The Cold War in Asia
THE COLD WAR IN ASIA – TIBETAN RESISTANCE FROM 1950s TO 2017
Introduction of Communism to mainland China on October 01, 1949 is the reason for ‘The Cold War in Asia’. Communism introduced dictatorial regime with no transparency and public accountability. On May 23, 1951, Tibet and Communist China signed Seventeen-Point Plan or 17-Point Agreement to ensure meaningful Tibetan Autonomy under Chinese Communist Party Governance. Further, India, and Communist China signed Panchsheel Agreement on April 29, 1954 to formalize international relations on Five-Principles of Peaceful Coexistence. Adherence to the Five-Principles of Peaceful Coexistence would indeed let China and India live together side by side with ‘Brotherly Love’ to declare “Hindi Chini Bhai Bhai.”
Tibetan Resistance began in 1950s and continues in 2017 because of unwillingness of Communist Party of China to implement the 17-Point Plan as agreed. Republic of India adheres to principles of Democracy, Socialism, and Secularism. While Chinese people may embrace Buddhism, their system of Communist Party Governance with no transparency and public accountability will keep Tibetan Resistance alive. Buddhism may encourage and promote tourism but it cannot be used as the basis for formulating international relations by Secular Republic of India.
INDIA, CHINA CANNOT DEFEAT EACH OTHER: DALAI LAMA
“India should develop a pilgrimage for Chinese people who follow Buddhism. These people can come to places like Bodh Gaya and can come closer to India emotionally as well,” he said.
Tibetan spiritual leader the Dalai Lama gestures as he speaks during a ‘world peace and harmony conclave’ in Mumbai on Sunday. (Express photo By Pradip Das)
Tibetan spiritual leader the Dalai Lama on Monday said India and China cannot defeat each other and both the countries will have to live together as neighbours. The spirit of “Hindi-Chini Bhai Bhai” is the only way forward, he stressed. “In the current border situation, neither India nor China can defeat the other. Both countries are militarily powerful,” the Dalai Lama said. Both the countries will have to live together as neighbours, he said.
“There may be some incidents of cross-border firing. It does not matter,” he said. The Dalai Lama was responding to questions by reporters at an event here.
He said, “In 1951, a 17-point agreement was signed between the Local Government of Tibet and People’s Republic of China for peaceful liberation of Tibet. Today China is changing and has become a country with the highest Buddhist population. They (India and China) should go back to ‘Hindi Chini Bhai Bhai’ again.”
It is a Communist government but Buddhism is widely accepted, he said.
“Earlier, the Dalai Lama used to be the head of spiritual and political movements in Tibet, but in 2011, I totally retired from politics. It was a way of democratizing the institutions, because it had some feudal elements in it,” said the 14th Dalai Lama.
He suggested that India should “develop pilgrimage for Chinese” people who are followers of Buddhism.
“We must understand that the followers of Buddhism in China are actually following the line of Indian Buddhism that came from Nalanda (Indian seat of learning) and Sanskrit,” said the spiritual leader.
“India should develop a pilgrimage for Chinese people who follow Buddhism. These people can come to places like Bodh Gaya and can come closer to India emotionally as well,” he said.
India and China have been locked in a standoff in the Doklam area since June 16 after Chinese troops began constructing a road near the Bhutan trijunction.
Commenting on the definition of secularism in the Indian context, the Dalai Lama said, “Respect for all religions and even the non-believers too. This is the definition of secularism in Indian context.”
“During the French Revolution and the Bolshevik movement, people opposed the exploitation by their kings and queens. Then religious institutions were supporting the feudal lords; hence the revolution also went against them. That’s why in the western context, secularism has become a word expressing disrespect to religion,” he said.
“Even an Indian communist leader had once told me that as a communist party worker, he does not believe in God. But for the people who he works for, they do believe in God and it is his duty to respect their feelings. I welcome such a mature approach,” the Dalai Lama said.
THE COLD WAR IN ASIA – INDIA AND TIBET ARE MILITARY PARTNERS TO CONTAIN COMMUNISM
I warmly appreciate His Holiness the Dalai Lama’s remarks about India and China living side by side as “Brothers(Bhai-Bhai).”
