TIBET AWARENESS – CHINA’S INVASION OF TIBETAN CYBERSPACE
In my analysis, Communist China’s Beidou Satellite Navigation Network may succeed in the invasion of Tibetan Cyberspace but will utterly fail in defending China from an attack from Heavenly Domain.
Big data system keeps real-time track of visitors in Tibet – Global Times
Clipped from: http://www.globaltimes.cn/content/1121934.shtml
A Tibetan opera competition held in a park during the traditional Shoton Festival in Lhasa, Tibet Autonomous Region, on August 12, 2018, attracts numerous Tibetan people and tourists from home and abroad. Photo: VCG
Tibet University installs a real-time monitoring electronic screen which can display the number of tourists in a given period and the specific number at any tourist attraction. Photo: Courtesy of Nyima Tashi
This big data screen made its debut at this year’s Tourism and Culture Expo that kicked off in Lhasa, the capital of Tibet, in early September. The screen shows the distribution of Tibet’s natural resources including lakes, lands and rare wild species. Photo: Courtesy of Wang Sheng
As China enters the era of big data, a key university in Southwest China’s Tibet Autonomous Region is using this technical method to monitor the flow of tourists.
Analysts said the move will not only boost the tourism industry but also help safeguard regional stability and promote national unity.
Tibet University, the largest university in the region with an internationally renowned department of Tibetan studies, has established a big data center based on tourism information.
The center was jointly built by the university’s information and technology school and Beijing-based Wiseweb Technology Company, one of China’s leading companies that provide big data smart software and services. It was officially launched in early September.
Nyima Tashi, dean of the school, told the Global Times on Friday that the center aims to provide data support for the regional government to boost the local tourism industry and further accelerate the region’s openness to the world.
Nyima said the school installed a real-time monitoring electronic screen which could display the number of tourists in a given period and the specific number at any tourist attraction.
Moreover, it can show the background information of local tourist attractions and exhibit any trends of changing tourist preferences.
“In near future, the screen could also show more information about tourists, such as the origin of domestic and overseas tourists and their preferences of scenic spots, as long as the information does not invade personal privacy,” Nyima noted.
The big data screen made its debut at this year’s tourism and culture expo that kicked off in Lhasa, the capital of Tibet, in early September.
Wang Sheng, deputy manager of Wiseweb, told the Global Times on Thursday that the data aims to provide a reference for the regional government to monitor tourism market dynamics.
For example, the screen could display important events held in Tibet, ticket information, and the number of tourists in different scenic spots, he said.
“The real-time monitoring could give a warning to the government on negative social events,” Wang noted.
According to Wang, some data is captured from open sources on the internet while other data is purchased from tourist companies. For the next step, the company will obtain more data from different levels of government. “Possibly, the screen will show more information about overseas tourists,” said Wang.
The big data center impressed foreign visitors. Han Woo-duck, director of South Korea Central Daily China Institute, said in an article published on its website on September 18 that what marveled him most during his four-day visit to Tibet was not the Potala Palace or the Jokhang Monastery, but the big data center at Tibet University.
Han said the university’s staff led him to the center, and the changing data on the screen, shown as pie charts and bar graphs, could demonstrate the changes of tourists in real-time.
“It means that the Tibet University, in the deep heart of China, is building up a big data center. It marks a clear comparison with South Korea, where there is not any real-time information about the number of tourists in scenic spots or the major gathering spots of overseas tourists,” Han said in the article.
Tibet received a record 25.6 million domestic and foreign tourists in 2017, up 10.6 percent compared with the previous year, the Xinhua News Agency reported in January, citing regional authorities.
Tourism has become one of the pillar industries in the region. Tourism revenue during 2017 reached 37.9 billion yuan ($5.9 billion), with a year-on-year increase of 14.7 percent. Statistics showed that for the past five years, total tourism revenue in the region topped 130 billion yuan, said Xinhua.
Due to special ethnic traditions and environmental protection concerns, overseas tourists must get a permit from the regional tourist bureau before entering into Tibet.
From January to April, Tibet received nearly 40,000 foreign tourists, up 50.5 percent compared with the previous year.
