator. It introduces a concept about the Creative Beginning of man and his Language.
SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE – WHOLE LINGUISTICS – WHOLE LANGUAGE: BERTRAND RUSSELL DEVELOPED THE SYSTEM OF LANGUAGE ANALYSIS CALLED “LOGICAL ATOMISM.” IN HIS OPINION, LANGUAGE CAN BE ANALYZED IN TERMS OF AGGREGATES OF FIXED, IRREDUCIBLE UNITS OR ELEMENTS. HOW ABOUT LIFE AND EXISTENCE????
Dr. Bertrand Russell developed the system of Language Analysis called “Logical Atomism.” In his opinion, Language can be analyzed in terms of fixed, irreducible units or elements or an “Atom” of Language. Russell thinks that there can be a perfect one-to-one correspondence existing between an “Atom of Language” (an “Atomic Proposition”) and an “Atomic Fact.” An Atomic Proposition is a term that asserts that a certain thing has a certain quality. An Atomic Fact is the simplest kind of fact and consists in possession of a certain quality by some specific individual thing. According to Russell, for Language to mirror reality it can be proposed that the world is composed of facts that are utterly simple and comprehensible. He used ‘Atomic Propositions’ as the building blocks from which logical connectives, the more complex “Molecular Propositions” are constructed. I encounter several problems if I try to apply Russell’s Theory of “Logical Atomism” to interpret nature of Human Life and Human Existence. What is that ‘Atomic Proposition’, or ‘Atomic Fact’ that can describe man as a specific, individual thing? How is the Identity of Human Individual is established in multicellular human organism? Who is that specific, individual thing for whose benefit all the trillions of individual, living cells exist? If man is known as a specific, individual thing, how do these trillions of individual cells recognize his Identity?
Russell demands that concepts must be clarified in both every day and scientific Language. In his view, all genuine knowledge about man and nature can be expressed in a single Language common to all the Sciences. Semantics is the branch of Linguistics concerned with the nature, the structure the development and changes of the meanings of speech forms or with contextual meaning. I want to use the phrase “Whole Semantics” to describe the relationship between Language User who uses words, phrases, concepts, feelings, (etc., associated with them) and the mind of Language Interpreter whom I identify as “Whole Person”, “Whole Man”, or “Whole Dude.” By combining words, by coining new phrases, I can describe an original term whose meaning, or explanation could be missing if the original term is used as such. For example, by using the phrase ‘Whole Person, ‘Whole Man’, or ‘Whole Dude’ I will be able to account for all the dimensions of Human Life, and Human Existence. The term ‘man’ when used alone could be interpreted by each reader in slightly differing manners based upon their individual mental makeups. By using the phrase such as ‘Whole Man’, I am alerting the reader to interpret its meaning considering the various possibilities, the various dimensions to life such as a physical dimension( age, sex, color, race, ethnicity, and country of origin), a mental dimension described by his thoughts and feelings, a social dimension described by the language he uses, his religion, his social position, education, occupation, and his culture, his moral dimension that includes his perceptions about right and wrong, his spiritual dimension that may account for his existence as a created being, one of its own kind, and distinctive that makes him an Individual with Individuality and his rational dimension that describes the reasoning process used to verify truth of any given statement.
WHOLE VOCABULARY – WHOLE LINGUISTICS – WHOLE LANGUAGE:
Language represents a very complex series of events. These events take place in many planes of experience; 1. Physical(the sound waves), 2. Chemical( the body Chemistry), 3. Physiological(the movements of nerve impulses and of the various muscles and structures involved in articulation or generation of sounds), 4. Psychological(the reaction to stimuli), 5. General Cultural (situation of the speaker in respect to the cultural system of his society), 6. Linguistic( the Language being spoken), and 7. Semantic( its meaning). Vocabulary is a list of words and often phrases, abbreviations, inflectional forms, etc., arranged in alphabetical order and defined as in a dictionary or glossary. I use the phrase “Whole Vocabulary” to explain that the human body does not use Human Language to perform its functions at the level of individual cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems that comprise the human body. Human organism interacts with its constituent cells, tissues, and organs all the time using chemical molecules to send signals without any need for any known human language.
SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE – WHOLE LINGUISTICS – WHOLE LANGUAGE: THIS DIAGRAM OR MODEL OF SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAY IN MECHANOTRANSDUCTION EXPLAINS MECHANOSENSITIVITY IN CELLS AND TISSUES. SOME OF THE ABBREVIATIONS ARE, EP2-PROSTAGLANDIN RECEPTOR 2, 7TR-SEVEN TRANSMEMBRANE HELIX RECEPTOR, G GTP-BINDING PROTEIN, cAMP-CYCLIC ADENOSINE MONOPHOSPHATE, PKA-PROTEIN KINASE A, PKC-PROTEIN KINASE C, CRE-cAMP RESPONSE ELEMENT. MAN HAS TO DEVISE NUMEROUS TERMS TO SPEAK ABOUT LIVING FUNCTIONS WHICH TAKE PLACE WITH NO CONCERN FOR USING VOCABULARY.
SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE – WHOLE LINGUISTICS – WHOLE LANGUAGE: AMONG ALL LIFE FORMS, THERE ARE SIMILAR SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS THAT ARE USED TO COMMUNICATE INSTRUCTIONS TO CELLS USING NERVE IMPULSES OR CHEMICAL MOLECULES CALLED HORMONES. THE ABILITY OF THE CELL TO UNDERSTAND THE MESSAGE AND RESPOND WITH A PROPER SEQUENCE OF ACTIONS WHICH OFTEN INVOLVES A ‘SECOND MESSENGER’ IS THE BASIS FOR LIFE AND EXISTENCE. GLUTAMATE SIGNALING THAT IS INVOLVED IN SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS THAT STIMULATE A CELL TO DIVIDE OR PROLIFERATE CANNOT BE AFFECTED BY VERBAL COMMANDS.
SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE – WHOLE LINGUISTICS – WHOLE LANGUAGE: COMMUNICATION WITHIN THE HUMAN ORGANISM INVOLVES THE SEQUENTIAL ACTIONS AND INTERACTIONS THAT INVOLVE A VARIETY OF CHEMICAL MOLECULES. MAN HAS NO ABILITY TO SPEAK TO THE CELL USING HUMAN LANGUAGE AND INSTRUCT IT TO PERFORM TASKS LIKE CELL DIVISION.
To understand the Language that human body uses to perform its myriad living functions, we need to learn about chemical molecules that act as major communicators. The Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate(cAMP) is a major communicator molecule in cells. cAMP controls many important functions in the cell including the ability of the cell to generate electrical impulses. It is often called “Second Messenger” and it activates Inactive Protein Kinase, and the Active Protein Kinase then triggers responses of target cells or structures by activating enzymes, stimulating cellular secretion, opening ion channels, and etc., Cyclic Monophosphate mononucleotide of Adenosine or cAMP is formed from Adenosine Triphosphate or ATP by the catalytic action of the enzyme Adenylyl Cyclase. cAMP is responsible for the intracellular mediation of hormonal effects on various cellular processes such as lipid metabolism, membrane transport and cell proliferation.
SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE – WHOLE LINGUISTICS – WHOLE LANGUAGE: IN THE ENTIRE HUMAN VOCABULARY THERE IS NO WORD OR PHRASE THAT MAN CAN USE TO COMMUNICATE WITH THE CELLS OF HIS OWN BODY.
I am stating that I cannot issue verbal commands to my human body and direct it to perform according to my choice or desires. In the entire human Vocabulary there is no word or phrase that man can use to communicate with the cells, tissues, and organs of his own body. Language can be used to describe living functions such as ‘Metabolism’ but Life and Existence is not about the ability to attach meanings to words or the ability called Language Arts. Russell held the view that it is possible to infer something about the world from the Language in which it is correctly described. He further directed that Language must be used to state its minimum requirements and avoid the use of descriptive phrases which may postulate the existence of objects. Russell finds it very easy and convenient to formulate his opinion and conclude that a ‘Proposition’ is a picture of the facts that it asserts and must have in a sense the same structure. He stressed importance of similarity of structure as a criterion in inferring causal relationships. He endorsed application of rationality to all aspects of thought and Language. Humans have the distinctive ability to use Language and yet there is no similarity of structure in the Language used for human communication and the structure of chemical molecules involved in communications between cells, tissues, and organs of his own body. To account for Human Life and Human Existence, I need to overcome the linguistic barriers placed by Russell.
