Circadian Rhythm

WHOLE DUDE – WHOLE INTERACTIONS

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The objective of this presentation is to define ‘Spiritualism’ as an internal, mutually beneficial partnership, relationship, association, or bonding between individual living cells of the same organism, or between two different organisms. Spiritualism has to be explained in the context of biotic interactions and consciousness determines the nature and characteristics of such biotic interactions.

Dr. Heinrich Anton de Bary( 1831 - 1888 ), German Physician, Botanist, Founder of Modern Mycology, Microbiologist, Founder of Plant Pathology had coined the term 'Symbiosis'.

 Dr. Heinrich Anton de Bary had coined the term ‘Symbiosis’ in 1879. It describes the living together of unlike organisms; the intimate association of two dissimilar organisms from which each organism benefits. Symbiosis ( sym – together; bios – life ) refers to various kinds of close and permanent associations between members of different species and the term could also be used to describe the nature of social relations between different human beings.

CARIBOU LICHEN - In 1866, Dr. Bary was the first to show that Lichens consist of a fungus and an alga in intimate association for mutual benefit.

 WHAT IS A BIOTIC COMMUNITY?  :

A biotic community is a biological or natural community consisting of two or more interacting and interdependent populations of living cells or living organisms. No species, and no individual member lives in isolation from other species or other living members in a biological community. The life of the community and of all its members, and of all organisms in it requires energy.

 NO MAN IS AN ISLAND, ENTIRE OF ITSELF :

John Donne( 1572 - 1631 ), Jacobean metaphysical poet, author of Devotion Upon Emergent Occasions( 1624 ).

 Ernest Hemingway’s novel “For Whom The Bell Tolls” gives this modern version of the quote from John Donne’s Meditation XVII, “Devotion Upon Emergent Occasions” : “No man is an island, entire of itself; every man is a piece of the continent a part of the main.” In this blog post I would like to examine the biological basis for human existence and understand the nature of man and the status of man as an organism existing at a given place, and given environment because of mutually beneficial biotic interactions.

WHAT ARE BIOTIC INTERACTIONS?  :

Science and Spiritualism - Spiritualism represents a biotic interaction like Mutualism

 Living organisms interact with each other competitively and sometimes beneficially. Some of these interactions are temporary, casual and of minor importance whereas others are permanent, vital and of major significance. Many interactions are highly specialized and complicated involving adaptive changes in structure, function, behavior, and ecology. Some interactions create negative effects on the interactants, reducing survival or reproductive success; other interactions produce effects increasing survival or reproductive success. In some cases, members of an interaction are apparently unaffected. Biotic interactions could be divided into two categories; a. Intraspecific Interactions; interactions between the individual living cells that comprise the same multicellular orgainsm, or interactions between members of the same species, and b. Interspecific Interactions; interactions between members of two or more different species. The biotic interactions may involve nutritional benefits, support of other metabolic functions, space in which to live, shelter, or protection, transport, or reproductive capability. Biotic interactions are significant not only because they influence individual species but also because they constitute the principal stabilizing, connective linkages among the various species contained in a biotic community. Individual members of any given species in a biological community persist in relative harmony because of biotic interactions despite individual gains and losses. As a consequence of this web of interactions, the biotic community as a whole persists with all of its members ultimately contributing to its continuation. The consequences of biotic interactions could be positive, negative, or neutral. Mutualism is an association of two different species that result in mutual benefit or gain. Facultative Mutualism or Protocooperation involves facultative interactions between plants and animals in ways that are general and indirect but beneficial to both species. The interactions that occur between soil bacteria and fungi and between them and higher plants growing in the soil are Protocooperative. In the zone of plant roots, soil bacteria and fungi interact with each other, some producing nutrients or metabolites required by others and all obtaining nutrients ultimately from root exudates and decaying organic matter. Plants benefit from the actions of this microflora by acquiring needed minerals, and nitrogen compounds. The important association of nitrifying bacteria in the process called Nitrogen Fixation, the extraction of Nitrogen from the environment by the roots of leguminous plants is well-known. Collectively all microflora and higher plants, with associated soil fauna, participate in determining soil composition, soil structure, and soil fertility. Man exists in nature as a terrestrial organism because of these biotic interactions that transform the characteristics of soil and its ability to support life. Biotic communities that are based on Obligative Mutualism are characterized by stable, persistent, and interdependent associations between species. Coexistence in a given habitat is always required as this association is mandatory for the survival of each participant. This kind of association is perpetrated from one generation to the next. To guarantee the coexistence of the partners, the species involved show relationships based upon structure, behavior, and life history. In lichens, the fungal member penetrates algal cells with feeding tubes or haustoria, thus effecting an intimate physical interconnection. This nutrient exchange helps the algal cells to develop resistance to drying or to extreme temperatures. Commensalism is an association in which one member benefits while the other remains unaffected. Physical Commensalism involves the need for living space and the examples are provided by woody plants that physically support numerous orchids and ferns. Nutritional Commensalism is well illustrated by the many organisms found in the alimentary tracts of man and other higher animals. Such microbial gut flora use host waste products for food and acquire water and a suitable climate in which to live. No harm is done to the hosts. In Parasitism, the smaller organism benefits at the expense of the larger organism. Both plants and animals are attacked by parasites. Many parasites cause disease and death of the host organism. Parasitism constitutes a considerable burden on a host population. Many disease causing organisms are parasites carried from host to host by some other organism; for example Malaria is caused by a protozoan parasite transmitted by mosquitoes. In such situations, the biotic interactions involve three necessarily coexisting species: the pathogen, the carrier or vector species, and the host. An intermediate host interposed between the target host and parasite adds ecological complications to host-parasite interactions: the parasite, host, and intermediate host must all be present in the same community in suitable numbers at the same time. Consumption describes organisms eating organims. It is the most important class of biotic interactions. Herbivory describes animals eating plants. Predation refers to a large or strong animal that consumes a small or weak animal. Scavengers eat or consume dead or decaying organisms and organic material. Consumption is the basic food association( trophic link ) through which the composition dynamics and variation of biological community’s structure takes place. All organisms form links in the community food chains and food webs, the nutritional pathways characteristic of given biological community. Amensalism is an association between organisms of two different species in which one is inhibited or destroyed and the other is unaffected. There are two basic modes of Amensalism; 1. Competition occurs when two species utilize a common, limited resource such as food, space, and water, and in doing so, one species interferes with, injures, or deprives the other species. Competition may involve a larger or stronger organism that excludes a smaller or weaker one from living space or deprives it of food; Intraspecific Competition occurs when competitors are of the same species. Competitive interactions may lead to Competitive Exclusion or Competitive Displacement, and 2. Antibiosis, in which one organism is unaffected but the other is damaged or killed by a chemical secretion. The classic example of Antibiosis is the discovery of Penicillin antibiotic by Dr. Alexander Fleming who had observed that the bread mold Penicillium notatum had effects upon the growth of colonies of bacteria. Mutual Antagonism occurs when a biotic interaction between two species results in harm or death to both.

INTERACTIONS WITHIN A SPECIES : THE ROLE OF NEGATIVE INTERACTIONS :

Intraspecific Competition provides the ultimate force limiting the abundance of a species in a community. Natural enemies could be present or absent but others of the same species are always present providing the Competition that insures against over exploitation of available resources and the irreversible destruction of a community due to overpopulation. Fighting and territorial defense are some of the overt methods by which Competition manifests itself. Territoriality, the dividng up of resources, mostly space, is a common means of defense against overcrowding. Instead of involving individuals against individuals, it involves groups of individuals. It also produces the response of migration of individuals and mass flight of large groups of individuals. Competitive Intraspecific Interactions between humans and Mutual Antagonism among human social groups may endanger human existence.

THE ROLE OF POSITIVE INTRASPECIFIC INTERACTIONS :

Man’s life journey begins as an Embryo which gets implanted into the maternal tissues by about 6 days after its conception. Thus, mother is the source of Food and Energy to establish human life. Man has no existence in the absence of this positive Intraspecific Interaction between Embryo and Mother.

Man’s life journey begins with conception and implantation of the embryo into maternal tissues about six days after conception. The prolonged period of gestation, the anatomical connection between developing fetus and mother, the psychological bonding and the extended period of dependence of newborn and the role of parental care reveal the importance of Positive Intraspecific Interactions for human existence. Numerous interactions among individuals of the same species lead to the development of social groups. Parental Care and protection provides the basis for many aggregations of like individuals, and social units like families.

Tropical Orchids provide an example of Physical CommensalismA medical historian described the proboscis of the female Anopheline Mosquito:"Down this tiny tube crept microscopic poison which swept away two of the mightiest empires( of Greece and Rome ) the world has ever seen." Half the morbidity of the human race until very recently was due to Malaria transmitted by bites of female Anopheles Mosquito.
A tapeworm is a ribbon like parasitic flatworm that belongs to the Class Cestoda. The Pork Tapeworm or Taenia solium grows upto 33 feet long and lives in human small intestine which is about 20 feet long. I had dissected a human cadaver in which I found the Pork Tapeworm tightly coiled in the entire extent of the small intestine contributing to the death of my human anatomy specimen.
 
A medical historian described the proboscis of the female Anopheline Mosquito:"Down this tiny tube crept microscopic poison which swept away two of the mightiest empires( of Greece and Rome ) the world has ever seen." Half the morbidity of the human race until very recently due to Malaria transmitted by bites of female Anopheles Mosquito.