The Standoff between China and India inside Bhutan’s territory called Doklam is not really serious. The real issue is that of dangers posed by spread of Communism in Asia. Both India, and Tibet recognized this real danger to foster military partnership or alliance to checkmate, to engage, to confront, to contain, to resist, and to battle against dark, and evil forces of Communism. To that extent, both India, and Tibet must consider deployment of Reserve Duty Brigade (Mobile Reserve Force or MRF) of Special Frontier Force to defend their shared values.
SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE
DALAI LAMA INVOKES ‘HINDI CHINI BHAI BHAI’, SAYS DOKLAM STANDOFF NOT VERY SERIOUSOFF NOT
Tibetan spiritual leader Dalai Lama. (File photo | PTI)
NEW DELHI: Describing the ongoing Doklam standoff as “not very serious”, the Dalai Lama today invoked “Hindi Chini Bhai Bhai”, a catch phrase that defined Sino-India ties in the 1950s, stressing that the two neighbors have to live side by side in peace.
Asserting that any problem has to be resolved through talks, the 81-year-old Tibetan spiritual leader said the theme of 21st century should be dialogue.
“That’s the only away. One side’s retreat and defeat is an old-time thinking. In modern times, every country is dependent on each other,” he said, speaking at the Rajendra Mathur Memorial Lecture organized by the Editors Guild of India here.
The spiritual leader, who calls himself a “chela” (disciple) of India, also needled China saying he can do more in India, which has freedom.
“Where there is no freedom, I don’t like. There is some tension, but I do not think it is very serious. We need to make distinction between people and governments. The other day, I mentioned that Hindi-Chini Bhai is the only way. India and China have to live side by side,” the Dalai Lama said, even as he added that “propaganda and wrong information make things complicated”.
The Dalai Lama, who had fled a Chinese State crackdown in Lhasa and took shelter in India in 1959, said occasionally the two neighbors use “harsh words”, and added as a reminder that the Chinese forces eventually withdrew though they had reached Bomdila in 1962.
Queried about any possible resumption of talks between the Central Tibetan Authority and the Chinese side, he said it may take place after the 19th national congress of the Communist Party of China, which is slated later this year. “But nothing is definite,” he said.
India and China have been locked in a face-off in the Doklam area of the Sikkim sector for more than 50 days after Indian troops stopped the Chinese Army from building a road in the area. China claimed it was constructing the road within its territory and has been demanding immediate withdrawal of the Indian troops from the disputed Doklam plateau.
Bhutan says Doklam belongs to it but China claims it to be its territory and says Thimphu has no dispute with Beijing over it.
External Affairs Minister Sushma Swaraj had recently said both sides should first pull back their troops for any talks to take place, favoring a peaceful resolution of the border standoff.
THE COLD WAR IN ASIA – UNFINISHED VIETNAM WAR
In my analysis, the border tensions between India and Communist China are mere symptoms of ‘The Cold War in Asia’.
Nations of ‘Free World’ were alarmed by the spread of Communism into Asia. United States spent billions of dollars to prevent Communist takeover of China. Having failed to do so, United States pursued a policy of containing the spread of Communism in Asia. In the battles of Korean Peninsula, and Vietnam, Communists prevailed with support from Soviet Union and Communist China.
India’s border tension problems began with Red China’s illegal occupation of Tibet since 1950. During 1960s and 1970s, the United States and India had opportunity to launch Tibet Campaign to defend Freedom, Democracy, Peace, and Justice in Asia. Most unfortunately, during 1971-72, Nixon-Kissinger Vietnam Treason placed ‘The Cold War in Asia’ on ‘back-burner’.
I am not surprised by Communist China’s military assertiveness for the US withdrew without accomplishing ‘War for Peace’ Mission fervently advocated by US President Dwight D. Eisenhower in December 1956 while on visit to India.