To establish the existence of man as a ‘speaking animal’, I use the concept of ‘Whole Devotion’; a valid method of inquiry guided and controlled by ‘Love’ which acts as the Fundamental Force operating Human Life and Human Existence. ‘Whole Love’ as a phrase accounts for Subjective and Objective Reality called Existence that man experiences in his daily living condition. In times of crisis, when man faces challenges to his life and existence, man may not be able to make use of his knowledge and wisdom to effectively communicate with his body to alter or correct the problems of his structural and functional organization. However, human Language can be used for a system of communication called ‘PRAYER’. The hope that the communication called ‘Prayer’ will be received gives man the chance to survive tough times with a sense of peace and tranquility. The purpose of human language is to provide comfort and reassurance when language becomes ineffective in solving human problems.
LOVE COUNTERACTS VIOLATION OF NATURAL FREEDOM IN TIBET
Natural Science such as Physics and Chemistry describe Four Fundamental Forces and Four Fundamental Interactions. These are, 1. The Strong Nuclear Force, 2. The Weak Nuclear Force, 3. Electromagnetism, and 4. Gravitation.
I describe ‘LOVE’ as Fifth Fundamental Force to account for existence of Life on planet Earth. Love acts as Force of Compassion to sustain Life. Love also acts as Force to counteract violation of Natural Order, Natural Balance, Natural Equilibrium, and Natural Freedom.
Biology describes Biotic Interactions as Intraspecific, and Interspecific Interactions. The characteristics of Biotic Interactions are described using terms such as Mutualism, Symbiosis, Commensalism, and Parasitism. All these Biotic Interactions performing guided, sequential, purposeful, and goal-oriented actions.
People’s Republic of China or Red China is governed by political doctrine called Communism which provides rule or governance by a One-Party political structure which lays emphasis on the requirements of State rather than on Individual Liberties. Communist State plans and controls all aspects of economy apart from social, cultural, and religious aspects of all Individual State Subjects. Communist State sponsors Violence to establish tyranny or totalitarian regime. Communist Policy or Doctrine demands use of power or authority by Party and State to oppose Natural Rights and Natural Freedom entitled to citizens.
Red China, in pursuit of its State Policy of Military Expansionism, made an unprovoked attack on Tibet in 1950. Red China uses her Military Power or Force to threaten, to harm, to cause pain, to give misery, to bring misfortune, and to create trouble in the lives of Tibetans to force them live under State-sponsored Occupation, Oppression, Repression, Suppression, and Subjugation.
Natural History of Tibet reveals that Nature uplifted Tibet using massive force of Collision generated by Indian landmass northwards thrust into Asian Continent. This Natural Event created Natural Condition that sustains Natural Freedom experienced by denizens of Tibet. Red China’s military occupation of Tibet fundamentally opposes Nature’s Plan for Tibet.
Red China violated Natural Order that shapes Tibetan Existence. In my analysis, Love acting as Fundamental Force will counteract Red China’s Violation by using Force/Power/Energy that has been shaping and conditioning planet Earth over billions of years of its existence.
PINK HEARTS CAN’T CONCEAL REPRESSION IN TIBET PROPAGANDA – HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH
New Campaign Aimed at Increasing Loyalty to Party, China
To many people’s ears the phrase “Four Loves” probably invokes images of a pop music act or a self-help philosophy – not an authoritarian regime’s latest campaign for political loyalty. But the Chinese Communist Party is once again deploying gentle terms to conceal its suppression of human rights.
A photo showing children from primary schools in Lhasa, the capital of Tibet, “speaking [their] hearts to Grandpa [President] Xi” as part of the “Four Emphases and Four Loves” campaign.