MAN’S BIOLOGICAL EXISTENCE AS THE HOST OF A BIOTIC COMMUNITY :

Escherichia Coli – Example of microbial flora of human gastrointestinal tract. Man exists as a natural host to a biotic community of trillions of microorganisms.

Man exists in nature as a natural host to a biotic community of trillions of microorganisms. At birth, the stomach and gastrointestinal tract are usually sterile. With the first intake of food and contact with other humans present in the environment, bacteria commence the colonization of infant’s digestive tract. These microorganisms perform functions beneficial to the host. The microbes are provided with a protected place to live and their environment is rich in nutrients. This mutual beneficial, symbiotic relationship is always present during the entire course of life after birth. The human body consists of about 100 trillion cells and it carries about ten times as many microbes in the intestines. The microbial flora include enteric bacteria, bacteroides, enterococci, lactobacilli, and clostridia. The small intestine contains low numbers of bacteria, about 100,000 to 10 million bacteria per milliliter of fluid. In the large intestine, the bacterial members can reach 100 billion per milliliter of fluid. It is estimated that these gut flora have around 100 times as many genes in aggregate as there are in the human genome. The metabolic activities performed by these bacteria resemble those of an internal organ of human body. The microbes are important to the health of humans. These bacteria are useful for efficient processing of food, absorption of water, absorption of nutrients like Magnesium, Calcium, and Iron. They perform a variety of useful functions such as synthesis of essential vitamins like Biotin, Vitamin K and production of short-chain fatty acids. The gut flora may produce hormones to direct the host to store fat. They train the host immune system to respond only to pathogens and thereby prevent the growth of harmful, pathogenic bacteria. They stimulate increased growth of human gut cells and also stimulate the growth of indigenous bacteria. Gut flora have enzymes that human cells lack for breaking down complex sugars called polysaccharides. The gut flora help in the digestion of unutilized energy substrates and may contribute upto 60 percent of the weight of the feces for human excretory function. Microbial flora of the gut can influence the phenomenon known as “Oral Tolerance” which may reduce an overreactive immune response like those found in allergies and auto-immune disease. Gut flora play a major role in metabolizing dietary carcinogens and hence have a role in prevention of cancer. Human existence demands the play of these biotic interactions for its own benefit and for the benefit of the biotic community as its natural host.

SPIRITUALISM – THE NATURE OF SPIRITUAL INTERACTIONS :

 
Sweetness is the name of this Biotic Interaction. This Interaction has the characteristics of Spiritualism or Spiritual Interaction.

The term ‘spiritual’ describes the nature of a relationship, partnership, an association, or bonding between two living entities based upon the characteristics such as compassion, sympathy, cooperation, mutual assistance, tolerance, voluntary subservience, devotion, and functional subordination to provide some benefit to the members participating in the biotic interaction at a given place and in a given environment. Depending upon the size, complexity, and structure and functions of the Whole Organism, Spiritual Biotic Interactions and Spiritual Relationships are also based upon thoughts and feelings of sympathy and compassion that are attributes of mental functions and emotional makeup of the partners interacting. The Spiritual nature of biotic interactions is a reflection of the Spiritual nature of the Creator of the living entities who has provided the different modes of interactions using inspiration and imagination. Hence, Spiritualism as a biotic interaction describes an internal, mutually beneficial partnership between individual cells of the human organism and the Whole Organism that represents it as a Human Individual. 

THE STATUS OF MAN IN NATURE :

The First Book of Moses, The Old Testament Book of Genesis describes the story of Creation; in Chapter 2, verse 7, it narrates man’s creation: “And the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul.”

The Book of Genesis, Chapter 1, verse 27:"So God created man in His own image; in the image of God He created him; male and female He created them."

MAN IS A CREATED BEING  :

Man is a created being as he always exists as one of its own kind of unique, original, and distinctive object. Man always arrives from a previously existing egg cell and yet his genome has not existed before, and would not exist again. Man exists as an object that is created using the powers of inspiration and imagination that keeps man as an Individual with Individuality.  

MAN IS A SPIRITUAL BEING :

The status of man in nature describes man as a created object; a new object, one of its own kind, distinctive, and unique. The principle of Creation
involves the use of inspiration and imagination as opposed to the view proposed by the Theory of Evolution. The fundamental issue is about understanding man’s status in nature. Did man come into existence by gradual changes caused by random and unguided events called genetic mutations? Or, does man actually exist in nature because of his relationship with other objects present in his living environment? What defines man’s existence? What establishes the reality of man’s physical existence? Should we focus on the changing form? Alternately, should we give attention to an unchanging relationship that is a prerequisite for the existence of all life forms? If an object cannot come into its state of existence, how could that object get a shape or form? In the context of a discussion about man’s existence in nature, I state that  man is a created object, and hence man
exists as a Spiritual being. The term Spirituality describes the nature of this connection between man and His Creator. Soul is the immortal part of man as distinguished from his body; it is the vital principle which moves and animates all Life. Soul may represent the essence of a human being, it could be the quality which confers individuality, humanity, and the moral nature of man. I divide man into two categories; the first category is called the ‘SELF’ which represents man as a physical, mental, and social being; and the second category is called the ‘KNOWING-SELF’ which represents man as a moral, and spiritual being. These two categories function together and the functional unity of the human person is an attribute of a neuro-biological function called Consciousness. Man’s physical being is represented by a changing external or morphological appearance and while the physical Identity is constantly changing, the unchanging Individuality is supported by man’s spirituality or the nature of his constant spiritual relationship.  

THE ETERNAL REALITY OF SOUL’S IMMORTALITY  :

 

Ajanta Caves near Aurangabad, Maharashtra State, India, Fresco-type wall painting- Man’s spiritual dimension describes man’s humanity, moral nature, individuality, and Consciousness.

Religious thinkers have further defined Soul as that part of the individual which partakes of divinity. People of all races, cultures and religions would like to investigate the nature of this God-Connection as they perceive the world and the universe in which they exist as a fact of Creation. I need to find evidence that would fundamentally deny the fact of Creation.

 MAN IS A SOCIAL BEING  :

 

French philosopher Auguste Comte(1798-1857) coined the term Sociology. He believed that the scientific study of social organization would make possible a reconstitution of the social order based on principles of moral progress.

Apart from being a created Physical being, man is recognized as a Social being as he displays social instincts and social behaviors in all of his activities. A rudimentary understanding of Sociology or Theories of Social Science would clarify this matter. Social instincts and Social Behaviors are seen in all animals including bacteria. At a cellular level, the social function is called ‘Association’. Man is an association of trillions of cells. Each human organ and organ system represents an association of cells that display functional subordination to perform selective tasks. Life is just impossible without social structure and organization.

MAN IS A MORAL BEING  : 

 

Man is a Spiritual being and is endowed with Moral nature. James Tissot in his painting captures the essence of man. The Book of Matthew, Chapter 27 verses 3-5 narrate the story of Apostle Judas Iscariot and his moral failing that caused the dissolution of his biological existence-"When Judas who had betrayed Him, saw that Jesus was condemned, he was seized with remorse and returned the thirty silver coins to the chief priests and the elders. "I have sinned," he said,"for I have betrayed innocent blood." So Judas threw the money into the temple and left. Then he went away and hanged himself."

Man is an individual who exists in a social group. At the same time, man is a Moral being, as he displays moral behavior even when he is corrupt. Man displays the ability of Repentance for his thoughts, for his actions of commission and omission. Man has the ability to admit his sins, express remorse and may often punish himself for his sinful conduct. Man experiences grief for his actions that are sinful. Man actively searches for solutions for his sinful conduct. Man cannot sustain his biological existence if he had morally failed. A famous example would be that of Apostle Judas Iscariot, the betrayer of Jesus.

 MATTER, ENERGY, AND KNOWLEDGE  :
Greek philosopher  Aristotle had observed that corporeal substances are composite of two principles, form and matter. What is called matter is potentiality, what is called form is actuality. The totality of things have been divided in various ways. The three fundamental distinctions are 1. the distinction between the natural and the supernatural, 2. the distinction between the material and the spiritual, and 3. the distinction between the lifeless and the living. When we make the distinction animate/inanimate, living/non-living, and inorganic/organic, a question arises about the nature of that distinction. The difference, is that one of kind or degree? The Mechanistic View claims the continuity of nature in terms of the universality of purely mechanical principles. I have defined Life as ‘Knowledge in Action’. Please view the blog post at http://bhavanajagat.wordpress.com/2010/08/05/what-is-life-life-is-knowledge-in-action/
I define Life as organization of matter with implanted supernatural Knowledge. The establishment of supernatural Knowledge in matter decribes the operation of ‘God Principle’, Spirit, or Soul. Life comes into existence when matter and energy come together with the establishment of ‘God Connection’.
  
LIFE AND CONSCIOUSNESS  :                    

 

Amoeba proteus, unicellular, protozoan organism is conscious or aware of its own state of existence. It has the abilities of Motion, Nutrition, and Reproduction. All of its living functions are goal-oriented. It responds to its environment and survives adverse environmental conditions by a process called encystment.