“A big data system incorporating tourism information will help local governments manage the industry in a more orderly way and avoid accidents,” Xiong Kunxin, a professor of ethnic studies at the Minzu University of China in Beijing, told the Global Times on Friday.
In addition to sharing the beautiful scenery and cultural heritage with the outside world, developing tourism in Tibet is also an important move to safeguard regional stability, promote national unity, and guard against separatist forces, said Xiong.
TIBET AWARENESS – A CHARMING WAY TO FIGHT AGAINST THE DEVIL
Living Tibetan Spirits seek the Blessings of Guru Padmasambhava, Shantarakshita (Protector of Peace) to fight against the Devil giving us pain, and misery by robbing the Natural Freedom that Tibetans inherited entirely due to Natural Conditions, Natural Causes, Natural Factors, and Natural Mechanisms. Freedom in Tibet is the gift of Mother Nature. Whereas Occupation is the Sickness imposed by the Evil Power called The Red Dragon. In the fight against the Evil Power occupying Tibet, Living Tibetan Spirits embrace both conventional, and unconventional tactics of Warfare.
TSURPHU CHAM DANCE FESTIVAL, TSURPHU MONASTERY FESTIVAL
With the altitude of 4,300m, Tsurphu Monastery lies at the upper reach of Tsurphu river, about 70 km to the west of Lhasa. It was established by Dusum Khyenpa, the 1st Karmapa, and became the patriarch temple for Karma Kargyu to pass on and carry forward Tibetan Buddhism. Tsurphu Monastery has already been 800 years of history.
Tsurphu Monastery is the most important temple for Karma Kargyu in Tibet.
Tsurphu Cham Dance Festival falls on the 10th day of the fourth month in Tibetan Calendar. This Cham dance festival is celebrated to commemorate the great Indian guru Padmasambhava who came to Tibet and devoted himself in promoting Buddhism. During the Tsurphu Festival, you can also observe some other religious activities, like grand dharma assembly, Buddha exhibition, etc.
Cham dance is performed during Tsurphu Festival.
Cham dance in Tsurphu Monastery is a kind of Tibetan art and performance. It has plots, characters, music and dances. However, Cham dance is different from Tibetan Opera and has greater significance in religion. Not only can it entertain the audience but also advocate Tibetan Buddhism. It’s a grand religious activity organized by the temple. As for famous Tibetan monasteries, they have their own Cham group and make uniform Cham masks, dance costumes, ornamentations and musical instruments, etc. Usually, those items are treasured very well in the temple. Cham dancers have to pass through several religious rituals before using them.
Lots of Tibetans are watching Cham dance outside Tsurphu Temple.
There are many strict rules on Cham performance. Major roles are played by monks and dancers should be flexible and alert. All of them shall be completely into the roles even before the play. Body movements, facial expressions, hand gestures and dance steps must be elegant and smooth. In other words, as long as they put on Cham costumes and masks, they need to be like the real deities. It’s said that deities would get angry if they failed to meet those requirements and something bad would happen to relevant personnel. In addition to appreciating the Cham dance, Tibetan people also worship Buddha and receive blessings at Tsurphu Monastery.
If you are interested in Tibetan Buddhism and Cham dance, taking part in Tsurphu Cham Dance Festival is an excellent chance to feel religious atmosphere you couldn’t afford to miss. After visiting Tsurphu Monastery, you can also try to trek from Tsurphu to Yampachen and the scenery along the route will never let you down.
NATIONAL SECURITY BILL FOR TIBET – GOD HAS A PLAN FOR TIBET
On August 10, 1949, the US President Harry Truman signed The National Security Bill creating The Department of Defense to prepare the United States for Cold War as containment of Communist Expansionism requires a complex strategy.
Tibet declared full independence on February 13, 1913, taking advantage of the downfall of the Qing Dynasty or Ch’ing, or Manchu Chinese Empire during 1911-1912.
Tibet never had a National Security Plan or Security Strategy to defend its existence. During 1948-49, Tibet experienced the first major threat to existence with the spread of Communism to mainland China during World War II. It is no surprise to find Tibetans unprepared. In the absence of National Security Plan or Strategy, Tibet has become dependent upon The US National Security Bill and its execution by different US Administrations.