Tibet, a region known for systemic, state-sponsored human rights violations, is now awash with posters celebrating the “Four Emphases and Four Loves.” The campaign requires people to “Love the core by emphasizing the Party’s kindness/Love the motherland by emphasizing unity/Love your home by emphasizing what you can contribute/Love your life by emphasizing knowledge.”
Translation: don’t criticize policies or officials and do show gratitude and loyalty to “the core” – the CCP and its leader Xi Jinping. The only way to “love the motherland” is to oppose anything that threatens “unity,” which certainly includes substantive criticism of the Party or the state or any discussion of independence or increased autonomy. And to be a “good citizen” is to focus one’s efforts on what you can “contribute” – but implicitly it’s up to the Party to decide what can or cannot be contributed.
It’s also never too early to start indoctrinating people in this mindset: photos from primary schools in Lhasa, the capital of Tibet, show children “speaking [their] hearts to Grandpa [President] Xi.” One is captioned, “The words of the heart spelled out in…small notes.”
Campaigns for Tibetans’ hearts and minds seem almost tragic against the backdrop of repression there. In recent years authorities have reshaped the region’s economy in a manner that suits the central government and effectively excludes Tibetans from decision-making – and in the case of some nomadic communities leaves them demonstrably worse off.
Authorities remain suspicious of Tibetans’ loyalties, and have also radically expanded the security and surveillance apparatus, and methodically inserted state control into all aspects of religious practice. Meanwhile, Tibetans – and many others across China – have virtually no ability to help develop, change, or object to the policies that profoundly affect their lives.
Propaganda – no matter how treacly, and no matter how many pink hearts deployed – is unlikely to generate the kind of loyalty or respect Chinese authorities seem to want from Tibetans. Respect for Tibetans’ human rights, on the other hand, might go a long way towards that goal.
WHOLE DUDE – WHOLE MARRIAGE – WHOLE TRADITION
Whole World needs Whole Tradition to experience bliss called Whole Marriage. The tradition of man proposing to a woman of his choice kneeling in front of her with a ring is outdated. Woman must be able to say with full confidence, “I’m just going to be myself.” This attitude demands Whole Tradition while saying “YES” or “NO” to potential life partners while seeking Whole Bliss of Whole Marriage.
To give expression to this desire, “just going to be myself,” in the context of finding a life partner, woman must take the initiative to find her person of choice and make proposal kneeling in front of him with a ring held in her hand.
To find the right man, woman must reject all other unwanted men who try to get her attention. While saying “NO” to unwanted suitors, woman must use grace, charm, and modesty that beholds dignity of human being.
I am introducing “Whole Tradition” to reject unwanted suitors. Woman while announcing her choice to reject her suitor, must kneel before him and ask him to accept her “Non-Wedding Wedding Ring” with a solemn promise to never ever marry him in her life.
Whole Dude – Whole Planet
‘Bachelorette’ 2017: Which Of Rachel’s Season 13 Contestants Stood Out, Were Sent Home In Episode 1?
By CAITLYN HITT @NyItiaccc On 05/22/17 AT 11:02 PM
Rachel Lindsay signed up for “The Bachelor” in the hopes of finding love and, while that didn’t work out, she’s not giving up. “The Bachelorette” began her second shot at love on Monday and things are looking up.
When Bachelor Nation first catches up with the Dallas native as she’s shooting promotional photos for her gig as “The Bachelorette” on ABC. Although her starring role’s been made official, she’s in shock about the journey she’s about to embark on. Ever the forward thinker, however, Rachel’s got a plan for succeeding in matters of the heart on “The Bachelorette.”
“I’m just going to be myself,” she says with a smile.
Before Rachel’s season of “The Bachelorette” gets underway, Bachelor Nation is introduced to a select few guys hoping to woo the show’s star. The first contestant introduced is Kenny, a wrestler and proud dad. We then meet Alex, Lucas (or the Waboom guy as some “Bachelorette” fans may know him), Blake E. and Josiah. And while some left a lasting impression on fans for the right reasons, others stood out for the wrong ones.