CHINA’S TOUGH STANCE ON INDIA DISPUTE RAISING CONCERN ACROSS SOUTHEAST ASIA, ANALYSTS SAY
Beijing’s handling of protracted conflict in Himalayas has had a spillover effect in the region and fueled suspicion
Vehicles travel along a mountain road near the Nathu La Pass, an open trading post in the Himalayas between India and China, in Sikkim, India. Photo: Bloomberg
The protracted border dispute between China and India in the Himalayas has created a “spillover effect” as China’s neighbors become unsettled by its tough handling of the escalating conflict between the two Asian giants, foreign policy experts have said.
China’s Foreign Minister Wang Yi and his Indian counterpart Smt. Sushma Swaraj are scheduled to attend the Asean foreign ministers’ meeting in Manila later this week. And while the North Korean nuclear crisis and South China Sea disputes are expected to dominate the meeting, analysts will also be keeping a close eye on how members of the 10-nation group interact with China and India.
Hostile border dispute with India could damage China’s global trade plan, experts warn
The Association of Southeast Asian Nations generally regards a robust Indian presence in the region as a useful deterrent against China, which has been increasingly assertive in its approach to handling territorial issues, as has been the case in the Himalayas.
The disputed Doklam region (called Donglang by China) on the India, Bhutan and China tri-border. Graphic: SCMP
Are China-India trade ties turning sour amid border standoff?
China and India last week held their first substantial talks since the dispute broke out more than a month ago in the Doklam region, where the pair shares a border with Bhutan. Chinese State Councilor Yang Jiechi met Indian National Security Adviser Ajit Doval in Beijing, though neither showed any signs of backing down and tensions remain high.
Also last week, China’s Defence ministry issued its strongest warning yet to India, with a spokesman saying Beijing had stepped up its deployment along the unmarked border and would protect its sovereignty “at all costs”.
Richard Javad Heydarian, a political scientist at the Manila-based De La Salle University, said the stand-off in Doklam had had a “spillover effect” by fueling suspicion among countries that are caught in separate territorial disputes with China.
Dispatch from Doklam: Indians dig in for the long haul in standoff with China
“People are asking, if China is really peaceful, why are there so many countries having disputes with China?” he said.
Such sentiment may create fertile ground for Southeast Asian countries to leverage China’s influence with engagement with India.
Vietnam’s foreign minister and deputy prime minister, Pham Binh Minh, has called on India to play a greater role in the region and to partner with Southeast Asian countries on strategic security and promoting freedom of navigation in South China Sea.
India Prime Minister Narendra Modi and President Xi Jinping at a BRICS leaders’ meeting with the bloc’s Business Council in Goa last October 16. Photo: AFP
A few days after Minh spoke, Vietnam granted Indian Oil firm ONGC Videsh a two-year extension on its plan to explore a Vietnamese oil block in an area of the South China Sea contested by China and Vietnam.
Analysts said recent developments have wide strategic implications – pointing to how Asia is increasingly defined by the China-India rivalry and the renewed tensions between the two Asian giants.
How India border stand-off gives China a chance to burnish its global image
Nisha Desai Biswal, former US assistant secretary of state for South and Central Asia, was quoted by Indian media PTI as saying that China needs to acknowledge that “there is growing strategic and security capability across Asia” and that “India is a force to be reckoned with”.
Wang Yi on Tuesday backed Philippines President Rodrigo Duterte’s idea of forming joint energy ventures in the disputed South China Sea, warning that unilateral action could cause problems and damage both sides.
A Chinese soldier, left, is shown next to an Indian soldier at the Nathu La border crossing between India and China in India’s northeastern Sikkim state. Photo: AFP
Duterte on Monday said a partner had been found to develop oil fields and exploration, and exploitation would restart this year.
However, analysts warn that India’s strong position in the standoff has strengthened the hawkish voices in the Philippines who seize opportunities to criticize Duterte’s détente policy towards China and “push forward the narrative that the Philippines needs to be careful on how to approach China and its territorial expansion”, Heydarian said.
Explore the China-India border standoff
Under Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s “Act East” policy, India in recent years has formed strategic partnerships with Southeast Asian countries including Vietnam, Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore, and Northeast Asian countries including Japan and South Korea.
During the “India-Asean Delhi Dialogue IX” early this month, Indian External Affairs Minister Sushma Swaraj said New Delhi remained committed to enhancing maritime cooperation with Asean as well as upholding freedom of navigation and respect for international law in the region.