Tibetans are very fearful of Chinese people as Chinese ruled over Tibet with the utmost brutality, unlike the Mongols who had earlier ruled over Tibet for a long time. Tibetans are not concerned about the political ideology of Chinese people. Tibetans are simply afraid of the Chinese race known for their arrogance and unjustified use of power to subjugate innocent, undefended Tibetan people.
Living Tibetan Spirits trace their American Support from the period of Hump Airlift Operations from April 1942 to November 1945 in China Burma India Theater (CBI) of World War II. While the British fought against the Japanese invasion of Burma, the US worked to extend support to Nationalist forces engaged in bitter Civil War to oppose the Communist takeover of mainland China. Apart from the use of Tibetan airspace, some Hump Airlift Operations delivered weapons and ammunition to Tibet.
For both Tibet and India have no Security Plan or Strategy to defend Tibet from military conquest, they used the opportunity provided by the US President Harry Truman who signed The National Security Bill with plans to fight against Communist Expansionism.
Tibet, India, and the United States agreed to work together in support of the US Plan to contain the spread of Communism. But, as we have seen, it is not good enough. In fact, Communist China consolidated her tight grip over Tibet.
For countries of the World have no Security Plan for Tibet, I asked God for His Security Plan for Tibet. God referred me to the story of David and Goliath described in The Old Testament Book, 1 SAMUEL, Chapter 17. God assures me that it takes only a single ‘Sling Shot’ to utterly defeat Tibet’s Enemy. Beijing’s Downfall is just a ‘Stone’s Throw Away’. I call God’s Plan as ‘The Sling Shot’ Option for Tibet’s Security.
TRUMAN SIGNS NATIONAL SECURITY BILL – AUGUST 10, 1949
President Harry S. Truman signs the National Security Bill, which establishes the Department of Defense. As the Cold War heated up, the Department of Defense became the cornerstone of America’s military effort to contain the expansion of communism.
In 1947, the National Security Act established the Cabinet-level position of secretary of defense, which oversaw a rather unwieldy umbrella military-defense agency known as the National Military Establishment. The secretary of defense, however, was just one of a number of military-related cabinet positions, including the pre-existing secretaries for the Army, Navy, and Air Force. The growing complexity of the Cold War, a war in which the mishandled application of military force could lead to a world war of cataclysmic proportions, convinced U.S. officials that the 1947 act needed to be revised.
In 1949, the National Security Bill streamlined the defense agencies of the U.S. government. The 1949 bill replaced the National Military Establishment with the Department of Defense. The bill also removed the cabinet-level status of the secretaries of the Army, Navy, and Air Force, who would henceforth be subordinate to the Secretary of Defense. The first person to hold this position was Louis Johnson. Finally, the bill provided for the office of chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff in an effort to bring to end to the inter-service bickering that had characterized the Joint Chiefs in recent years. World War II hero General Omar Bradley was appointed the first Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
The National Security Bill of 1949 was the result of the realization that more coordination and efficiency were needed for America’s military-defense bureaucracy, which had experienced tremendous growth during and after World War II. The Cold War was a new and dangerous kind of war for America, and the 1949 reorganization was recognition of the need for a different approach to U.S. defense.
BEIJING DOOMED – CHINA’S DOOMSDAY DILEMMA
Thubten Samphel, Director of Tibet Policy Institute of Central Tibetan Administration described China’s Dalai Lama Dilemma.
In my analysis, China must open her eyes to Doomsday Revelation shared by Doom Dooma Doomsayer. In my view, Beijing awaits catastrophe, disaster, calamity, cataclysm, apocalypse, or Doom as described in The Book of Revelation, Chapter 18.
China can be willing to pay the ransom but cannot ward off disaster which is just a stone’s throw away.
CHINA’S DALAI LAMA DILEMMA – CENTRAL TIBETAN ADMINISTRATION
Clipped from: http://tibet.net/2018/07/chinas-dalai-lama-dilemma/
By Thubten Samphel
In his pursuit of the Chinese dream and the rejuvenation of the Chinese nation, President Xi Jinping has relentlessly tightened Party discipline and its grip on society. He has launched the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), a project to vastly improve connectivity on land and at sea between Africa, the Middle East, and Europe through the construction of highways, airports, rail, and ports to facilitate trade and commerce between continents. It is hoped that Chinese investment in 64 countries would facilitate the flow of goods, minerals, gas, and foodstuff to China to keep its domestic economy humming and strengthen its outward power projection.