The basic characteristic of a Living Cell or organism is the presence of consciousness. I recognize a cell as a Living Cell if it displays functions that characterize the presence of awareness or consciousness. The Living Cell or Living Object need not be aware or conscious of the Subject who may be investigating or observing the properties of that Object. The Living Object need to be aware of its own existence and its condition called Living. Atoms and molecules display their properties and interact according to the Laws of Physics and Chemistry. Living organic molecules show individualistic behaviors under experimental conditions that could be repeated and be verified. The Living Cell is very selective and it responds in a variable manner to physical and chemical stimuli. It can communicate or send signals to other Living Cells present in its environment. It responds according to its internal condition in relation to the environment in which it exists. The interactions of non-living physical matter are not goal-oriented. The interactions of Living matter are goal-oriented and they specifically achieve the purpose of sustaining, preserving, defending, and continuing the Living functions.

MAN IS A MORTAL, PHYSICAL BEING  :

Man is a mortal being who must eventually die. When Lazarus died and was laid in a tomb for four days, Jesus performed a miracle and Lazarus came back to life from death. The Book of John, Chapter 11, narrates this event. In verses 41 and 42, Jesus said,"Father, I thank You that You have heard Me. And I know that You always hear Me, but I said this for the benefit of the people who are standing here, that they may believe that You sent Me." The risen Lazarus had eventually died.

LIFE AND DEATH IS A CONTINUOUS PROCESS :

 

When does Life begins? When does Life ends? Life always comes into a state of existence from a previously existing Living Cell. Life and Death is a continuous process and is recognized by the presence of Consciousness and Individuality.

When does Life begins? When does Life ends? Every Living Cell is derived from a previously existing Living Cell. Life has not experienced the final event called DEATH. Life continues its act of Living through a function called Reproduction. A given species is considered to be totally extinct only if there is no surviving member to represent that particular species. Death is a programmed event and it gives meaning to the Identity of a Living Object. The dissolution of a single Living Object should not obscure the fact that Life is a continuous process. Life continues as Living Objects get new Identities. It is very reasonable to expect that Life would continue after the death of a given Living Object. People all over the world are a witness to that simple and direct observation. During the Life-Death continuum, the connection between the Creator and the created Living Object is manifested by the biological function called awareness or consciousness. The presence of Soul is evidenced by the presence of consciousness. As long as the Soul is functioning and is united with the physical being, the presence of consciousness could be detected and could be verified.

THE SOUL AND GOD CONNECTION : 

 

All types of Living Cells with or without nucleus represent thermodynamically unstable systems. Without a continuous input of energy a Living Cell will degrade spontaneously into a nonliving collection of molecules. Biological existence is possible because of an association or connection, or partnership between energy seeker and energy provider.

 There has been no clearly defined and universally accepted metaphysical conception of the term Soul. It is a term rarely used with precise definition in philosophy, religion, or common life. In this discussion we face the problem of using words to which no definitive meaning is attached. If I make an attempt to define the word ‘God’, you may even speculate that I may belong to a new religious order. We need to come to a consensus even if an entity called ‘God’ does not exist. We need to formulate a view, a hypothetical view about Soul and test that hypothesis by countering it with a skeptical hypothesis. The Science called Physics deals with the properties, changes, interactions, etc. of matter and energy in which energy is considered to be continuous. In the ultimate analysis, matter is a representation of its energy content. The Science called Biology deals with Life and Life processes. While Life is made up of physical matter, Life processes are not explained by simple mechanistic interactions. However, I am willing to use the principles, the methods, and the tools used by Physics. Molecular Biology explains biological events by studying the molecules within cells; the molecular basis of genetics – Nucleic Acids and its relationship to energy cycling and replication. If this universe is seen as matter and energy, I would define God as the Controller of Force/Power/Energy. All living things are essentially made up of the same kind of living matter and yet they appear to be different. Life could be attributed to ONE common principle which has the ability to be simultaneously different. Each living object comes into a state of existence as a new object, as an original object, one of its own kind, unique, and distinctive. This morphological variation is an attribute of the organic molecules that establish the phenotype or the physical identity of that living organism. Physics provides those powerful tools to see the molecules and to recognize their individualistic behavior. Life comes into existence using a creative principle, and creative mechanisms that need inspiration, and imagination apart from the use of simple mechanistic laws. If Life is governed by the Law of Individuality, I would define God as a Creative Force/Power/Energy.

 

Life is a condition that describes Synchronized Existence, the synchronization of activities, the connection between energy dependent life functions and its Source of Power.

A majority of these life forms that we know and have studied, have synchronized their state of existence with an event that produces alternating periods of light and darkness while that source of light is not being turned ‘on’ and ‘off’. Rather we are forced to experience the effects of an illusion. Sunrise and Sunset is the reality that governs a majority of Biological Rhythms that control the life processes. Illusion is the necessary condition for the biological existence of Life. If Earth’s rotational spin generates this illusion, God uses Force/Power/Energy to cause illusion. In the universe that exists today, to the extent we have verified; there are no two identical celestial objects that exhibit the same rotational spin. In this context, it may be said that the Force/Power/Energy called God has created Earth to provide a home to the life forms that He has created as Individuals. These life forms have the ability called reproduction and yet lack the ability of producing two identical new objects. Sexual or Asexual reproduction always results in the production of new Individuals which could be easily verified by using the Biometric Identification Technology. Even the clones, sharing identical genomes, in reality exist as individuals. This Individuality when investigated by the tools supplied by Physics, it is discovered that the organic molecules behave as Individuals and man is not able to modify that behavior. Under the same experimental conditions, the molecules behave as individuals. When we examine the nature of this biological existence, it indicates that life processes are supported by the provision of energy from an external source. The Living Cell is a thermodynamically unstable system. This means that without a continuous input of energy a Living Cell will degrade spontaneously into a nonliving collection of molecules. This lack of energy independence would direct us to define God as the Power/Force/Energy which delivers Compassion/Mercy/Grace which helps energy acquisition by energy dependent living organisms. Life forms on planet Earth exist depending upon an extraterrestrial source of energy or Cosmic Power/Force/Energy. Life exists because of its ability called ‘Association’. The act of associating, the state of being associated; the companionship, the fellowship, and the partnership is the defining feature of the State or Condition, or Act of Living. Association or patnership between energy seeker and energy provider could be described as God-Connection. Organisms that are single do not live as single cells but develop association with other single cells to form distinct Colonies. Organisms that are multicellular represent an organization of individual cells that are associated having common interests, purposes, sensations, etc., Since association has a purpose, in the context of biological existence, the association or connection, or partnership between the energy seeker, and the energy provider is a meaningful event and not a simple, mechanical, physical event governed by the Laws of Interactions between Matter and Energy. There are Four Fundamental Interactions and they do not regulate or define this Interaction between Living matter and the Cosmic Force/Power/Energy. Living matter uses and exploits energy in a creative manner to build organic molecules and to break down organic molecules. The life processes are very similar and yet the results are totally different. While using energy mostly following a similar metabolic pathway, each organism supports its identity and individuality.

 

WHO HAS ESTABLISHED THE CONNECTION BETWEEN AUTOTROPHS AND HETEROTROPHS? The creative mechanism to trap Solar Energy describes implanted Knowledge to formulate the connection between autotrophs and heterotrophs.

 

In mitochondria, many substances(food) are oxidized and ATP, the energy-storing chemical of the Cell is produced. The most important equations for living things are mutually inverse. Respiration of humans, and Cellular Respiration represents the reverse of Photosynthesis.

SOUL AND DEATH  :

The idea of ‘Soul’ always comes in the context of Death. If man is immortal, we will not be spending our time and energy discussing to verify the existence of an immortal principle. The human subject has a limited life span and it arouses a sense of curiosity about the existence of something that could defy Death. I am trying to define the word ‘Soul’ in a manner to promote an understanding that ‘Soul’ is immortal if we look at man as an Association of individual living cells. We need to establish the Identity of that Individual for whose purpose or interest this Association of Individual living cells exists. If we think of Death as a final event, it is not supported by factual evidence. In this Association, death is a daily event. We simply fail to acknowledge this daily event as there is an immortal principle that is escaping this death experience. The Individual thinks that he is alive and sustains his Individuality without getting overwhelmed by the dying process that is continuous. While the human organism is changing its external appearance and identity all the time, the Individuality survives if ‘Soul’ the vital, or operating immortal principle is functioning. The issue or question about ‘transmigration’ of Soul would not arise if every living organism exists strictly as an Individual with an Individuality. As stated before,man has no choice and he must always exist as an Individual even when we use Reproductive Genetic Engineering Technology to produce identical clones with the same genome. The dissolution of matter may not change the Law of Conservation of Energy. If Soul is defined as the God Connection that gives the ability of energy acquisition, the Soul when removed from a physical object to which it has given Individuality, would operate as per the commands of the Controller of Force/Power/Energy. It provides the possibility of carrying the impressions of a previous state of existence into a new state of existence with a new identity and Individuality. During the life span of a given Individual, an association of cells in which death is a daily event, Soul is a continuous principle as its purpose and interest is to maintain Individuality of that Individual.

SOUL AND THE LIVING CELL :

I define man as a physical, mental, social, moral, and spiritual being as I define the term ‘health’ as the physical, mental, social, moral, and spiritual well-being of the man in his environment and community and not merely as absence of disease. This definition of ‘health’ would help me to provide ‘comprehensive health care’ in my role as a Primary Care physician. Specialists and Super specialists provide health care in specific areas involving an organ or an organ system.

 

Jean Paul Sartre had stated that Nothingness(Non-thing or Neant) is a condition of not having Being and yet it is supported by Being. Nothingness comes into the world by the Being-for-itself. The Conscious Knowing-Self or the Essence of man is preceded by the Subjective Reality of physical Existence.