Rachel then reunites with host Chris Harrison in Season 13, episode 1 before meeting her 31 potential suitors. The pair share a moment before the first limo full of “Bachelorette” contestants pulls up in front of the mansion.
Which Of Rachel’s Guys Stood Out?
Josiah’s the first to exit the limo. He wow’s Rachel with his confidence and knowledge of legal jargon, telling her, “I am convinced that by the end of our experience you will have no reasonable doubt that I’m the one for you.”
Bryan introduces himself to Rachel oozing charm. He kicks thing up a notch by showing off the fact that he’s bilingual.
Brady arrives at the “Bachelorette” mansion with an ice block and hammer in tow. Rachel’s slightly thrown off at first, but giggles once she realizes he’s physically breaking the ice.
Although Rachel’s warned about him by former “Bachelor” co-star Whitney, “The Bachelorette” star can’t help but get swept up by DeMario. She loves his confidence.
Rachel meets a familiar face while standing outside the “Bachelorette” mansion. Fred arrives with a yearbook in tow, but Rachel didn’t need to see her photo to recognize Fred. She recalls him as “a very bad kid.” Can she shake that impression of him?
Fred reminds Rachel Lindsay of their past history in Season 13, Episode 1 of “The Bachelorette” — but can she get beyond her bad memories of him? Photo: ABC
Lee steps out of the limo singing, which Rachel seems to enjoy.
Forget the dolphin girl from “The Bachelor” Season 21 — Matt the penguin guy is here to win over the hearts of America and, with any luck, Rachel on “The Bachelorette.”
Matt opted to impress “Bachelorette” star Rachel Lindsay with his outfit during Season 13, Episode 1. Photo: ABC
Lucas is one contestant “Bachelorette” fans were looking forward to meeting before Season 13 premiered. He does not disappoint in episode 1 when he steps out of the limo with a bullhorn in tow and his own face airbrushed on his tank top. In addition to sharing details about his height and weight, Lucas reveals to Rachel that one of his testicles is bigger than the other, which is one way to stand out.
Inside The Mansion
After the introductions, the guys are joined by Rachel for a cocktail party. They spend some time sizing one another up while Josiah makes an aggressive first move. He’s the first of the “Bachelorette” Season 13 cast members to steal the star for some one-on-one time.
He opens up to Rachel about his troubled past and how it set him on his path to being a lawyer. Josiah also shares with Rachel the tragic story about his brother’s suicide and the effect it had on him at such a young age. He’s able to keep Rachel engaged, though she doesn’t seem as enamored by him as she was with other “Bachelorette” hopefuls.
Although it’s a proven way to make a statement in the Bachelor Nation franchise, it doesn’t sit well with some of the men on the show. They decide to step up their game and begin fighting for time with Rachel. She’s overwhelmed when lines start forming while she’s chatting with other suitors.
Dean and Rachel Lindsay bond while playing in the sand during “The Bachelorette” Season 13 premiere. Photo: ABC
She also steps aside by Dean, who takes her to build a sand castle, and Bryan, whose directness may just be a match for Rachel. He pulls her into a private area outside the house for another showcase of his Spanish-speaking abilities and a smooch. While Rachel admits she didn’t plan to lock lips with any “Bachelorette” contestants in episode 1, she enjoys the kiss and seems really interested in Bryan.
Who Gets The First Impression Rose?
Josiah’s confidence gets the better of him during Season 13, episode 1 of “The Bachelorette.” He’s so certain he’s getting the first impression rose he puts it on at one point, which his co-stars joke may be “the kiss of death.” Rachel returns to the mansion to deliver the rose, bypassing Josiah and making a beeline for Bryan.
Josiah’s disappointed to learn he’s not chosen to receive the first impression rose in Season 13, Episode 1 of “The Bachelorette.” Photo: ABC
Rachel and Bryan share another special moment together. “The Bachelorette” star tells him she feels something with him that she can’t explain. She’s unclear whether it’s his bilingual flirtation, the kiss they shared, or something else, but Rachel’s into it.