A Chinese soldier gestures as he stands near an Indian soldier on the Chinese side of the ancient Nathu La border crossing between India and China. Photo: AFP
Heydarian suggests that India’s upgrading of its strategic partnership with Asean and increasing its strategic presence in the South China Sea could be a way of pushing back against China.
Even a non-claimant Southeast Asian state such as Thailand “would see the benefit of China being challenged in the South Asia theatre”, said Thitinan Pongsudhirak, an international relations scholar at Bangkok-based Chulalongkorn University.
“India’s standing up to China can only be a boon for Southeast Asian countries even when they don’t say so openly,” he said, “Any major power keeping China in check can only yield geopolitical benefits to Southeast Asia as the region is wary of China’s growing assertiveness.”
China is being ‘unusually aggressive’ in border row
But Pongsudhirak also said that India, a “latecomer to Southeast Asia’s geopolitics”, still lacks strategic depth in terms of military reach and economic wherewithal. “But in combination with other middle powers like Japan, India can have a significant impact in Southeast Asia’s power dynamics,” he said.
Despite Southeast Asian countries’ welcoming attitude, India has remained cautious towards more strongly engaging with the region, observers said.
An Indian Soldier stands at the Nathu La border crossing between India and China in India’s northeastern Sikkim state. Photo: Handout
“Southeast Asia is a natural extension of India’s security horizons in light of its growth as a regional power,” said Rajesh Manohar Basrur, a South Asia specialist with Nanyang Technological University.
Basrur said that while competition with China is a major driver of India’s engagement with Southeast Asia, India’s commitment to the region remains limited with measures amounting to no more than “symbolic acts such as military exercises, [to] generate a strategic environment aimed at building up political-psychological pressure on [China].”
Why India is cool towards China’s Belt and Road
Sourabh Gupta, a senior specialist at the Institute for China-America Studies in Washington, said that as India tries to limit fallout from its Doklam intervention, it will not want to expand the theatre of conflict or widen the geography of competition in the short-term.
“But I can foresee India making a qualitatively greater effort, albeit quietly, to build up Vietnam’s naval and law enforcement capacity to confront and deter Chinese assertiveness,” he said.
Gupta also warned that the situation in the South China Sea could lapse into even further conflict.
Chinese troops hold a banner which reads, “You’ve crossed the border, please go back.”
“India and China have a fairly rich menu of boundary management protocols which effectively translate into engagements between very lightly armed personnel from either side when a standoff breaks out,” he said.
“That is different from the situation in the South and East China Sea where engagement protocols are still very rudimentary and could see sharp escalatory spirals.”
MAN vs NATURE – THE BATTLE FOR QINGHAI-TIBET PLATEAU
Natural Forces, Natural Mechanisms patiently worked over thousands of years to create Natural Conditions that shaped Tibetan experience of Natural Freedom, Natural Equilibrium, Natural Peace, Natural Harmony, and Natural Tranquility. Tibetans maintained their frugal lifestyles in accordance with Laws of Nature.
Communist China after her illegal occupation of Tibet, continues to apply Physical Force to subjugate Tibet and Nature that operates Tibetan existence. The Battle for Qinghai-Tibet Plateau has commenced and is far from over.
DOOM DOOMA DOOMSAYER
CHINA OPENS $4 BILLION EXPRESSWAY ON PERMAFROST OF QINGHAI-TIBET PLATEAU
China took six years to construct the road, at a total cost of nearly 27 billion yuan. Photo: Reuters
Beijing: China has opened an expressway on the permafrost of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, the world’s highest, at a total cost of $4 billion.
The 634.8km expressway section, which connects Gonghe County with the city of Yushu in northwest China’s Qinghai Province, was built at an average altitude of over 4,000 meters. Up to 36% of the road is built on permafrost that could become unstable due to temperature changes caused by vehicles. Advanced technology was developed to keep the ground surface stable for the construction and operation of the expressway, said Niu Jiangzhong, from Electrical Engineering Co. Ltd of China Railway 12th Bureau Group.