I attach my ideas to some ideas expressed by others. Sartre is a well-known person. He had won the Nobel Prize for literature but declined to accept it. I may not totally agree with him and his views about consciousness. He had stated his view in a manner that people can easily understand. He makes a distinction between objective things and human consciousness. He claims that consciousness is a ‘non-thing'(‘neant’ or nothingness ) and its reality consists in standing back from things and taking a point of view on them. Because consciousness is a non-thing, it does not have any of the causal involvements that things have with other things. If you stand before a mirror, the reflection exists only if it is supported by the presence of a physical being or thing. If the physical thing is taken away, the reflected image is gone but the reflective surface retains its ability to reflect the images of things.

 THE BIOLOGICAL MEMBRANE AND CONSCIOUSNESS  :

 

The Biological Membrane is not a simple physical barrier separating the Living Cell from its environment. The Protoplasm or Cytoplasm, the Living Matter uses its Biological Membrane with a sense of awareness or consciousness which recognizes the fact of its existence and the fact of something present in its environment.

 In a Living Cell, consciousness reflects its external environment and its internal condition or internal environment. The Living Cell knows, it is aware of its state, fact, and act of its Living. The Living Cell makes contact with its environment by using a cell membrane, a biological membrane, or a bio-membrane. If you carefully look at some of the functions of this membrane, you would discern that the Living Cell has consciousness or awareness of these functions. The Biological Membrane behaves in a conscious manner and it is not a simple, physical barrier between the Protoplasm, the Living Substance and its environment. If the term ‘soul’ describes a vital principle, or a source of Knowledge, it provides the information with which these functions could be performed. Some molecules and ions can freely move across this Bio-membrane and some are actively pumped in or out of the Cell that involves expenditure of energy. The Living Cell has the ability to recognize the condition of its nucleus, if the DNA is damaged, the Cell can initiate a process and cause its own dissolution.

 

Red Blood Cells display functional subordination to serve the purpose of the Whole Organism. Functional differentiation, and Functional Unity are important to support the existence of the Subject or Individual who is in reality an association of trillions of cells.

In multicellular organism, the consciousness works both at the level of each individual cell and to establish the functioning of the organism as an individual unit. Without functional unity, the organism cannot maintain its biological existence. Cell differentiation is the process by which the individual cells use adaptation to perform specific tasks. Red Blood Cells perform specific tasks.

 THE NEURO-BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF CONSCIOUSNESS  :

 

Reticular Formation of Brain Stem has connections with almost all other parts of the Central Nervous System and it helps to coordinate and integrate actions of different parts of the CNS. It is important for Behavioral Arousal, and the Capacity for Consciousness.

In the human Brain Stem, several neurons, and nuclei which are in an area called Reticular Formation are functionally adapted to compose the contents of human consciousness. The Reticular Formation gives the Capacity for Consciousness. The contents of this consciousness are read in the cortical areas of the cerebral hemispheres and described as Cortical awareness. Most philosophers, most of the psychologists, and several of the religious thinkers pay attention to this Cortical awareness and describe that as human consciousness. We tend to ignore the fact that there would be no Cortical awareness unless there is a Capacity for Consciousness. Most recently, the surgeons had removed the complete left cerebral hemisphere from a child to stop convulsive seizures. The child is alive, fully conscious, and hopefully would continue to live in future with some neurological deficits. Just like the human heart which has four different muscular chambers and each has a function of its own; we need to understand consciousness by knowing its components. We need to use separate terms to distinguish these different components. There would be confusion if a term is used without attaching a specific meaning. Cortical awareness is important and is very interesting and yet man can exist and survive with minimal cortical awareness. We have seen children with severe degrees of mental retardation, and they can keep their biological existence if they retain the ability to Compose Consciousness. I want to designate the upper Brain Stem as the Seat of Consciousness and the word consciousness itself must describe the functions of the Brain Stem which are most important for man’s biological existence. A man is clinically dead in the absence of these Brain Stem functions involved in the Capacity of Consciousness. In Clinical Medicine, the term conscious is often used to measure the degree of Arousal or Cortical awareness and hence this subject matter would remain confusing for a long time. If a subject is unconscious, I would not issue a ‘death certificate’. In Clinical Medicine, the term used is ‘Brain Death’ and when Brain Death is diagnosed, the human person for all practical purposes is dead. I would suggest that we must use the term ‘Unconscious’ specifically to indicate the Brain Death which is diagnosed by testing the Brain Stem Reflexes. If the human person is viewed as a single physical thing or object, the integration of functions is achieved at the Brain Stem( Reticular Formation), and he maintains his individuality throughout his physical existence only when this part of the brain is functioning. If you like the term individual soul or Jeeva Atma, its existence is a reflection of this function. To see a reflection, we need two things; the physical object and a reflective surface. The quality of reflecting objects may depend upon presence of Knowledge. It is not known if this particular kind of knowledge exists as organic molecules; however, it is very well understood that most of the knowledge to perform a variety of biological functions is contained in organic molecules and the most well-known group of these organic molecules are known as DNA. There are Viruses which can function with RNA. Hence, there is still a possibility of finding organic molecules that could be associated with the functional ability called consciousness, awareness, cognition, recognition, responsiveness, perception, memory, intelligence, and association. The most important aspect of ‘association’ is ‘God Connection’ and without this function of ‘association’ man cannot keep his biological existence.

 

Consciousness is awareness of existence, the facts that relate to the state or condition of existence. Behavioral Arousal and Cortical awareness of thoughts, feelings, and sensations is an important component of total Biological Existence.

IDENTITY AND INDIVIDUALITY :

 

The Eternal Reality of Soul's Immortality is described in The Bhagavad Gita, Chapter II, verse 12. Lord Krishna spoke to the Pandava Prince Arjuna :"Na tv evaham jatu nasam na tvam neme JanadhipaH;Na chaiva na bhavisyamaH, sarve vayam ataH param." For each of us our Individuality existed in the past and our Individuality will continue in the future without interruption. Certainly, never at any time did I not exist, nor you, nor all these Kings and certainly never shall we cease to exist in the future.

The issue of spirituality, the nature of Soul and consciousness must be explored in the context of arriving at an understanding of man’s Identity and Individuality. If man is viewed as an association of trillions of cells, we need to know the Identity of that Subject who lives because of the functions of the trillions of cells. The purpose of consciousness at cellular level is to foster functional unity of the multicellular organism and to establish it as an Individual. In a multicellular organism, cells have short lives as individuals. The Subject or the whole organism has a life span of its own and it has effects on individual cells. Multicellularity is accompanied by adaptive subordination of all cells to the requirements of the organism as a whole. To achieve proper numerical balance between functionally related cell groups, the death of many cells is necessary for other cells to reach maturity. This programmed cell death plays an important role in embryological development. Such programmed cell death events are essential if the organism as a whole is to develop its normal final form. Waves of genetically driven cell deaths are critical to the proper modeling of organs and organ systems. We need to know and understand that death of cells is a must to establish the Identity and to sustain the Individuality of the human being. The dying process helps man to understand his Individuality. The Individuality is preserved while death is a daily event at the cellular level. The phenotype or the morphological appearance of the human Subject undergoes constant change during the Life journey and yet the Individuality remains unchanged. We recognize the death of this human Subject when his Soul departs from his body. Soul may be stated as an entity which is regarded as being immortal or spiritual part of the person. The Spirit of a dead person generally refers to a principle separate from the body and leading an existence of its own. If Soul is viewed as a Non-thing or Nothingness, it comes into the world of existence by entering the physical being at its conception which becomes conscious or aware of its existence. This consciousness has also existed in a previously existing Living Egg Cell which is the Mother of Life, Energy, and Knowledge. Consciousness by its very nature is immortal, it is eternal, and it has no birth or death. We recognize the arrival and departure of the new product during the Life-Death continuum where the Individuality is unaffected by the changes that are caused by the powerful influence of Time.

 

Dr. R. Rudra Narasimham, B.Sc., M.B.B.S.,

Kurnool Medical College, Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh, India,

M.B.B.S., Class of April, 1970

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WHOLE DUDE – WHOLE RATIONAL

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A POUND OF FOOLISHNESS   IS BETTER THAN A PENNY OF WISDOM :   

 

   

 

  

What is Reality? The Golden Gate Bridge is real, Pacific Ocean is real, Sun is real. The Sunset is not real. Can man experience the Reality? How would Reality impact man's existence?

 

The social scientist Bruno Latour, from France’s “Institut d’ Etudes Politiques de Paris” was in New Delhi, India and spoke about what it means to be modern with Deep K Datta-Ray of Times of India. In essence, I support his view and there is a need for a new approach; the use of irrational belief and not that of scientific rational belief.

CAN SCIENCE PROVIDE EXPERIENCE OF REALITY?          

 

   

 

  

Pencil in Water Illusion. Can Science influence the nature of Perception? The Perception of bent Pencil is caused by the properties of Light rays. Science can only explain the reason for this Optical Illusion. Science has no Power to eliminate the Illusion. The only way man can experience the Reality of this Pencil would be that of changing the State of Pencil's Conditioned Existence. It is easy to remove the Pencil from Water and experience the Reality. But, can Man remove himself from his State of Conditioned Existence and experience Reality?

 

It would be totally irrational to believe that Science could provide the experience called Reality. Science is not POWER/FORCE/ENERGY which operates in the natural world. Science provides information to understand things and it has no power or force to influence things. Science may reveal understanding of the nature of Reality and such revelation could be of no use  in the context of human existence on planet Earth as man lives because of illusional experience of the world and the universe in which he exists.