At the end of their chat Rachel and Bryan share another kiss. “The Bachelorette” contestant Mohit, or Mo, looks on from a few feet away. He provides a little comic relief, narrating the situation in horror.
Who Went Home In Week 1?
At the end of episode 1, Rachel gathers the men for their first rose ceremony. Eleven men are sent packing including Kyle, Robert, Milton, Blake K., Grant and Jedediah. Both the men who were cut and the ones who made it through are shocked to see Lucas get the final rose of the night.
Milton’s the only one to get emotional about his elimination, though it’s not clear if it’s losing out on the chance to date Rachel or not getting to show off his outfits that he’s distraught about. He maintains that he’s the best man who arrived at the “Bachelorette” mansion.
Tune in to “The Bachelorette” Season 13, episode 2, next Monday on ABC at 9 p.m. EDT.
Rachel Lindsay meets her 31 potential suitors in Season 13, episode 1 of “The Bachelorette.” Photo: ABC
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WHOLE DUDE LOVES WHOLE FOODS -#WholeHappy:
WHOLE FOODS – HAPPY PLACE – HAPPIER PEOPLE:
WHOLE DUDE SAYS: “I LOVE WHOLE FOODS, WHOLE FOODS, WHOLE FOODS”:
I say, I Love Whole Foods, Whole Foods, Whole Foods,
You say, I want Whole Dude, Whole Dude, Whole Dude,
I say, I Love Whole Foods, Whole Foods, Whole Foods,
You say, I want Whole Dude, Whole Dude, Whole Dude.
I say, it’s time to Huddle, Huddle, Huddle,
You say, I don’t care to Cuddle, Cuddle, Cuddle,
I say, it’s time to Huddle, Huddle, Huddle,
You say, I don’t care to Cuddle, Cuddle, Cuddle.
I say, let’s all Store Front, Store Front, Store Front,
You say, it’s all More Stunt, More Stunt, More Stunt,
I say, let’s all Store Front, Store Front, Store Front,
You say, it’s all More Stunt, More Stunt, More Stunt.
I say, Aha, Come for Daily Grind, Daily Grind, Daily Grind,
You say, Oh, Never Mind, Never Mind, Mind Your Own Daily Grind,
I say, Aha, Come for Daily Grind, Daily Grind, Daily Grind,
You say, Oh, Never Mind, Never Mind, Mind Your Own Daily Grind.
I say, I Love Whole Foods, Whole Foods, Whole Foods,
You say, I want Whole Dude, Whole Dude, Whole Dude,
I say, I Love Whole Foods, Whole Foods, Whole Foods,
You say, I want Whole Dude, Whole Dude, Whole Dude.
WHOLE FOOD AND WHOLE SPIRITUALITY OF WHOLE DUDE :
WHOLE DUDE SAYS, “I GRIND, YOU GRIND, AND LIFE IS NOTHING BUT A DAILY GRIND.”
I say, Life is nothing but a Daily Grind and what do you want to say?????
Whole Team Members, please join me in a Whole Conversation and a Whole Reward for liking the post and leaving your comment.
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WHOLE FOODS – HAPPY PLACE – HAPPIER PEOPLE:
Whole Foods Market Inc.,(WFM) hired me during April 1997 and since that time I have been working in the Grocery Department at WFM Ann Arbor, Michigan location. Most of my fellow employees recognize me as the “WholeDude who Loves Whole Foods.” A person from Lansing, Michigan visited Ann Arbor on April 10, 2015 and inquired if I am happy working for Whole Foods. He asked for my opinion about Whole Foods as a workplace. I politely responded that I do not believe in private conversations. I prefer to express my opinions in writing and I invite people to respond to my views by offering comments in writing. I could not continue my conversation with that person who desired to investigate working conditions at Whole Foods in general and at Ann Arbor in particular. I would welcome him and others to leave comment on this post and ask for any further information to validate my opinion on Whole Foods – “A Happy Place With Happier People.”