Construction of the road took over six years, at a total cost of nearly 27 billion yuan ($4 billion). To protect the local environment, vegetation was removed during construction and later replanted along the roadside. The expressway has shortened the travel time between the provincial capital Xining and Yushu from 12 to just eight hours, state-run Xinhua news agency reported. PTI
First Published: Tue, Aug 01 2017. 05 03 PM IST
SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE DEFENDS JAMMU AND KASHMIR
On behalf of Special Frontier Force, I confirm Special Frontier Force’s deployment in Ladakh Province to defend Jammu and Kashmir. In the context of role of foreign powers in Kashmir, it is important to recognize Special Frontier Force as a military organization in which the U.S., India, and Tibet participate as allies. It may be noted that Special Frontier Force had a role in India’s Kargil War.
It is of interest to note that United Kingdom and the United States simultaneously extend military and economic aid to Pakistan in support of its illegal political and military campaigns to annex Jammu and Kashmir. If not United Kingdom, the United States is playing on both sides of fence of parties involved in this dispute.
Both United States and United Kingdom need cooperation of India to contain Communist China’s Expansionist Doctrine. China’s Maritime Expansionism poses direct challenge to Japan, Philippines, Taiwan, Vietnam, Indonesia, Malaysia. China’s Expansionism needs to be addressed in comprehensive manner. There is no choice other than that of addressing the issue of China’s military occupation of Tibet; the first victim of China’s Expansionism. Pakistan cannot be trusted and cannot be counted as ally in any initiative that aims to Checkmate China’s Expansionism. Supplying sophisticated military hardware to Pakistan has not helped the United States. Pakistan shared designs of US military equipment with China helping China to advance her fighting capabilities. China manipulates Pakistan’s Nuclear and Missile Programs and for that reason Pakistan has to be counted as serious Security Risk.
Pakistan with her role in Balochistan, and Afghanistan created more enemies for the United States. The War against Soviet Expansionism got transformed into War on Terrorism as Pakistan used Afghan Campaign to make profits for her military bosses.
India from the beginning tried for peaceful resolution of Kashmir issue following the guidelines given by United Kingdom when it granted Independence to Pakistan and India in 1947. United States and United Kingdom made huge financial investment in Pakistan and as of today, it failed to promote Democracy, Peace, and Justice in South and Central Asia.
Ann Arbor, MI 48104-4162 USA
SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE
Jammu and Kashmir burning?
Jammu and Kashmir burning? Media and trouble makers thrive on mischief. Everyday, Kashmir is in the news, and its usually portrayed maliciously.
JAMMU AND KASHMIR BURNING?
Media and trouble makers thrive on mischief. Everyday, Kashmir is in the news, and its usually portrayed maliciously by many of these elements that India is inhuman, steeped in illegality and is evil.
First the facts.
As per international law, all of Jammu and Kashmir is integral part of India. This was effected by the treaty of accession signed between the Maharajah of Kashmir and India on 27th Oct 1947.
1. Jammu, Kashmir and Ladakh consists of 22 districts, separatist are present only in 5 districts – which represents a mere 15% of the state, and they are all Sunni Muslim. The voices and faces you see on television like Omar Abdullah, Mehbooba Mufti, Yasin Malik, Shabbir Shah, Gilani, Asiya Andrabi and Lone are from this region and sect.
2. The state has 12% Shia Muslims, 12-14% Gujjar Muslims and 8% Pahadi Rajput Muslims. It also has significant population of Sufis, Christians, Sikhs, Buddhists and Hindus. None of these communities have any separatist demands.
3. The larger two of the three regions of the state consisting of Jammu and Ladakh covering an area of 85,000 square kilometers are not Muslim majority areas, and there has never been any demand of separatism.
4. When terrorist Afzal Guru was hanged, the media made it appear as if the entire state was out on the streets. The reality was that out of 22 districts, there was not a single demonstration in 17 districts and only 5 districts in the Valley saw staged demonstrations.
5. Poonch has 90% and Kargil 90% Muslims, but there was no protest in these areas.
6. Our perception about Jammu and Kashmir is that a battle between nationalism and separatism is going on for the past 68 years. Nationalism has neither been lost nor will it, because in most areas of the state, majority of the people are nationalists.