THE REALITY OF EARTH’S MOTION :     

 

     

    

 

    

    

Science can explain the Motions of planet Earth. Science can not provide the experience of the Speed of planet Earth’s Motions. The Reality of Earth’s Motions is known and is understood. But, man exists only if this Reality is not directly experienced. The physical and mental experience of the Speed of Earth, the Angular Speed, and the Linear Speed would not permit man’s physical existence on the surface of planet Earth.

The speed of earth’s motion can be described in two ways; 1. The Angular Speed: The earth rotates 360 degrees in 24 hours and the speed is 1,000miles/hour. 2. The Linear Speed: The distance earth travels is 584 million miles per year. The Linear Speed of earth is 66, 660 miles/hour. 

Science may explain the fact of the speed of a point on the surface of the earth but can not force man to experience the Reality of that Speed. Man exists on the surface of the earth without ever experiencing the Reality. There is no physical experience of this basic Reality. There is no direct mental experience of this fundamental Reality. Man may intellectually visualize this Reality by understanding the facts explained by Science. If the human brain and body is constantly engaged by the fact of earth’s motions, the Reality of earth’s Angular Speed and Linear Speed, man would immediately experience a mental breakdown and would not be able to function as a living organism. Just think about the sense of fear, anxiety generated by a brief event like earthquake. The Subjective Reality of man’s Physical Existence on the surface of earth is sustained, is supported, and is protected by a Fundamental Force called Gravitation. Because of the operation of Gravitational Force man is virtually saved from any experience of Earth’s motions. Man only experiences the environmental changes caused by Earth’s motions. Further, this Subjective Reality of man’s Physical Existence is governed by a FORCE/POWER/ENERGY that causes an illusionary experience of Sun’s movement across the sky. Science would explain the Reality of Sun’s motion at a speed of 155 miles/second. But, man exists on the surface of earth with no physical or mental experience of Sun’s true or real motion. What man experiences is the apparent motion of Sun and experiences Sunrise and Sunset. Science may explain the Reality and teach us the fact of Sun shining with brightness all the time. Man has invented stories and has created folk tales about Sun’s Journey in the Sky. The Reality described by Science does not govern human existence. The biological activities, the Biological Rhythms( Circadian/Diurnal/Solar Rhythms) are synchronized with the experience of ILLUSION and not that of Scientific Reality.

BIOLOGICAL CLOCK AND MAN’S LIFE JOURNEY  :

  

  

  

 

      

 

     

 

  

Man's existence on the surface of planet Earth and the duration of his life's journey is measured by the internal Biological Clock. The time duration is measured by the alternating periods of Light and Darkness, the experience of Day and Night, the experience of Sunrise and Sunset which drives the Biological Rhythm. In Reality, the Sun is shining with brightness at all times during the entire length of man's life journey. Man gets no chance to experience that Reality and the Biological Clock is not influenced by that Reality of Sun shining at all the hours of man's earthly existence.

 

Man can not exist on the surface of physical earth if he has direct body or mental experience of the Reality explained by rational Scientific Belief. The very nature of human existence in this vast universe can not be rationally understood. There is no evidence to suggest that Life could be discovered in other parts of our universe. There is no chance that man could find an opportunity to leave the Solar System and find a Home in a different part of the universe. Man has no control over the structure and organization of the universe. Man has no choice other than that of accepting the conditioned nature of his energy dependent existence with no other place to call as Home. Rational beliefs have no role and do not define the status of man in nature and in the universe. It is more likely that man’s existence could be supported by an irrational belief in Ultimate Reality, which operates the POWER/FORCE/ENERGY which delivers MERCY/GRACE/COMPASSION to spread a veil of ILLUSION to defend man from the direct physical or mental experience of Reality of the Universe in which man lives.

Man can only exist in this Universe if he does not directly experience the Reality of this Universe. Man's earthly existence is defended by ILLUSION and Science has no Power to provide man a chance to experience Reality which is hidden by the ILLUSION.

 

 

Dr. R. Rudra Narasimham, B.Sc., M.B.B.S.,

Kurnool Medical College, Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh, India,

M.B.B.S., Class of April, 1970.

‘The only shibboleth the West has is science’

Apr 4, 2011, 12.00am IST, Times of India

http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/home/opinion/edit-page/The-only-shibboleth-the-West-has-is-science/articleshow/7857996.cms?intenttarget=no

The social scientist Bruno Latour , from France’s Institut d’Etudes Politiques de Paris (Sciences Po), was in New Delhi and spoke about what it means to be modern with Deep K Datta-Ray .

Why do you argue that Western Europe has never been modern?

The only shibboleth the West has is science. It is the premise of modernity and it defines itself as a rationality capable of, indeed requiring separation from politics, religion and really, society. Modernisation is to work towards this.

A move away from the pre-modern, which is a period of embroilment and entanglement of everything but when one looks at the practice of science in a laboratory, as i did, this division is revealed as false.

Scientists are very much entangled in their culture and this culture is not pristine, untouched by other cultures and practices. The real history of Europe therefore is one of a constant interaction, a mixing of peoples, various cultures and the material.

What does this mean for our understanding of what the modern world actually is, how institutions thought of as quintessentially modern function?

There’s very little on how today’s world actually functions. Instead there is the official story of modernisation. Meanwhile, there is a prominent discourse in India about modernisation.

My argument is that the baseline for understanding modernity requires interrogation, which destabilises expectations of what a modernising society should do.

Traditionally, the moderns criticised the supposedly archaic, symbolised by the East. Everyone wanted to become modern – but my work demonstrates that being modern was never as clear as presumed. So, when India begins to modernise what happens?

There is a double instability – of an uncertain baseline and then what happens when that is implemented in a society far away and especially in an institutional setting and in an area so close to the state such as governance. So there has to be more work on this.

This is especially important because there are so many more people here, it is possible to have institutions of a different complexion altogether, of alternative ways instituted here. India is a reservoir of alternative interpretations of what the global is and these ways of viewing the world need to be exposed.

Could it also be said that the idea of a universalising ‘modern’ rationality is not necessarily European but became dominant in Europe?

For that there has to be more work on the non-western world. Regardless of place, there have to be thicker descriptions of practice, of what the modern world actually is, how do banks work for instance, because all we have is utopian description of how modernity functions. The dream of utopia killed descriptive work because the focus was on a universalising rationality, not how rationality actually plays out in practice. It should be clear that i’m not saying the East is somehow different, exotic. If one looks at the works of Newton to Einstein they were never scientists in the way modernity understands the term.

What are the implications of this type of work on politics?

Well, politics cannot keep to the scientific ideal quite simply because science in practice meant our moving from the country to the city and getting progressively disconnected from nature. But now one cannot discuss anything without thinking of the whole. Science was supposed to take us out of the cosmos and into a universalising rationality but that has produced all sorts of problems which are being corrected today by new approaches which are reminiscent of the non-modern, such as the politics of nature. This is a cosmological approach, one that ties in everything to make a decision.

WHOLE DUDE – WHOLE CONNECTION

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THE STATUS OF MAN IN NATURE :

The First Book of Moses, The Old Testament Book of Genesis describes the story of Creation; in Chapter 2, verse 7, it narrates man’s creation: “And the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul.”

The Book of Genesis, Chapter 1, verse 27:"So God created man in His own image; in the image of God He created him; male and female He created them."

MAN IS A CREATED BEING  :  

 

Man is a created being. Spirituality explores the connection between man and his Creator. The Trimurti at Elephanta Island Cave Temples near Mumbai, India represents God as the Creator(Brahma), the Preserver(Vishnu) and the Destroyer(Shiva).

MAN IS A SPIRITUAL BEING :

The status of man in nature describes man as a created object; a new object, one of its own kind, distinctive, and unique. The principle of Creation
involves the use of inspiration and imagination as opposed to the view proposed by the Theory of Evolution. The fundamental issue is about understanding man’s status in nature. Did man come into existence by gradual changes caused by random and unguided events called genetic mutations? Or, does man actually exist in nature because of his relationship with other objects present in his living environment? What defines man’s existence? What establishes the reality of man’s physical existence? Should we focus on the changing form? Alternately, should we give attention to an unchanging relationship that is a prerequisite for the existence of all life forms? If an object cannot come into its state of existence, how could that object get a shape or form? In the context of a discussion about man’s existence in nature, I state that  man is a created object, and hence man
exists as a Spiritual being. The term Spirituality describes the nature of this connection between man and His Creator. Soul is the immortal part of man as distinguished from his body; it is the vital principle which moves and animates all Life. Soul may represent the essence of a human being, it could be the quality which confers individuality, humanity, and the moral nature of man. I divide man into two categories; the first category is called the ‘SELF’ which represents man as a physical, mental, and social being; and the second category is called the ‘KNOWING-SELF’ which represents man as a moral, and spiritual being. These two categories function together and the functional unity of the human person is an attribute of a neuro-biological function called Consciousness. Man’s physical being is represented by a changing external or morphological appearance and while the physical Identity is constantly changing, the unchanging Individuality is supported by man’s spirituality or the nature of his constant spiritual relationship.  

 

 THE ETERNAL REALITY OF SOUL’S IMMORTALITY  :

 

 

Ajanta Caves near Aurangabad, Maharashtra State, India, Fresco-type wall painting- Man's spiritual dimension describes man's humanity, moral nature, individuality, and Consciousness.