Under Xi, China has asserted its claims of sovereignty over the South China Sea not only through words but by concrete action. It is constructing artificial islands, which are being weaponized.
Xi’s China makes another claim of sovereignty over cyberspace. It is succeeding to a surprising degree. What information goes out of China and is allowed into the country is monitored and controlled by the Chinese Communist Party. Other authoritarian regimes are following suit.
China makes another claim of sovereignty. This time it is over Tibet’s spiritual space. Whether the Party will succeed or not is another matter but its determination to do so is clear from a number of projects and policy directions.
In 2007, the Party issued a directive “the management measures for the reincarnation of living Buddhas in Tibetan Buddhism.” It is also known as order number five. Reincarnating Tibetan lamas must submit a “reincarnation application” to the Party for their reincarnation to be “approved.”
In 2016, China launched an online database of all reincarnating Tibetan lamas. Those not on the database are not “living Buddhas” in the Party’s eyes. And the Dalai Lama is not on the database.
Here the Party is confronted by the Dalai Lama dilemma. The Party wants the 15th Dalai Lama but not the 14th, who some senior cadres “ordered” him to reincarnate. In pursuit of this goal, the Party is moving aggressively in areas and countries that were not the fields of activities of the United Front, a Party organ considered its “magic weapon.”
Khalkha Jetsun Dampa
Mongolia is the new field of activities of the United Front. These activities are made easier because Mongolia, a vast landlocked country with only two neighbors, China and Russia, is beholden to its powerful and dynamic southern neighbor for its economic wellbeing. China is exploiting this Mongol vulnerability to “guide” Mongolia in its selection of Khalkha Jetsun Dampa, Mongolia’s highest reincarnate lama, whose previous reincarnation lived in Dharamsala for many years. China wants Mongolia to select the next reincarnation without any consultation with the Dalai Lama.
But the problem for China is that the Dalai Lama is enthroned at the very top of Tibet’s spiritual hierarchy. Reincarnating lamas’ spiritual legitimacy and acceptance by people, be they Tibetans, Mongolians or throughout the Buddhist Himalayan belt, derives from his recognition.
But China makes no pretense of its game plan in playing in Tibet’s spiritual realm. It is promoting the Beijing-appointed Panchen Lama, creating important platforms for him to gain wider acceptance. It is also promoting the late 10th Panchen Lama’s daughter in the hope she will throw her father’s spiritual weight to the Party’s choice of the next Dalai Lama. Beijing has lined up and is grooming young Tibetan lamas to help it choose the 15th Dalai Lama and to show to the world that there is Tibetan Buddhist church’s acceptance of its choice.
In making this plan’s the Party hopes that without a shot being fired it could appropriate the crown jewel of Tibet’s civilization and along with it the worldwide goodwill the present Dalai Lama has created for Tibet and its culture.
The problem for China is that the concept of reincarnation is a matter of faith and cannot be imposed through administrative diktat. That faith will be guided by the actions of the heads of all four schools of Tibetan Buddhism and that of Bon, Tibet’s homegrown religion, who fortunately are all in India. Above all, it will be determined by the decision of the 14th Dalai Lama.
*Thubten Samphel is the director of the Tibet Policy Institute, a research center of the Central Tibetan Administration. Views expressed here do not necessarily reflect those of the TPI.
LIVING TIBETAN SPIRITS REJECT CHINA WARNING
Global Times of China reports that National People’s Congress delegates of Tibet asked the US Congress members not to support the “Dalai Lama clique.” Further, these Chinese delegates of National People’s Congress demand recognition of Tibet as part of China. For now, Living Tibetan Spirits acknowledge the problem of Tibet’s status. The problem is, China is in Tibet and not where it truly belongs.
CHINA WARNS US AGAINST SUPPORTING DALAI LAMA – ONEINDIA NEWS
Amid the trade war with the US, China has also asked the former to desist from supporting the “Dalai Lama clique” in Tibet in an attempt to reiterate China’s sovereignty over Tibet, the country’s Global Times cited a home-based expert as saying on Tuesday, May 15.