7. The only legal dispute tenable under international law is, How India should get back areas that are under the illegal occupation of Pakistan and China?
‘Separatism’, ‘dispute’ and ‘autonomy’ are three myths raised by Pakistan and her agents within Kashmir and other parts of India
The State should be considered as one entity like Jammu (with maximum of the ground area), Ladakh and only thereafter Kashmir.
Pakistan and India baiters have been harping on United Nations Security Council Resolution 47. The resolution identifies Pakistan as an occupying force and states that in order to bring peace and harmony, the following steps will be undertaken in sequence.
1. First Pakistan must demilitarize and withdraw ALL its military forces and nationals used for the purpose of fighting from Kashmir.
2. Subsequently India must demilitarize Kashmir
3. A plebiscite may be held to determine the will of the people of Kashmir.
Since Pakistan failed to demilitarize, the entire process of normalization went into a tailspin. That was in 1947, it is now 2016. In November 2010 the United Nations removed Jammu and Kashmir from its list of disputed territories.This UN Resolution is thus dead.
Secondly, the resolution was passed by United Nations Security Council under chapter VI of UN Charter.Resolutions passed under
Chapter VI of UN charter are considered non binding and have no mandatory enforceability.
Since the government and the armed forces do not speak on the issue, the reporting is left mainly to separatist leaders and politicians, Jihadi terrorists, and the media. That most of these people and organisations who owe their loyalty and livelihood to foreigners, the reports will unjustifiably portray India in a bad light.
Muslim Pakistan’s national identity is defined by a single dimension of being anti India and the destruction of secular India. Fake issues and imaginary threats from India are constantly raked up to provide justification for the Pakistan army to control the reins of power.
Pakistan has lost all the wars they have waged against India. Pakistan claims concern for Muslim brothers in Kashmir, while simultaneously abducting, torturing and exterminating large number of Baluchis,and Pashtuns, shows its desire for conflict with India.
Pakistan because of its terrorist activities and toxic behavior, is on very bad terms and in conflict with all its neighbors be it India, Afghanistan or Bangladesh.
The Pakistani leadership and Army have bankrupted and impoverished Pakistan by wasting money and resources on useless confrontations. Pakistan is using Kashmir merely as an issue to harm India by waging a proxy war using terrorism, with the hope of bleeding India with a thousand cuts.
In spite of Pakistan’s best efforts, Kashmir will always remain an integral part of India, and we will grow stronger with time.
Write and Posted: Aug 2016 – by Gurvinder Singh
My thanks to Mr. Ranga Bedi for providing me valuable inputs for this article.
©2016 Guru Wonder | Pune, India
REMEMBERING AUGUST 08, 1974 – NIXON RESIGNS
On August 08, 1974, I was stationed at Military Hospital Wing, Headquarters Establishment Number. 22, C/O 56 APO, of Special Frontier Force. Because of my lifetime regimental affiliation to Special Frontier Force, Nixon-Kissinger live in my memory for their actions providing aid and comfort to Enemy while we dedicated our lives to secure Democracy, Freedom, Peace, and Justice in Occupied Tibet.
Ann Arbor, MI 48104-4162 USA
SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE
THIS DAY IN HISTORY: 08/08/1974 – NIXON RESIGNS
On this day in 1974, on an evening televised address, President Richard M. Nixon announces his intention to become the first president in American history to resign. With impeachment proceedings underway against him for his involvement in the Watergate affair, Nixon was finally bowing to pressure from the public and Congress to leave the White House. “By taking this action,” he said in a solemn address from the Oval Office, “I hope that I will have hastened the start of the process of healing which is so desperately needed in America.”On this day in 1974, on an evening televised address, President Richard M. Nixon announces his intention to become the first president in American history to resign. With impeachment proceedings underway against him for his involvement in the Watergate affair, Nixon was finally bowing to pressure from the public and Congress to leave the White House. “By taking this action,” he said in a solemn address from the Oval Office, “I hope that I will have hastened the start of the process of healing which is so desperately needed in America.”On this day in 1974, on an evening televised address, President Richard M. Nixon announces his intention to become the first president in American history to resign. With impeachment proceedings underway against him for his involvement in the Watergate affair, Nixon was finally bowing to pressure from the public and Congress to leave the White House. “By taking this action,” he said in a solemn address from the Oval Office, “I hope that I will have hastened the start of the process of healing which is so desperately needed in America.”