 Religious thinkers have further defined Soul as that part of the individual which partakes of divinity. People of all races, cultures and religions would like to investigate the nature of this God-Connection as they perceive the world and the universe in which they exist as a fact of Creation. I need to find evidence that would fundamentally deny the fact of Creation.

 MAN IS A SOCIAL BEING  :

 

 

French philosopher Auguste Comte(1798-1857) coined the term Sociology. He believed that the scientific study of social organization would make possible a reconstitution of the social order based on principles of moral progress.

Apart from being a created Physical being, man is recognized as a Social being as he displays social instincts and social behaviors in all of his activities. A rudimentary understanding of Sociology or Theories of Social Science would clarify this matter. Social instincts and Social Behaviors are seen in all animals including bacteria. At a cellular level, the social function is called ‘Association’. Man is an association of trillions of cells. Each human organ and organ system represents an association of cells that display functional subordination to perform selective tasks. Life is just impossible without social structure and organization.

MAN IS A MORAL BEING  : 

 

 

 

Man is a Spiritual being and is endowed with Moral nature. James Tissot in his painting captures the essence of man. The Book of Matthew, Chapter 27 verses 3-5 narrate the story of Apostle Judas Iscariot and his moral failing that caused the dissolution of his biological existence-"When Judas who had betrayed Him, saw that Jesus was condemned, he was seized with remorse and returned the thirty silver coins to the chief priests and the elders. "I have sinned," he said,"for I have betrayed innocent blood." So Judas threw the money into the temple and left. Then he went away and hanged himself."

Man is an individual who exists in a social group. At the same time, man is a Moral being, as he displays moral behavior even when he is corrupt. Man displays the ability of Repentance for his thoughts, for his actions of commission and omission. Man has the ability to admit his sins, express remorse and may often punish himself for his sinful conduct. Man experiences grief for his actions that are sinful. Man actively searches for solutions for his sinful conduct. Man cannot sustain his biological existence if he had morally failed. A famous example would be that of Apostle Judas Iscariot, the betrayer of Jesus.

 MATTER, ENERGY, AND KNOWLEDGE  :
Greek philosopher  Aristotle had observed that corporeal substances are composite of two principles, form and matter. What is called matter is potentiality, what is called form is actuality. The totality of things have been divided in various ways. The three fundamental distinctions are 1. the distinction between the natural and the supernatural, 2. the distinction between the material and the spiritual, and 3. the distinction between the lifeless and the living. When we make the distinction animate/inanimate, living/non-living, and inorganic/organic, a question arises about the nature of that distinction. The difference, is that one of kind or degree? The Mechanistic View claims the continuity of nature in terms of the universality of purely mechanical principles. I have defined Life as ‘Knowledge in Action’. Please view the blog post at http://bhavanajagat.wordpress.com/2010/08/05/what-is-life-life-is-knowledge-in-action/
I define Life as organization of matter with implanted supernatural Knowledge. The establishment of supernatural Knowledge in matter decribes the operation of ‘God Principle’, Spirit, or Soul. Life comes into existence when matter and energy come together with the establishment of ‘God Connection’.
  
LIFE AND CONSCIOUSNESS  :                    

 

 

Amoeba proteus, unicellular, protozoan organism is conscious or aware of its own state of existence. It has the abilities of Motion, Nutrition, and Reproduction. All of its living functions are goal-oriented. It responds to its environment and survives adverse environmental conditions by a process called encystment.

The basic characteristic of a Living Cell or organism is the presence of consciousness. I recognize a cell as a Living Cell if it displays functions that characterize the presence of awareness or consciousness. The Living Cell or Living Object need not be aware or conscious of the Subject who may be investigating or observing the properties of that Object. The Living Object need to be aware of its own existence and its condition called Living. Atoms and molecules display their properties and interact according to the Laws of Physics and Chemistry. Living organic molecules show individualistic behaviors under experimental conditions that could be repeated and be verified. The Living Cell is very selective and it responds in a variable manner to physical and chemical stimuli. It can communicate or send signals to other Living Cells present in its environment. It responds according to its internal condition in relation to the environment in which it exists. The interactions of non-living physical matter are not goal-oriented. The interactions of Living matter are goal-oriented and they specifically achieve the purpose of sustaining, preserving, defending, and continuing the Living functions.

MAN IS A MORTAL, PHYSICAL BEING  :

 

Man is a mortal being who must eventually die. When Lazarus died and was laid in a tomb for four days, Jesus performed a miracle and Lazarus came back to life from death. The Book of John, Chapter 11, narrates this event. In verses 41 and 42, Jesus said,"Father, I thank You that You have heard Me. And I know that You always hear Me, but I said this for the benefit of the people who are standing here, that they may believe that You sent Me." The risen Lazarus had eventually died.

LIFE AND DEATH IS A CONTINUOUS PROCESS :

 

 

When does Life begins? When does Life ends? Life always comes into a state of existence from a previously existing Living Cell. Life and Death is a continuous process and is recognized by the presence of Consciousness and Individuality.

When does Life begins? When does Life ends? Every Living Cell is derived from a previously existing Living Cell. Life has not experienced the final event called DEATH. Life continues its act of Living through a function called Reproduction. A given species is considered to be totally extinct only if there is no surviving member to represent that particular species. Death is a programmed event and it gives meaning to the Identity of a Living Object. The dissolution of a single Living Object should not obscure the fact that Life is a continuous process. Life continues as Living Objects get new Identities. It is very reasonable to expect that Life would continue after the death of a given Living Object. People all over the world are a witness to that simple and direct observation. During the Life-Death continuum, the connection between the Creator and the created Living Object is manifested by the biological function called awareness or consciousness. The presence of Soul is evidenced by the presence of consciousness. As long as the Soul is functioning and is united with the physical being, the presence of consciousness could be detected and could be verified.

THE SOUL AND GOD CONNECTION : 

 

 

All types of Living Cells with or without nucleus represent thermodynamically unstable systems. Without a continuous input of energy a Living Cell will degrade spontaneously into a nonliving collection of molecules. Biological existence is possible because of an association or connection, or partnership between energy seeker and energy provider.

 There has been no clearly defined and universally accepted metaphysical conception of the term Soul. It is a term rarely used with precise definition in philosophy, religion, or common life. In this discussion we face the problem of using words to which no definitive meaning is attached. If I make an attempt to define the word ‘God’, you may even speculate that I may belong to a new religious order. We need to come to a consensus even if an entity called ‘God’ does not exist. We need to formulate a view, a hypothetical view about Soul and test that hypothesis by countering it with a skeptical hypothesis. The Science called Physics deals with the properties, changes, interactions, etc. of matter and energy in which energy is considered to be continuous. In the ultimate analysis, matter is a representation of its energy content. The Science called Biology deals with Life and Life processes. While Life is made up of physical matter, Life processes are not explained by simple mechanistic interactions. However, I am willing to use the principles, the methods, and the tools used by Physics. Molecular Biology explains biological events by studying the molecules within cells; the molecular basis of genetics – Nucleic Acids and its relationship to energy cycling and replication. If this universe is seen as matter and energy, I would define God as the Controller of Force/Power/Energy. All living things are essentially made up of the same kind of living matter and yet they appear to be different. Life could be attributed to ONE common principle which has the ability to be simultaneously different. Each living object comes into a state of existence as a new object, as an original object, one of its own kind, unique, and distinctive. This morphological variation is an attribute of the organic molecules that establish the phenotype or the physical identity of that living organism. Physics provides those powerful tools to see the molecules and to recognize their individualistic behavior. Life comes into existence using a creative principle, and creative mechanisms that need inspiration, and imagination apart from the use of simple mechanistic laws. If Life is governed by the Law of Individuality, I would define God as a Creative Force/Power/Energy.

 

 

Life is a condition that describes Synchronized Existence, the synchronization of activities, the connection between energy dependent life functions and its Source of Power.

A majority of these life forms that we know and have studied, have synchronized their state of existence with an event that produces alternating periods of light and darkness while that source of light is not being turned ‘on’ and ‘off’. Rather we are forced to experience the effects of an illusion. Sunrise and Sunset is the reality that governs a majority of Biological Rhythms that control the life processes. Illusion is the necessary condition for the biological existence of Life. If Earth’s rotational spin generates this illusion, God uses Force/Power/Energy to cause illusion. In the universe that exists today, to the extent we have verified; there are no two identical celestial objects that exhibit the same rotational spin. In this context, it may be said that the Force/Power/Energy called God has created Earth to provide a home to the life forms that He has created as Individuals. These life forms have the ability called reproduction and yet lack the ability of producing two identical new objects. Sexual or Asexual reproduction always results in the production of new Individuals which could be easily verified by using the Biometric Identification Technology. Even the clones, sharing identical genomes, in reality exist as individuals. This Individuality when investigated by the tools supplied by Physics, it is discovered that the organic molecules behave as Individuals and man is not able to modify that behavior. Under the same experimental conditions, the molecules behave as individuals. When we examine the nature of this biological existence, it indicates that life processes are supported by the provision of energy from an external source. The Living Cell is a thermodynamically unstable system. This means that without a continuous input of energy a Living Cell will degrade spontaneously into a nonliving collection of molecules. This lack of energy independence would direct us to define God as the Power/Force/Energy which delivers Compassion/Mercy/Grace which helps energy acquisition by energy dependent living organisms. Life forms on planet Earth exist depending upon an extraterrestrial source of energy or Cosmic Power/Force/Energy. Life exists because of its ability called ‘Association’. The act of associating, the state of being associated; the companionship, the fellowship, and the partnership is the defining feature of the State or Condition, or Act of Living. Association or patnership between energy seeker and energy provider could be described as God-Connection. Organisms that are single do not live as single cells but develop association with other single cells to form distinct Colonies. Organisms that are multicellular represent an organization of individual cells that are associated having common interests, purposes, sensations, etc., Since association has a purpose, in the context of biological existence, the association or connection, or partnership between the energy seeker, and the energy provider is a meaningful event and not a simple, mechanical, physical event governed by the Laws of Interactions between Matter and Energy. There are Four Fundamental Interactions and they do not regulate or define this Interaction between Living matter and the Cosmic Force/Power/Energy. Living matter uses and exploits energy in a creative manner to build organic molecules and to break down organic molecules. The life processes are very similar and yet the results are totally different. While using energy mostly following a similar metabolic pathway, each organism supports its identity and individuality.

