Spirituality – Victory over Death
PROUD TO BE AN INDIAN – THE LEGACY OF RANI PADMINI OF CHITTORGARH
Rani Padmini of Chittorgarh is Living Symbol of Indian National Character that makes me Proud to be an Indian. This Cultural Icon of India cannot be tarnished by fiction writers who have no concern for Historical Facts.
RANI PADMINI AND ALAUDDIN KHILJI: SEPARATING FACT FROM FICTION
– Jan 28, 2017, 6:35 pm
If reports are to be believed, filmmaker Sanjay Leela Bhansali’s next, Padmavati, is based on Malik Muhammad Jayasi’s poem Padmavat.
Jayasi’s poem about Padmini and Khilji, however, does not have a historical basis.
Historians have some understanding of what may have happened in that fateful chapter of the lives of Rani Padmini and Alauddin Khilji.
After Bajirao Mastani, director Sanjay Leela Bhansali is making another period drama film, Padmavati, this time about Rani Padmini, the queen of Chittorgarh, and Alauddin Khilji, the ruler of Delhi. According to media reports, the film will feature a love story between Padmini and Khilji.
The popular story says that when Khilji attacked Chittor, he fell for Padmini on seeing her reflection in the mirror. This story was woven by a well-known Indian poet, Malik Muhammad Jayasi, in 1540 AD, and finds echo in Jawaharlal Nehru’s Discovery of India as well.
Jayasi’s poem about Padmini and Khilji, however, is not accurate. Historians have, in fact, come up with possible scenarios for what could have actually happened.
According to Jayasi’s poem Padmavat, Rani Padmavati of Chittor was the wife of Raja Ratansen (a name invented by Jayasi with no reference in Mewar history) of Chittor during the reign of Alauddin Khilji. The correct name of Chittor’s then ruler was Rawal Ratan Singh, the thirty-fourth descendant of Bappa Rawal.
What Jayasi’s poem says
There were many talented artists in the court of Ratansen, one of whom was a musician named Raghava Chetan. He was a sorcerer who used his magical powers to target rivals. Once, he was caught red-handed while trying to invoke evil spirits, after which Ratansen banished Raghava from the kingdom after blackening his face. Raghava ran away to Delhi and decided to take revenge by provoking Khilji to attack Chittor.
Raghava knew of a forest near Delhi where Khilji went hunting. One day, he played his flute while Khilji was out hunting. The alluring notes emanating from his flute attracted the attention of Khilji, who then asked his soldiers to fetch the flute player. Thus, Raghava was taken to Khilji’s court.
After reaching Delhi, Raghava told Khilji about the unparalleled beauty of Rani Padmini. That prompted Khilji to attack Chittor, but he found the fort to be heavily defended. So, he laid siege to the fort and forced Ratansen to negotiate with him.
Desperate to capture the beautiful Padmini, Khilji sent a word to Ratansen about him wanting to meet her. The Raja asked Padmini, who flatly refused. However, on being persuaded by her beleaguered husband, Rani Padmini agreed to let Khilji see her in the mirror.
The palace on the right is where Padmini is supposed to have stood. (Sanjeev Nayyar)
Next, Khilji entered the fort with a group of select warriors who had observed the fort’s defenses on their way to the palace. On seeing Padmini in the mirror, Khilji decided that she must be his.
The mirror in Chittor in which Khilji is said to have seen Padmini’s reflection (Sanjeev Nayyar)
While returning to his camp, Khilji deceitfully kidnapped Ratansen and took him as prisoner. Thereafter, he informed the Rajput Sardars that Padmini should be handed over to him if they wanted to see their king alive.
The Rajput generals, led by two gutsy warriors, Gora and Badal, who were related to Padmini, decided to beat Khilji at his game. They sent out a word that Padmini would be handed over the next morning.