A team of the National People’s Congress comprising legislators from the Tibet Autonomous Region of China concluded a six-day trip of the US on Monday, May 14, with an aim for the same, the expert said.
Xinhua news agency reported on Tuesday that the delegation, led by the deputy of the People’s Congress of the Tibet Autonomous Region, Baima Wangdui, met a number of US senators and officials of the department of state in Washington DC.
The Chinese delegation told the US members about the importance of a good US-China relationship but also reiterated that Tibet was about China’s sovereignty and it is a question of core interest of China, Xinhua added.
Xinhua also said that Wangdui urged the US to recognize the Dalai clique’s anti-China nature and avoid any kind of contact with them. It also said the US assured the Chinese delegates that it recognized Tibet as a part of China and would not back “Tibetan independence”.
However, not all in China are convinced about the Americans’ ploy.
“Although the US said they recognize Tibet as part of China and would not support ‘Tibetan independence’, they have been meeting the Dalai Lama and, in the past, have funded the Tibetan ‘government-in-exile’,” Global Times quoted Qin Yongzhang, an ethnologist at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, as saying.
Qin also said only time could tell whether the latest visit by the Chinese delegation would change America’s “double-faced actions”, adding that it was important to make clear China’s position.
Zhu Weiqun, a former chairman of the ethnic and religious committee of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference, told Global Times that Washington recently approved “a new batch of funding to support the Dalai Lama, even more than the sum back in the Obama days” and said he didn’t find any reason to believe the current Donald Trump administration of the US would be any different in supporting the Dalai clique compared to the earlier administrations.
BEIJING DOOMED – “INFORMISATION” – THE ROLE OF INFORMATION IN WARFARE
In my War against Evil Red Empire, I use ‘Information’ as my weapon of choice to predict sudden, unexpected downfall of arrogant regime in Beijing. There are two key pieces of ‘Information’ that I discovered in the Books of Bible that help me to plan my attack using Heavenly Strike rather than man’s military power.
The Book of Isaiah, Chapter 47, and Book of REVELATION, Chapter 18 provide Information as to how Natural Force, Natural Mechanisms, Natural Events, and Natural Factors can bring about Downfall of Evil Power on Earth.
THE ‘GLOBALISATION’ OF CHINA’S MILITARY POWER -BBC NEWS
Clipped from: http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-china-43036302
Jonathan Marcus Diplomatic correspondent @Diplo1 on Twitter
Image copyright Reuters. Image caption. Experts say China is developing weaponry tailored for export to specific markets, including some deemed too sensitive for Western manufacturers
China’s modernization of its armed forces is proceeding faster than many analysts expected.
Now, according to experts at the International Institute for Strategic Studies – the IISS – in London, it is China and no longer Russia, that increasingly provides the benchmark against which Washington judges the capability requirements for its own armed forces.
This is especially true in terms of air and naval forces – the focus of China’s modernization effort. Events in Europe mean that for the US Army, it is still largely Russian capabilities that provide the benchmark threat.
This trend has been chronicled in the Military Balance, the annual assessment of global military capabilities and Defence spending, published by the IISS since 1959.
Of course, transformation of the Chinese military has been under way for some time. But now a significant way-point has been reached – or is very close – that will make it the “peer competitor” for Washington.
Ahead of publication of this year’s Military Balance later this week, I sat down with a group of IISS experts to try to tease out more of the details of this trend, providing a powerful narrative to the annual compendium’s tables and statistics.
China’s progress and technical abilities are remarkable – from ultra-long-range conventional ballistic missiles to fifth generation fighter jets. Last year the first hull of China’s latest warship – the Type 55 cruiser – was put into the water. Its capabilities would give any NATO navy pause for thought.
China is working on its second aircraft carrier. It is revamping its military command structure to give genuine joint headquarters involving all the key services. In terms of Artillery, Air Defence and Land Attack it has weapons that out-range anything the US can deploy.
Since the late 1990s, when it received an influx of advanced Russian technology, the Chinese Navy could recapitalize the bulk of its surface and subsurface fleets.