 

 

WHO HAS ESTABLISHED THE CONNECTION BETWEEN AUTOTROPHS AND HETEROTROPHS? The creative mechanism to trap Solar Energy describes implanted Knowledge to formulate the connection between autotrophs and heterotrophs.

 

 

In mitochondria, many substances(food) are oxidized and ATP, the energy-storing chemical of the Cell is produced. The most important equations for living things are mutually inverse. Respiration of humans, and Cellular Respiration represents the reverse of Photosynthesis.

SOUL AND DEATH  :

The idea of ‘Soul’ always comes in the context of Death. If man is immortal, we will not be spending our time and energy discussing to verify the existence of an immortal principle. The human subject has a limited life span and it arouses a sense of curiosity about the existence of something that could defy Death. I am trying to define the word ‘Soul’ in a manner to promote an understanding that ‘Soul’ is immortal if we look at man as an Association of individual living cells. We need to establish the Identity of that Individual for whose purpose or interest this Association of Individual living cells exists. If we think of Death as a final event, it is not supported by factual evidence. In this Association, death is a daily event. We simply fail to acknowledge this daily event as there is an immortal principle that is escaping this death experience. The Individual thinks that he is alive and sustains his Individuality without getting overwhelmed by the dying process that is continuous. While the human organism is changing its external appearance and identity all the time, the Individuality survives if ‘Soul’ the vital, or operating immortal principle is functioning. The issue or question about ‘transmigration’ of Soul would not arise if every living organism exists strictly as an Individual with an Individuality. As stated before,man has no choice and he must always exist as an Individual even when we use Reproductive Genetic Engineering Technology to produce identical clones with the same genome. The dissolution of matter may not change the Law of Conservation of Energy. If Soul is defined as the God Connection that gives the ability of energy acquisition, the Soul when removed from a physical object to which it has given Individuality, would operate as per the commands of the Controller of Force/Power/Energy. It provides the possibility of carrying the impressions of a previous state of existence into a new state of existence with a new identity and Individuality. During the life span of a given Individual, an association of cells in which death is a daily event, Soul is a continuous principle as its purpose and interest is to maintain Individuality of that Individual.

SOUL AND THE LIVING CELL :

I define man as a physical, mental, social, moral, and spiritual being as I define the term ‘health’ as the physical, mental, social, moral, and spiritual well-being of the man in his environment and community and not merely as absence of disease. This definition of ‘health’ would help me to provide ‘comprehensive health care’ in my role as a Primary Care physician. Specialists and Super specialists provide health care in specific areas involving an organ or an organ system.

 

 

Jean Paul Sartre had stated that Nothingness(Non-thing or Neant) is a condition of not having Being and yet it is supported by Being. Nothingness comes into the world by the Being-for-itself. The Conscious Knowing-Self or the Essence of man is preceded by the Subjective Reality of physical Existence.

I attach my ideas to some ideas expressed by others. Sartre is a well-known person. He had won the Nobel Prize for literature but declined to accept it. I may not totally agree with him and his views about consciousness. He had stated his view in a manner that people can easily understand. He makes a distinction between objective things and human consciousness. He claims that consciousness is a ‘non-thing'(‘neant’ or nothingness ) and its reality consists in standing back from things and taking a point of view on them. Because consciousness is a non-thing, it does not have any of the causal involvements that things have with other things. If you stand before a mirror, the reflection exists only if it is supported by the presence of a physical being or thing. If the physical thing is taken away, the reflected image is gone but the reflective surface retains its ability to reflect the images of things.

 THE BIOLOGICAL MEMBRANE AND CONSCIOUSNESS  :

 

 

The Biological Membrane is not a simple physical barrier separating the Living Cell from its environment. The Protoplasm or Cytoplasm, the Living Matter uses its Biological Membrane with a sense of awareness or consciousness which recognizes the fact of its existence and the fact of something present in its environment.

 In a Living Cell, consciousness reflects its external environment and its internal condition or internal environment. The Living Cell knows, it is aware of its state, fact, and act of its Living. The Living Cell makes contact with its environment by using a cell membrane, a biological membrane, or a bio-membrane. If you carefully look at some of the functions of this membrane, you would discern that the Living Cell has consciousness or awareness of these functions. The Biological Membrane behaves in a conscious manner and it is not a simple, physical barrier between the Protoplasm, the Living Substance and its environment. If the term ‘soul’ describes a vital principle, or a source of Knowledge, it provides the information with which these functions could be performed. Some molecules and ions can freely move across this Bio-membrane and some are actively pumped in or out of the Cell that involves expenditure of energy. The Living Cell has the ability to recognize the condition of its nucleus, if the DNA is damaged, the Cell can initiate a process and cause its own dissolution.

 

 

Red Blood Cells display functional subordination to serve the purpose of the Whole Organism. Functional differentiation, and Functional Unity are important to support the existence of the Subject or Individual who is in reality an association of trillions of cells.

In multicellular organism, the consciousness works both at the level of each individual cell and to establish the functioning of the organism as an individual unit. Without functional unity, the organism cannot maintain its biological existence. Cell differentiation is the process by which the individual cells use adaptation to perform specific tasks. Red Blood Cells perform specific tasks.

 THE NEURO-BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF CONSCIOUSNESS  :

 

 

Reticular Formation of Brain Stem has connections with almost all other parts of the Central Nervous System and it helps to coordinate and integrate actions of different parts of the CNS. It is important for Behavioral Arousal, and the Capacity for Consciousness.

In the human Brain Stem, several neurons, and nuclei which are in an area called Reticular Formation are functionally adapted to compose the contents of human consciousness. The Reticular Formation gives the Capacity for Consciousness. The contents of this consciousness are read in the cortical areas of the cerebral hemispheres and described as Cortical awareness. Most philosophers, most of the psychologists, and several of the religious thinkers pay attention to this Cortical awareness and describe that as human consciousness. We tend to ignore the fact that there would be no Cortical awareness unless there is a Capacity for Consciousness. Most recently, the surgeons had removed the complete left cerebral hemisphere from a child to stop convulsive seizures. The child is alive, fully conscious, and hopefully would continue to live in future with some neurological deficits. Just like the human heart which has four different muscular chambers and each has a function of its own; we need to understand consciousness by knowing its components. We need to use separate terms to distinguish these different components. There would be confusion if a term is used without attaching a specific meaning. Cortical awareness is important and is very interesting and yet man can exist and survive with minimal cortical awareness. We have seen children with severe degrees of mental retardation, and they can keep their biological existence if they retain the ability to Compose Consciousness. I want to designate the upper Brain Stem as the Seat of Consciousness and the word consciousness itself must describe the functions of the Brain Stem which are most important for man’s biological existence. A man is clinically dead in the absence of these Brain Stem functions involved in the Capacity of Consciousness. In Clinical Medicine, the term conscious is often used to measure the degree of Arousal or Cortical awareness and hence this subject matter would remain confusing for a long time. If a subject is unconscious, I would not issue a ‘death certificate’. In Clinical Medicine, the term used is ‘Brain Death’ and when Brain Death is diagnosed, the human person for all practical purposes is dead. I would suggest that we must use the term ‘Unconscious’ specifically to indicate the Brain Death which is diagnosed by testing the Brain Stem Reflexes. If the human person is viewed as a single physical thing or object, the integration of functions is achieved at the Brain Stem( Reticular Formation), and he maintains his individuality throughout his physical existence only when this part of the brain is functioning. If you like the term individual soul or Jeeva Atma, its existence is a reflection of this function. To see a reflection, we need two things; the physical object and a reflective surface. The quality of reflecting objects may depend upon presence of Knowledge. It is not known if this particular kind of knowledge exists as organic molecules; however, it is very well understood that most of the knowledge to perform a variety of biological functions is contained in organic molecules and the most well-known group of these organic molecules are known as DNA. There are Viruses which can function with RNA. Hence, there is still a possibility of finding organic molecules that could be associated with the functional ability called consciousness, awareness, cognition, recognition, responsiveness, perception, memory, intelligence, and association. The most important aspect of ‘association’ is ‘God Connection’ and without this function of ‘association’ man cannot keep his biological existence.

 

 

Consciousness is awareness of existence, the facts that relate to the state or condition of existence. Behavioral Arousal and Cortical awareness of thoughts, feelings, and sensations is an important component of total Biological Existence.