At the crack of dawn, 150 palanquins (in which royal ladies were carried in medieval times) left the fort and made their way to Khilji’s camp. The palanquins stopped before a tent where King Ratansen was held prisoner. To his surprise, armed Rajputs jumped out from the palanquins, freed Ratansen and galloped away to Chittor, riding the horses grabbed from Khilji’s stable.
Khilji was furious. He ordered the army to storm Chittorgarh. However, the army could not break into the fort. Due to a prolonged siege, food supplies for the troops were running out. So Ratansen opened the fort gates, and Rajputs rode out to fight. They were overpowered, and achieved martyrdom. Rani Padmini and wives of thousands of warriors preferred jauhar (fire is lit, and women jump into the flames) over losing their honor to Khilji’s army.
Place in Chittor where jauhar was committed (Sanjeev Nayyar)
When Khilji entered the fort, all that he found were ashes of these brave women. Their sacrifice has been kept alive by Bards in their songs, where they praise women who preferred supreme sacrifice to dishonor.
When this author visited Chittorgarh Fort in 2008 and asked the guide about the veracity of the mirror story, he said locals did not believe in it.
Having learnt what Jayasi’s poem says, let us now read what the Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan’s book on Indian History says.
In January 1303, Khilji set out on his memorable campaign for the conquest of Chittor. He received strong resistance from the Rajputs under Rana Ratan Singh. The Rajputs offered heroic resistance for about seven months and then, after the women had perished in the flames of jauhar, the fort surrendered on August 26, 1303.
Whilst later writers like Abu-l Fazl, Haji-ud-Dabir (note these two authors use Padmini not as a name, but as a woman possessing special attributes) have accepted the story that the sole reason for invasion of Chittor was Khilji’s desire to get possession of Padmini, many modern writers are inclined to reject it altogether. They point out that the episode of Padmini was first mentioned by Malik Jayasi in 1540 A.D. in his poem Padmavat, which is a romantic tale rather than historical work. Further, the later day writers who reproduced the story with varying details, flourished long after the event, but their versions differed from one another on essential points.
Yarn 2 by Jayasi
In Padmavat, Jayasi wrote that Padmini was the daughter of Raja Gandharva Sen of Sri Lanka. The Lanka story has many contradictions.
1) The name Raja Gandharva Sen is nowhere found in Sinhalese history. The then Buddhist rulers of Lanka had contacts mainly with the Pandya kings of Tamil Nadu and none with Rajputana. The names of Lanka rulers at the time were Vijayabahu III (1220-24), Bhuvanaikabahu I (1281-83), Interregnum (1283-1302) and Vijayabahu V (1325-26 to 1344-45).
Instead, there is a strong possibility that Padmini was a princess of Jaisalmer or of Sinhala, a village near Sojat in Pali district of Rajasthan. In the history of Rajasthan, there are many references which indicate that Rani Padmini was the eleventh wife of Rawal Ratan Singh among his fifteen wives, as polygamy was prevalent among Rajput rulers then. There is, however, no confirmation of her father being Rana Salsi Tanwar as written in the book The Kingdom of Mewar by Irmgard
Meininger, a German author.
2) In Padmavat, there is a reference to a parrot who flew all the way from Sri Lanka to Chittor as a messenger to inform Raja Ratansen, or Rawal Ratan Singh, about the beauty of Padmini, daughter of the Sinhala ruler Gandharvasen, making Ratansen travel all the way to the Sinhala kingdom to win the hand of Padmini. This narrative lacks credibility since Lanka never had a king by that name.
3) Jayasi wrote this poem almost 237 years after Khilji’s attack on Chittor. The literature of that era is full of highly imaginative narratives, and poets were known to gleefully use metaphors, alliterations and imaginary personifications. There is also a reference in Padmavat to a sorcerer called Raghav Chetan, who is believed to have been personified as a parrot.