WHOLE FOODS – “A HAPPY PLACE WITH HAPPIER PEOPLE”:
I have demonstrated the fact of my Love of Whole Foods during a Life’s Journey precisely measured in Service Hours. Love and Happiness are purely subjective experiences. But, the fact of Love and the mental condition called Happiness can be accurately verified by using objective criteria to prove that subjective experience. Some of the tested objective standards used in evaluating the ‘morale’ of any workforce include factors such as 1. Absenteeism, 2. Discipline, 3. Financial Security, 4. Sickness/Personal Injuries at workplace, and 5. Stress at workplace. Using these objective measurements, I would like to claim that I Love Whole Foods for I find Happiness at Whole Foods.
1. ABSENTEEISM: Research clearly demonstrates a direct link between absenteeism and the happiness experienced by a worker at his workplace. I worked about 37, 300 Service Hours( not counting Over Time Hours ) without no recorded unscheduled absence from work. Over the last 17 years of my employment at WFM, I generally maintained a Full-Time Status with variable work schedules dictated by the demands of the workplace. Apparently, I do not find the Service to be dull, uninteresting, monotonous, tedious, or boring. In fact, some of those characteristics are often associated with the experience called unhappiness. Unhappy workers tend to be either tardy or remain absent or miss scheduled work.
2. DISCIPLINE: Compliance with the Standards and Ethics of workplace is clearly linked with the ‘morale’ of the worker. Unhappy individuals more often face disciplinary action as compared to happy individuals. I will not be able to claim that I Love Whole Foods and I will not be able to assert that I am happy working at Whole Foods if I do not maintain a “Clean Slate”, a record that is free from marks of discredit or dishonor. I welcome any interested party to verify my personal Record of Service kept at WFM and I fully waive my rights to keep such information as private and confidential.
3. Financial Security: In modern economic life, the true index for personal happiness in life is not the figure on the paycheck. Happiness at workplace is not consistent with financial insecurity. The level of personal indebtedness is a true measure of a person’s financial security. I make a living working at WFM without incurring personal debts or taking Credit Card loans. In other words, while being an hourly wage earner who provides labor at WFM without a signed ‘Contract’, I am able to live a life without experiencing financial insecurity.
4. SICKNESS/PERSONAL INJURIES: A number of studies reveal a relationship between a person’s susceptibility to sickness/ a person’s proneness to injury and the person’s psychological state or condition. Current medical research indicates a connection between mental health and happiness with immune function. Even when the working environment is clean and healthy, unhappy individuals more often report sickness or sustain injuries at workplace. During the time I spent at WFM, I have not missed even a single day of my work on account of sickness or personal injury.
5. STRESS AT WORKPLACE: Occupational Stress is clearly reflected in the personal habits of the workers. Individuals experiencing stress are often driven to find relaxation by using tobacco, alcohol, or any variety of Chemical Substances and Drugs used for recreational purposes. Secondly, workers often take ‘Time Off’ to escape from the stress experienced at the workplace. I do not use tobacco, alcohol, or any other recreational substance and this fact has been consistently verified by voluntary participation in periodic drug screening tests and during medical examination by physicians over a course of 25 years. Apart from my freedom from Chemical Substances, the fact of not experiencing stress during my employment at WFM can be substantiated by the number of ‘Paid Time Off'(PTO) Hours that I have accumulated. I accumulated about 2, 750 PTO Hours to which the WFM has assigned a cash surrender value. In reality, I have not experienced an urge to pursue a habit for its recreational value. I do not watch movies or visit places for personal amusement. If time permits, I listen to songs composed in Indian languages to preserve my language skills.
All said and done, I am not suggesting that personal motivation as the most important factor to find happiness in employment. Happiness is like the Sunshine. To find happiness, the dude needs an external source of Light that generates happiness. To write and state, “WholeDude Loves Whole Foods”, the dude needs to be in relationship with an external source of happiness. WFM has stated ‘Team Member Happiness’ as its Core Value, an Operating Principle to govern the Employer-Employee relationship at the Company. I am submitting that the WFM Core Value of Caring for Team Member Happiness is truly experienced by me. In conclusion, with a sense of great pleasure I claim that Whole Foods is, “A HAPPY PLACE WITH HAPPIER PEOPLE.”
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