In the air, its new single-seat fighter, the J-20, is said by the Chinese to be in operational service.
It is what is known in the trade as a “fifth generation fighter”, meaning that it incorporates stealth technology; it has a supersonic cruising speed; and highly integrated avionics.
IISS experts remain skeptical.
“The Chinese Air Force”, they say, “still needs to develop suitable tactics to operate the low-observable jet and must come up with doctrines to mix these ‘fifth generation’ warplanes with earlier ‘fourth generation models’.
“Still, China’s progress is clear,” they say, “you can add to these aircraft a whole range of capable air-to-air missiles that are every bit on a par with those in Western arsenals.”
This year’s Military Balance devotes a whole chapter to developments in Chinese and Russian air-launched weapons which they see as a key test for western dominance.
The US and its allies have waged air campaigns since the end of the Cold War and have lost very few aircraft. But this dominance, according to the IISS, may be increasingly challenged. China, for example, is developing a very long-range air-to-air missile intended specifically to strike at tanker and command and control aircraft that now orbit out of harm’s way; essential but vulnerable elements in any air operation.
The authors of the Military Balance argue China’s air-to-air missile developments by 2020, “will likely force the US and its regional allies to re-examine not only their tactics, techniques and procedures, but also direction of their own combat-aerospace development programmes”.
On land the Chinese army is lagging behind in this modernization effort according to the IISS. Only about half of its equipment is serviceable in terms of modern combat.
But even here progress is being made. China has set a goal of 2020 as the date to achieve both “mechanization” and what it calls “informisation“. Quite what China means by this is latter term is unclear, but Beijing has been watching the developing role of information in warfare and seeking to adapt this to its own particular circumstances.
Image copyright AFP. Image caption. An armed Chinese drone of the type for sale to other countries
China has one clear strategic aim in mind to which many of its new weapons systems are tailored. In event of a conflict, this is to push US military power as far away from its shores as possible, ideally deep into the Pacific. This strategy is known in military jargon as “anti-access area denial” – sometimes abbreviated as A2AD. This explains China’s focus on long-range air and maritime systems that can hold the US Navy’s carrier battle groups at risk.
So as a military player China has pretty well joined the Premier League. But this though is not the end of Beijing’s global military impact. It is also pursuing an ambitious arms export strategy. Often China is willing to sell advanced technologies that other countries either do not have, or are unwilling to sell to all but their closest allies.
The market for armed drones is a case in point. This is a rapidly spreading technology that raises huge questions about the boundary between peace and war. The US, which was one of the pioneers in this field, has refused to sell sophisticated armed drones to anyone except a limited number of its closest NATO allies like the United Kingdom. France, which already operates US-supplied Reaper drones, has plans to arm drones as well.
China has had no such constraints, displaying impressive unmanned aerial vehicles along the various munitions that they can carry at arms shows around the world. The IISS Military Balance says that China has sold its armed UAVs to a number of countries including Egypt, Nigeria, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, and Myanmar, among others.
This is a very good example of unintended consequences. Washington’s reluctance to sell this technology leaves the field open to Beijing. Inevitably this has a wider role in the spread of such weapons, encouraging other countries who operate UAVs solely for intelligence gathering purposes to seek armed variants as well.
US and Western arms exporters see China as a growing commercial threat. Compared with even a decade ago, there is a serious Chinese presence in the marketplace, offering good quality equipment. China, as the armed UAV example illustrates, is also willing to enter markets which many Western manufacturers, or their governments, see as being too sensitive.
And as the IISS experts told me, China tends to win on all aspects of the deal. Typically Chinese weaponry will give you 75% of capability of the available Western technology for 50% of the price. In business terms it’s a strong offer.
Image copyright EPA. Image caption. The Thai army testing out a newly purchased Chinese-manufactured VT4 main battle tank in January 2018
China’s ground warfare exports are less impressive. They still have to compete for customers with countries like Russia and Ukraine. But when Kiev couldn’t meet the timeframe for a tank deal with Thailand in 2014, the Thais bought Chinese VT4 tanks instead. Last year Thailand went back for more.
IISS experts say that China is also trying to develop weaponry tailored to specific markets. They point to a new light tank for example intended for African countries, whose roads and infrastructure would not be able to cope with many of the heavier models offered by others.