Contradictions in Jayasi’s poem
Amir Khusro, the court poet of Khilji, who accompanied him during the Chittor attack, did not write about Padmini, nor did he allude any episode to her in his book Twarikh-e-Allai. To be fair, it is possible that Khusro might not have wanted to further spoil the image of Khilji. So, he ignored the reference to Padmini. “According to Prof Habib, there is a covert allusion to Padmini episode by Khusro in his Khazain-ul-Fatuh, where he mentions the Queen of Sheba.”
Equally important is the fact that Col James Tod did not refer to Khilji’s desire to capture the beautiful Padmini in his book The Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan.
There are many instances in history when court poets and writers have followed the instructions of the ruling kings, and wrote histories accordingly. For instance, the book Ain-i-Akbari by Abul Fazal, where he was instructed not to write about Mehrunissa’s — later known as Nur Jahan, wife of Mughal King Jahangir — first marriage with an Afghan Pathan. However, there is a mention of her in Tuzuk-e-Jahangari as his beloved, and how his father had cheated on him.
It would not be wrong to say that Jayasi’s poem Padmavat is a figment of his poetic imagination. “It has also been argued that the invasion of Chittor was the natural expansionist policy of Khilji and no Padmini was need for his casus belli“.
The story of Khilji watching Padmini’s reflection in a mirror, or in a well, as stated in Discovery of India by Pandit Nehru, could have been based on a latter-day interpolation by some local poets. It could also be a phony myth popularized by some imaginative storytellers.
Having questioned the motive for Khilji’s invasion of Chittor, “it should be remembered that Khilji’s lust for a Hindu queen is proved by the known instances of Queen Kamala Devi of Gujarat and the daughter of King Ramachandra of Devagiri. The story of Padmini should not be totally rejected as a myth. But it is impossible, at the present state of knowledge, to regard it definitely as a historical fact”.
In Bajirao Mastani, Bhansali told audiences what a brave general Bajirao Peshwa was. It prompted Col (retired) Anil Athale to write ‘Why Bajirao is India’s greatest cavalry general‘. Having assuaged Maratha pride, Bhansali got away with some historical distortions.
In Padmavati, Bhansali is trying to do a balancing act and be secular. Thus, he might tell audiences how romantic the Sultan of Delhi was, that his love for Padmini was as pure as the holy water of Zamzama, and the sexual conquest of beautiful Hindu queens was the last thing on his mind.
According to a report in the Indian Express, it is alleged by Rajput protesters that Bhansali has deliberately added a dream sequence in his movie which shows Khilji embracing and kissing Padmini, which is an affront to the honor and name of Rani Padmini. It is also a slur on the valor of thousands of Hindu Veeranganas who preferred to die by fire rather than submit to the lust of barbaric invaders.
Bhansali might take refuge under the excuse that the film is based on the poem Padmavat, whose historical significance is unconfirmed. But in the poem, there is no mention of the so-called dream sequence. Ultimately, Bhansali might change the name of the movie, like he did with Goliyon ki Raasleela Ram-Leela. Will it satisfy the nationalists?
Either way, the movie will attract protest like we saw in Jaipur recently. A few things for sure — it will get free publicity, be discussed on prime-time television and become the next battleground between the nationalists and votaries of selective freedom of speech.
1. Volume 6 of the History and Culture and Indian People, published by the Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, p 23
2. Rani Padmini – a legendary beauty
3. The Indian Express, 28 January 2017, p 11
Ram Ohri is a former IPS officer and writes regularly on security issues, demographics, and occasionally, on policy.
PAKISTAN IS EVIL – MUTILATION OF INDIAN ARMY SOLDIER BRINGS HER DISASTER
I pay my tribute to Indian Army Sepoy Mandeep Singh whose mutilated body was discovered on Saturday, October 29, 2016. I hold Pakistan responsible for this Evil action.Words may have no effect, but ‘EVIL’ actions have consequences. The word ‘Evil’ means Calamity, Catastrophe, and Disaster. Pakistan cannot pay ransom to ward off effects of her Evil actions.