Author:History.com Staff Website Name: History.com URL: http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/nixon-resigns Publisher: A+E Networks
In an evening televised address, President Richard M. Nixon announces his intention to become the first president in American history to resign. With impeachment proceedings underway against him for his involvement in the Watergate affair, Nixon was finally bowing to pressure from the public and Congress to leave the White House. “By taking this action,” he said in a solemn address from the Oval Office, “I hope that I will have hastened the start of the process of healing which is so desperately needed in America.”
Just before noon the next day, Nixon officially ended his term as the 37th president of the United States. Before departing with his family in a helicopter from the White House lawn, he smiled farewell and enigmatically raised his arms in a victory or peace salute. The helicopter door was then closed, and the Nixon family began their journey home to San Clemente, California. Minutes later, Vice President Gerald R. Ford was sworn in as the 38th president of the United States in the East Room of the White House. After taking the oath of office, President Ford spoke to the nation in a television address, declaring, “My fellow Americans, our long national nightmare is over.” He later pardoned Nixon for any crimes he may have committed while in office, explaining that he wanted to end the national divisions created by the Watergate scandal.
On June 17, 1972, five men, including a salaried security coordinator for President Nixon’s reelection committee, were arrested for breaking into and illegally wiretapping the Democratic National Committee headquarters in the Washington, D.C., Watergate complex. Soon after, two other former White House aides were implicated in the break-in, but the Nixon administration denied any involvement. Later that year, reporters Carl Bernstein and Bob Woodward of The Washington Post discovered a higher-echelon conspiracy surrounding the incident, and a political scandal of unprecedented magnitude erupted.
In May 1973, the Senate Select Committee on Presidential Campaign Activities, headed by Senator Sam Ervin of North Carolina, began televised proceedings on the rapidly escalating Watergate affair. One week later, Harvard law professor Archibald Cox was sworn in as special Watergate prosecutor. During the Senate hearings, former White House legal counsel John Dean testified that the Watergate break-in had been approved by former Attorney General John Mitchell with the knowledge of White House advisers John Ehrlichman and H.R. Haldeman, and that President Nixon had been aware of the cover-up. Meanwhile, Watergate prosecutor Cox and his staff began to uncover widespread evidence of political espionage by the Nixon reelection committee, illegal wiretapping of thousands of citizens by the administration, and contributions to the Republican Party in return for political favors.
In July, the existence of what were to be called the Watergate tapes–official recordings of White House conversations between Nixon and his staff–was revealed during the Senate hearings. Cox subpoenaed these tapes, and after three months of delay President Nixon agreed to send summaries of the recordings. Cox rejected the summaries, and Nixon fired him. His successor as special prosecutor, Leon Jaworski, leveled indictments against several high-ranking administration officials, including Mitchell and Dean, who were duly convicted.
Public confidence in the president rapidly waned, and by the end of July 1974 the House Judiciary Committee had adopted three articles of impeachment against President Nixon: obstruction of justice, abuse of presidential powers, and hindrance of the impeachment process. On July 30, under coercion from the Supreme Court, Nixon finally released the Watergate tapes. On August 5, transcripts of the recordings were released, including a segment in which the president was heard instructing Haldeman to order the FBI to halt the Watergate investigation. Three days later, Nixon announced his resignation.
At the Republican National Convention in Miami, Richard M. Nixon and Spiro T. Agnew are chosen as the presidential and vice-presidential nominees for the upcoming election. In his speech accepting the nomination, Nixon promised to “bring an honorable end to the war in Vietnam” and to inaugurate “an era of…
1973 Vice President Agnew under attack
Vice President Agnew branded reports that he took kickbacks from government contracts in Maryland as “damned lies.” Agnew had taken a lot of heat in the media when he assumed a lead position as Nixon’s point man on Vietnam. He frequently attacked the student protest movement, blaming the…
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TROUBLE IN TIBET – WHICH TYPE OF FORCE CAN EVICT CHINA?