China’s growing role as a source of sophisticated weaponry is something that is worrying many countries and not just its neighbours. Western air forces have enjoyed some three decades of dominance. But the “anti-access” strategy of the Chinese has provided weapons that could easily be employed by others to do the same thing.
A Western European country may never face China in a conflict, but it could well face sophisticated Chinese weapons systems in the hands of others. As one IISS expert put it, “the perception that you will enter a low-risk environment when intervening overseas, now needs to be questioned.”
This Day in History – What Happened Today – HISTORY.com
SEPTEMBER 22, 1971 – THIS DAY IN HISTORY – I CAN NEVER LIVE AS ‘NORMAL PERSON’
On September 22, 1971, I was Taken On Strength(TOS) of Establishment No. 22, Special Frontier Force, a military organization created in response to ‘The Cold War in Asia.’
On September 22, 2017 I live in Ann Arbor, Michigan to welcome the first day of Fall Season. Today, I claim that I can never live my Life as ‘Normal Person’.
DOOM DOOMA DOOMSAYER
SEPTEMBER 22, THIS DAY IN HISTORY – WHAT HAPPENED TODAY
Clipped from: http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history
On this day in 1862, President Abraham Lincoln issues a preliminary Emancipation Proclamation, which sets a date for the freedom of more than 3 million black slaves in the United States and recasts the Civil War as a fight against slavery.
When the Civil War broke out in 1861, shortly after Lincoln’s inauguration as America’s 16th president, he maintained that the war was about restoring the Union and not about slavery. He avoided issuing an anti-slavery proclamation immediately, despite the urgings of abolitionists and radical Republicans, as well as his personal belief that slavery was morally repugnant. Instead, Lincoln chose to move cautiously until he could gain wide support from the public for such a measure.
In July 1862, Lincoln informed his cabinet that he would issue an emancipation proclamation but that it would exempt the so-called border states, which had slaveholders but remained loyal to the Union. His cabinet persuaded him not to make the announcement until after a Union victory. Lincoln’s opportunity came following the Union win at the Battle of Antietam in September 1862. On September 22, the president announced that slaves in areas still in rebellion within 100 days would be free.
On January 1, 1863, Lincoln issued the final Emancipation Proclamation, which declared “that all persons held as slaves” within the rebel states “are, and henceforward shall be free.” The proclamation also called for the recruitment and establishment of black military units among the Union forces. An estimated 180,000 African Americans went on to serve in the army, while another 18,000 served in the navy.
After the Emancipation Proclamation, backing the Confederacy was seen as favoring slavery. It became impossible for anti-slavery nations such as Great Britain and France, who had been friendly to the Confederacy, to get involved on behalf of the South. The proclamation also unified and strengthened Lincoln’s party, the Republicans, helping them stay in power for the next two decades.
The proclamation was a presidential order and not a law passed by Congress, so Lincoln then pushed for an antislavery amendment to the U.S. Constitution to ensure its permanence. With the passage of the 13th Amendment in 1865, slavery was eliminated throughout America (although blacks would face another century of struggle before they truly began to gain equal rights).
Lincoln’s handwritten draft of the final Emancipation Proclamation was destroyed in the Chicago Fire of 1871. Today, the original official version of the document is housed in the National Archives in Washington, D.C.
Also on this day
Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation is announced
Motivated by his growing concern for the inhumanity of slavery as well as practical political concerns, President Abraham Lincoln changes the course of the war and American history by issuing the preliminary Emancipation Proclamation. Announced a week after the nominal Union victory at the Battle of Antietam, near Sharpsburg, Maryland,…
President Kennedy signs Peace Corps legislation
In an important victory for his Cold War foreign policy, President John F. Kennedy signs legislation establishing the Peace Corps as a permanent government agency. Kennedy believed that the Peace Corps could provide a new and unique weapon in the war against communism.
President Ford survives second assassination attempt
On this day in 1975, Sarah Jane Moore aims a gun at President Gerald Ford as he leaves the Saint Francis Hotel in San Francisco, California. The attempt on the president’s life came only 17 days after another woman had tried to assassinate Ford.
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