I invoke this consequence of Calamity, Catastrophe, and Disaster on Pakistan using words of Prophet Isaiah. I share his sense of pain and anguish.
Ann Arbor, MI 48104-4162 USA
SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE
MUTILATION OF INDIAN JAWAN: SMOKING PEACE PIPE WITH PAKISTAN NEVER PAID DIVIDENDS
Author: Sreemoy Talukdar
Date: October 29, 2016
We can all pretend to be uppity about Pakistan’s repeated breach of the Geneva Convention but the point is, to expect a nation that uses terrorism as a state policy to uphold the sanctity of law is illusory and self-defeating. The mutilation of Mandeep Singh’s body is a grim reminder that unless India substantially raises the cost of Pakistan’s delinquent behaviour, the rogue republic will continue to unleash atrocities against us.
There is a sad sense of déjà vu in India’s handling of Pakistan. It doesn’t matter if the government at the Centre is leftist, rightist or centrist. Each head of Indian state suffers from an illusory notion, aided by an army of entitled influencers with deep ties to the enemy state, that relationship with Pakistan can be and should be stabilized and the onus of doing it lies with us.
Therefore, every act of atrocity that the unstable, terror-sponsoring nation inflicts on us is followed by a predictable pattern. We outrage, foam at the mouth, try some maneuvers which have long exhausted their sell-by date and then eventually settle into a prolonged ennui followed by renewed attempts at restoring ties.
And we are doomed to repeat this fallacious cycle as long as we do not realize that Pakistan is not a modern Westphalian nation-state. It is the original Islamic State that seeks to spread Islamism as a politico-religious-cultural movement with the stated goal of establishing a Caliphate. This explains its lust for Kashmir and why it shall remain congenitally opposed to the pluralistic, multicultural, heterogeneous, secular idea of India and consider the fight against ‘Hindustan’ a holy war, or jihad.
And because the existence of Pakistan as an idea depends on continuing this perpetual jihad against India (a point author C Christine Fair elaborated in her seminal work Fighting To the Finish), any Indian overtures for peaceful relationship is bound to fail. If we as a nation do not understand it, the fault the lies with us, not history.
We only have to turn over the pages to recall that soon after Atal Bihari Vajpayee took a bus-full of goodwill and Bollywood stardust to Lahore in 1999, he was answered with Kargil and a hijacked Air India flight. And few would forget the bestiality of Pakistan Army in treating our war heroes during Kargil. In gross violation of Geneva Convention, the barbarians subjected Captain Saurabh Kalia and his unit to horrendous torture.
As a News18 report recalls, Captain Kalia and his sepoys’ “ear drums were pierced with hot iron rods, eyes punctured and genitals cut off. The autopsy of the bodies also revealed that they were burned with cigarettes butts. Their limbs were also chopped off, teeth broken and skull fractured during the torture. Even their nose and lips were cut off.”
Pakistan still maintains that the bodies of these Indian soldiers were found in a pit where they ostensibly died due to “inclement weather”.
Treatment of PoWs or showing respect to the dead in war is accorded the highest importance under Geneva Convention. In an article on crimes of war, H Wayne Elliott writes: “The treatment of the battlefield dead can be divided into two aspects. First, there is a prohibition on deliberate mistreatment of the body, either through failure to treat it with appropriate respect or through mutilation. Second, there is a prohibition on pillaging the dead. These mandates concerning the dead are as much derived from the customary laws of war as from the Geneva Conventions.
To understand why Pakistan’s BAT (Border Action Team, an amalgam of its army and pet terrorists) killed and then apparently beheaded Mandeep Singh of 17 Sikh Light Infantry, we must recognise that the situation has to come to such a pass because for far too often the Pindi Khakis have been rewarded for their bad behaviour. If a criminal is paid handsomely for crimes what else can we expect except a recurring nightmare?