Tibetans under the Spiritual Leadership of His Holiness the Dalai Lama have shared their Road Map for Peace and Reconciliation in Occupied Tibet. However, Red China is adamantly refusing to talk to Tibetans to secure Peaceful Resolution of Conflict in Tibet. In my analysis, Compassion can act as Physical Force and evict China from Occupied Tibetan territories without causing Pain and Suffering to members of People’s Liberation Army. Compassion exerts influence in Physical World without causing injury or illness.
Ann Arbor, MI 48104-4162 USA
SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE
DALAI LAMA OPENS CALIFORNIA TEMPLE WITH MESSAGE OF COMPASSION
The Dalai Lama prays at the Dieu Ngu Temple in Westminster, Calif., June 18, 2016.
June 18, 2016 8:15 PM
Thousands of people, many of them Buddhists who left Vietnam decades ago and came to the U.S. to live, have flocked to the Southern California neighborhood known as Little Saigon to welcome the Dalai Lama, the exiled Tibetan spiritual leader, who is dedicating a new temple there.
At a religious teaching session Saturday that drew many visitors, the 80-year-old Dalai Lama said the world needs more compassion in a time of violence.
Canadian Lyane Pellerin, who has attended many talks by the Dalai Lama in the past, agreed, saying, “We certainly do need more peace talks and kindness, understanding and dialogue.”
The Dalai Lama will dedicate the $6 million Dieu Ngu Temple on Saturday. (M. O’Sullivan/VOA)
Thousands of people gathered outside the Dieu Ngu Temple early Saturday, waiting for the gates to open at 6 a.m. The Dalai Lama will dedicate the temple Sunday.
“Just to be in the presence of the Dalai Lama is a wonderful thing,” said Wanda Matjas, one of those who turned out at dawn.
‘A WISE, WISE MAN’
Vietnamese-American Annie Hoang said she came to hear the revered Tibetan monk’s spiritual message.
“I’ve loved the Dalai Lama,” she said. “I think that he’s such a wise, wise man, and he represents such great knowledge, and everything that I’ve always wanted.”
The Dalai Lama’s presence is an important boost for the Dieu Ngu Temple, a $6 million project that marks a milestone of growth for the Vietnamese Buddhist community. Vietnamese immigrants — Buddhists, Catholics and others — have built their community over the past four decades in Southern California, where they arrived in search of political and religious freedom.
“I remember when we started building this,” Jessica Ha says of the Dieu Ngu Temple.
“Our monks’ biggest dream was to have the Dalai Lama come and talk.” (M. O’Sullivan/VOA)
The temple was founded in a Little Saigon home in 2008 and later moved to a warehouse as it grew. Monks and temple members spearheaded the drive to raise funds for the new structure, which features traditional architecture.
“I remember when we started building this,” said Jessica Ha, whose parents are longtime members. “Our monks’ biggest dream was to have the Dalai Lama come and talk, and it’s happening! Good things come to really good people, and this is it.”
DRAWN TO PHILOSOPHY
The Dalai Lama always draws interest from non-Asians.
Temple visitor Eve Moon says her family was drawn to “Buddhist philosophy and the Dalai Lama’s message, and in general, humanitarianism and peace.” (M. O’Sullivan/VOA)
“I was raised by parents who traveled the world and a Vietnam vet father that didn’t know where home was anymore,” said visitor Eve Moon. She said her family was drawn to “Buddhist philosophy and the Dalai Lama’s message, and in general, humanitarianism and peace.”
Buddhists from many traditions — Chinese and Southeast Asian, among others — came to the temple. They included Czech visitor Martin Vitovic, who embraces the Dalai Lama’s teachings. He said he’d been interested in the Tibetan’s message for “about three years, and I want to see him.”
Vietnamese-American Buddhists said the Dalai Lama inspired listeners with his message, and they felt his visit also drew attention to California’s Little Saigon and its imposing new temple.