As The Times of India had reported back in January 2013, bodies of Lance-Naiks Hemraj and Sudhakar Singh of the 13 Rajputana Rifles were found in the Mendhar sector of Jammu & Kashmir in a badly mutilated state.
“Although the Indian Army did not give more details of the barbarism, sources said the retreating Pakistani soldiers had chopped off the head of one of the Indian soldiers and taken it back with them.”
This is why the surgical strikes on 29 September and its public acknowledgment by the Narendra Modi government were crucial. It broke the template and introduced an element of unpredictability in Indian response. The Army has already reiterated that Pakistan Army will get “an appropriate response” for their bestiality and callous disregard for all norms. But we must not stop there. The punishment from India should be brutal and swift because barbarians only understand the language of violence.
SPIRITUALISM – THE VICTORY OVER DEATH :
“EKAM EVA ADVITIYAM” – “I ONE ALONE AND THERE IS NO SECOND” :
The Individuality of man is described in a thought that is expressed in Sanskrit language and it appears in the ancient Vedic Book of Chandogya Upanishad( 6:2:1 ) which reads: “Ekam eva Advitiyam” meaning – “I one alone and there is no second.” The intent of this statement is that of seeking the unity of the Objective Reality of Man and the Ultimate Reality called God. There is no duality between the two and there is no disunity between Man and God.
SPIRITUALISM – THE VICTORY OVER DEATH : THE LAW OF CREATION AND INDIVIDUALITY :
In Indian tradition it is explained that the human body is composite of three principles; three bodies in one, ‘tri-ani-pada’ – the Causal, the Spiritual, and the Material; Man is a Created Being, Man is a Spiritual Being, and Man is a Physical Being with body, and mind. Human being exists as a dual entity or two “Purusha” – the Higher, Real-self( the Spirit, the Soul, or Atma ) which is unchanging and is the basis for Man’s Individuality, and the Lower, Body-self which is subject constant change in morphological appearance and is the basis for Man’s physical Identity in this world. The Law of Creation and Individuality claims that Man always arrives into the physical world as a newly created object that is original, one of its own kind, distinctive, and unique; an Individual that has not existed in the Past and an Individual that will never again exist in the Future in the material realm. I describe Spiritualism as the potency of the Spiritual Matter that brings Man’s Essence and Existence to come together. Being born relates Man to the Subjective and Objective Reality of a biological existence in the physical and material world. Man because of his innate Spiritual nature has the intrinsic power to uplift himself from an event called Death to sustain his Individuality which is the unchanging, underlying Principle that supports the existence of a changing form with a morphological appearance. Under the influence of the Cyclical Flow of Time, the events called Birth and Death flow from one state into another while the Individual with Individuality remains as, “I, one alone and there is no second.”
ROYAL CARIBBEANS MOURNS THE LOSS OF RAMAKRISHNA REBBAPRAGADA :
Kindly read about Ramakrishna ‘Rama'(RAMU) Rebbapragada’s great contribution to Royal Caribbeans and to the Cruise Industry:
Dr. R . Rudra Narasimham, B.Sc., M.B.B.S.,
SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE – OPERATION EAGLE – LIBERATION WAR OF BANGLADESH 1971:
Indira Gandhi, Prime Minister of India had initiated Liberation of Bangladesh during 1971 with military action in Chittagong Hill Tracts. The battle plan of this military action is known as Operation Eagle. This blog post is related to the war experience obtained by conducting the military operation in Chittagong Hill Tracts.
MRITYUNJAYA MAHA MANTRA :
Om, Triyambakam, Yajamahe,
Sugandhim Pushti Vardhanam,
Urvaru kamiva bandhanaan
Mrityor Mukshiya Maamritaat.
This hymn in praise of Lord Shiva also known as ‘Triyambaka’ appears in the ancient Vedic Book of ‘Rig Veda’. It expresses a very unique idea or concept about conquering death. This idea has originated in India as the idea is connected to a plant that is a native of India. Man is mortal, and just like a fully ripened fruit falls off from a tree, a man ripe in his age, even when not afflicted by any disease or sickness, would meet natural physical death. This Mantra suggests that a man can become ‘immortal'( a person who has consumed the divine nectar known as ‘Amrita’) and conquer physical death( Mrityu) by simply severing his psychological attachment to his own life and liberating( Mukshiya) himself from bondage. This Mantra compares the act of cutting attachments to free oneself( Mukti) to secure victory( Jaya) over physical death( Mrityu) to the act of harvesting Cucumbers( Urvaru). The pedicle(Kamiva or the stalk of the fruit) should be severed to separate the fruit from its attachment(Bandhan) to the Vine.
Cucumber, Cucumis sativus is a vine fruit. It is a member of the Cucurbitaceae family. It is native to northwestern India and is being cultivated for thousands of years. The fruit is harvested in the immature stage and is eaten in its unripe, green form. The ripe fruit turns bitter and is not eaten. The fruit is firmly attached to the vine by its stalk or pedicle. The unripe, green fruit would not naturally fall off from the vine. The farmer harvests the Cucumber by cutting off the pedicle( Kamiva). This analogy of severing the connection and freeing the Cucumber also implies that man should not wait until he reaches a very ripe age to conquer physical death. A man who is still at an unripe age or still young in years, just like the unripe and green fruit of Cucumber, should plan to overcome death or his ‘liberation’ from death, by cutting away the stalk or pedicle which symbolizes ‘attachment'( bandhan). The ‘attachment’ in the context of man and his mortality could be described as his ‘Fear of Death’. By overcoming his ‘Fear of Death’, a man’s ‘attachment’ to the ‘Vine of Life’ is severed and he is ‘Liberated’ (Mukshiya) from Death(Mrityu). As long as the ‘Fear of Death’ is alive, man cannot win his battle against Death and mortality. To achieve ‘immortality’, man must conquer his ‘Fear of Death’. Indians seek to praise (Yajamahe) the Lord known as ‘Triyambaka’ for He had declared His victory over Death(Mrityu) by burning away all of His desires and had become Free from all Attachments. Shiva physically demonstrates His Freedom from Attachments by covering His entire body with ashes( Bhasma), the burnt residue of His desires.
THE PSYCHOLOGY OF WARFARE :
An Infantry soldier to ‘attack’ his enemy’s position has to physically ‘advance’ towards the entrenched enemy and directly confront the enemy. The ‘assault’ on the enemy’s position or site is carefully planned and the Infantry soldier is physically, and psychologically ready for his task which exposes him to the threat of death. The soldier loosens the attachment called the ‘Fear of Death’ in his march towards the enemy. A man who is tied down by the ‘Fear of Death’ cannot physically move towards his enemy who symbolizes the threat of death. I had participated in the 1971 War of Liberation of Bangladesh. The men of my Unit had not recited the ‘Mrityunjaya Maha Mantra’, but they had used its concept in their psychological preparation for War and in their attack on their enemy’s positions. Our success in 1971 over the enemy had demonstrated that the concept of breaking the stalk or pedicle is useful to gain victory over the ‘Fear of Death’ before we actually meet the threat of Death.
In my blog post titled “PROUD TO BE AN INDIAN”, dated Monday, September 17, 2007, I had described the ability to conquer fear as ‘Courage’. Courage does not mean the absence of ‘Fear’. Rani Padmini has truly immortalized herself by her victory over the ‘Fear of Death’. She had defeated her enemy’s intention to violate her personal dignity and honor. She could embrace fire for she had overcome the ‘Fear of Death’. She lives in our hearts today as a truly “IMMORTAL” person. She could be described as a person who had declared Victory over Death(Mrityun Jaya).
Dr. R. R. Narasimham, B.Sc., M.B.B.S.,
Ex-Number. MS-8466, Rank. LIEUTENANT/CAPTAIN AMC/SSC
Medical Officer South Column Operation Eagle 1971
Headquarters Establishment No. 22 C/O 56 APO
Related Blog Posts :
1. Liberation War of Bangladesh – Fallen Heroes on Both Sides .
2. About Guns, Victory, and Gallantry Awards – Bangladesh Liberation War of 1971
3. The Phantoms of Chittagong – A Story from Chittagong Hill Tracts
4. The Fifth Army – The Untold Story from Chittagong Hill Tracts
5. The Medical Plan for Fifth Army in Bangladesh – The Experience of Madhurya in Chittagong Hill Tracts
- Operation Eagle – Bangladesh Liberation War of 1971 (bhavanajagat.wordpress.com)
- The Battle Plan of Operation Eagle – Permission for Disclosure (bhavanajagat.wordpress.com)
- Operation Eagle – Registration of Public Grievance (bhavanajagat.wordpress.com)
- Operation Eagle – a Letter to Union Minister of State for Defence (bhavanajagat.wordpress.com)
- Operation Eagle – a Demand for Justice From Dr. Manmohan Singh, Prime Minister of India (bhavanajagat.wordpress.com)
- Operation Eagle – Honours and Awards Representation (bhavanajagat.com)
- Special Frontier Force-operation Eagle-gallantry Award (bhavanajagat.com)
- A Letter to the Living Tibetan Spirits (bhavanajagat.wordpress.com)
THE USHERING OF THE NEW YEAR – THE PERCEPTION OF TIME :
Humans have different concepts about time. Physicists view time and space as building blocks of this universe. Time is described as the fourth dimension of a three dimensional space. Natural scientist Charles Darwin had stated that things in nature change with time. Does time exert a force entirely of its own to change things in nature ? If time is viewed as a power, or a force, who controls this force and what are the laws that operate this force ? Time influences, changes, transforms, and eventually dissolves both animate and inanimate objects of this universe. Time with its power of dissolution would eventually compel us to investigate, and to explore the concept of Absolute and Unchanging Reality. The Laws of Conservation of classical Physics explain the Laws of Conservation of Mass, Energy, and Momentum. Mass and Energy cannot be created or destroyed. There is an unchanging aspect of Nature. Planet Earth is in existence for billions of years and life has been established a long time ago. During this long history of this planet, several life forms lived and had also perished. Earth had witnessed several major and minor extinction events. While these changes are happening under the influence of time, the living substance known as protoplasm continues to be the same. All living entities have protoplasm which has the same basic characteristics and composition. A living thing has matter and form. The form describes its actuality and the form is recognized because it is shaped by its matter which represents the potentiality. The potentiality of protoplasm has remained unchanged under the influence of time and it remains constant as long as it can acquire energy from its external environment and is connected to its energy provider. Under the influence of time, man who comes into a state of existence called life passes through various stages of that existence from that of embryo, fetus, infancy, boyhood, teenage, manhood, and old age. Man’s morphological appearance or phenotype keeps changing because of the effects of time and yet his individuality remains unchanged.
Dr. R. Rudra Narasimham, B.Sc., M.B.B.S.,
Kurnool Medical College, Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh, India,
M.B.B.S., Class of April, 1970.
- Life and Death – a Changing World and Unchanging Reality (bhavanajagat.wordpress.com)
- The Celebration of Spring Season (bhavanajagat.wordpress.com)
- Spirituality-the Confluence of Religion, Philosophy, and Science (bhavanajagat.wordpress.com)
- Science, Rational and Irrational Belief – the Experience of Reality and Ultimate Reality (bhavanajagat.wordpress.com)
- The Science of Consciousness (bhavanajagat.wordpress.com)
- Operation Eagle – a Letter to Prime Mini Ster Dr. Manmohan Si Ngh (bhavanajagat.wordpress.com)