IDENTITY AND INDIVIDUALITY :

 

 

The Eternal Reality of Soul's Immortality is described in The Bhagavad Gita, Chapter II, verse 12. Lord Krishna spoke to the Pandava Prince Arjuna :"Na tv evaham jatu nasam na tvam neme JanadhipaH;Na chaiva na bhavisyamaH, sarve vayam ataH param." For each of us our Individuality existed in the past and our Individuality will continue in the future without interruption. Certainly, never at any time did I not exist, nor you, nor all these Kings and certainly never shall we cease to exist in the future.

The issue of spirituality, the nature of Soul and consciousness must be explored in the context of arriving at an understanding of man’s Identity and Individuality. If man is viewed as an association of trillions of cells, we need to know the Identity of that Subject who lives because of the functions of the trillions of cells. The purpose of consciousness at cellular level is to foster functional unity of the multicellular organism and to establish it as an Individual. In a multicellular organism, cells have short lives as individuals. The Subject or the whole organism has a life span of its own and it has effects on individual cells. Multicellularity is accompanied by adaptive subordination of all cells to the requirements of the organism as a whole. To achieve proper numerical balance between functionally related cell groups, the death of many cells is necessary for other cells to reach maturity. This programmed cell death plays an important role in embryological development. Such programmed cell death events are essential if the organism as a whole is to develop its normal final form. Waves of genetically driven cell deaths are critical to the proper modeling of organs and organ systems. We need to know and understand that death of cells is a must to establish the Identity and to sustain the Individuality of the human being. The dying process helps man to understand his Individuality. The Individuality is preserved while death is a daily event at the cellular level. The phenotype or the morphological appearance of the human Subject undergoes constant change during the Life journey and yet the Individuality remains unchanged. We recognize the death of this human Subject when his Soul departs from his body. Soul may be stated as an entity which is regarded as being immortal or spiritual part of the person. The Spirit of a dead person generally refers to a principle separate from the body and leading an existence of its own. If Soul is viewed as a Non-thing or Nothingness, it comes into the world of existence by entering the physical being at its conception which becomes conscious or aware of its existence. This consciousness has also existed in a previously existing Living Egg Cell which is the Mother of Life, Energy, and Knowledge. Consciousness by its very nature is immortal, it is eternal, and it has no birth or death. We recognize the arrival and departure of the new product during the Life-Death continuum where the Individuality is unaffected by the changes that are caused by the powerful influence of Time.

Dr. R. Rudra Narasimham, B.Sc., M.B.B.S.,

Kurnool Medical College, Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh, India,

M.B.B.S., Class of April, 1970

WHOLE DUDE – WHOLE RHYTHM

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MAN’S EXPERIENCE OF LIFE IN NATURAL WORLD  :
 
 

                                                                                                     VITRUVIAN MAN, C. 1492 – LEONARDO DA VINCI   

THE BEGINNING – THE STORY OF CREATION :   

The First Book of Moses called GENESIS, Chapter 1, verse 4 :"And God saw the light, that it was good; and God divided the light from the darkness."

 

    

    

    

    

    

    

    

    

    

   

The Holy Bible, The Old Testament, Book of Genesis, Chapter 1( verses 1,3,4,5,14 and 15) describes the creation of day and night.   

In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth.   

And God said, “Let there be light,” and there was light.   

God saw that the light was good, and He separated the light from the darkness.   

God called the light “day,” and the darkness He called “night.” And there was evening, and there was morning – the first day.   

And God said, “Let there be lights in the expanse of the sky to separate the day from the night, and let them serve as signs to mark seasons and days and years, and let them be lights in the expanse of the sky to give light on the earth.”   

A SIGN TO MARK SEASON – THE SUMMER SOLSTICE :   

The First Book of Moses called GENESIS, Chapter 1, verse 14: Then God said,"Let there be lights in the firmament of the heavens to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs and seasons, and for days and years;"

 

In the northern hemisphere, at the Summer Solstice, the day is the year’s longest. It marks the first day of the season of summer. During the year 2008, the Summer Solstice occurred on Friday, June 20 at 7.59 P.M. On this day, the Sun is farthest north from the Earth’s Equator.   

SYNCHRONIZATION OF EXTERNAL AND INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT OF LIVING ORGANISMS :   

The Biological Clock – Every living system studied behaves as if it contains a highly dependable clock. The specialized properties of this clock suggest that it involves some unique biological mechanism indissociable from life itself.   

The Biological Clock is a self-sustained internal timing mechanism that controls cyclic patterns, or rhythms, of a living organism. All organisms have this ability to synchronize their existence to events in both their internal or external environment. Because of this internal timing, certain physiological and behavioural events vary in intensity. Such time-dependent variability is expressed as a rhythm, or oscillation, with a frequency equal to that of the underlying biological clock. Biological clocks time the Solar day, the period of the Earth’s rotation relative to the Sun.    

The Biological Rhythm – Biological Rhythms represent the periodic biological fluctuation in an organism that corresponds to and is in response to periodic environmental change. The most important example of such environmental change is that of the cyclical variations in the relative position of the Earth to the Sun and the immediate effect of this variation is that of night alternating with day or the change from darkness to light. Biological Rhythms that occur once a day are called Circadian(Latin circa:”about,” di: “day,”), Solar day, diel, daily, diurnal(day-active), or nychthemeral rhythm. Circadian rhythms are the most pervasive rhythms regulating many events for every day in the lives of most living organisms. Circadian rhythms are synchronized to an external time-giving stimulus. The external stimulus that is important for most living organisms is that of Sun rise and Sun set, the daily light-dark cycle determined by Earth’s rotation.   

  

Biological Clock is an internal-timing mechanism to synchronize biological functions.

 

 DAY-ACTIVE OR DIURNAL RHYTHM IN MAN :   

Within the 24-hour cycle(circadian), a person usually sleeps approximately 8 hours and is awake 16 hours. In man, the daily alteration of sleep and wakefulness is accompanied by many changes, including activities of the nervous and endocrine systems and the liver and kidneys. Daily variations occur in body temperature, in heart and respiratory rates, and in blood pressure and composition of the blood.There are daily variations in chemical syntheses and in cell divisions.   

During the wakeful hours, mental and physical functions are most active and tissue-cell growth increases. During sleep, voluntary muscle activities nearly disappear and there is a decrease in metabolic rate, respiration, heart rate, and blood pressure. The activity of digestive system increases during the resting period, but that of the urinary system decreases. Hormones secreted by the body, such as the stimulant epinephrine(adrenaline) are released in maximal amounts about two hours before awakening so that the body is prepared for activity.   

If a person tries to break the circadian rhythm by ignoring sleep for a number of days, psychological disorders begin to arise.   

THE LAWS OF NATURE :   

Diverse aspects of human physiology and behaviour show that human existence is synchronized with the Laws of Nature. When we live in accordance with the law, we get a chance to know the provider of the law.   

A PRAYER TO THE DIVINE LIGHT( GAYATRI MANTRA) :   

A Prayer to Divine Light - The Creation of Day and Night reveals a purpose and design to support existence of Life on planet Earth.

 

Om, Bhur Buvaha Suvaha   

Tat Savithur Varenyam   

Bhargo Devasya Dheemahi   

Dhiyo Yonaha Prachodayath.   

We contemplate the glory of Light illuminating the three worlds: the physical(the gross), the mental(the subtle), and the spiritual(the causal), we pray for the divine Light to illumine and guide our minds.   

Please view related blog post titled ‘Defining Indian Identity – The Light Bulb Connection’  

http://bhavanajagat.wordpress.com/2007/06/02/defining-indian-identity-the-light-bulb-connection/  

Dr. R. Rudra Narasimham,  

Kurnool Medical College, Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh, India,  

M.B.B.S.,  Class of  April, 1970. 

WHOLE DUDE – WHOLE PERCEPTION

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Lunar Eclipse
Image via Wikipedia

ONCE IN A ‘BLUE MOON‘ – WELCOME TO NEW YEAR   :    

Once in a 'Blue Moon', we encounter a second Full Moon on New Year's Eve.

 

The sensory perception about Moon depends upon the place where we exist on this planet Earth. The visual experience of Moon is not the same, it is not absolute and is only relative.

 

In the United States, on New Year’s Eve, we had a ‘Blue Moon’ to ring in the Year 2010. As the saying goes, the Blue Moon is a rare event. In any given season, we encounter three Full Moons. Blue Moon is defined as the third Full Moon in a season with four Full Moons. It is also easy to define a Blue Moon as the second Full Moon in a given month. A Full Moon occurs every 29.5 days and most years have 12 Full Moons. An extra Full Moon in a month is described as a Blue Moon. The name has nothing to do with the color of our celestial neighbor. The first Full Moon of the month occurred on December 2nd. On Thursday, December 31, the New Year’s Eve, the Full Moon appeared for the second time. An extra Full Moon occurs every 2.5 years. New Year’s Eve Blue Moons are rarer occuring every 19 years. The last time was in 1990, and the next Full Moon comes on New Year’s Eve again in 2028.     

A partial Lunar Eclipse on New Year's Eve was visible in the East and not in the Americas.

 

While the United States ushered the New Year with a Blue Moon and in the Eastern Hemisphere, people celebrated the arrival of the New Year with a partial Lunar Eclipse when part of the Moon entered the Earth’s shadow. This Eclipse was not visible in the Americas. As to how we recognize the arrival of New Year depends upon the place where we live on this planet Earth. This New Year’s Blue Moon is unique to the place where we live.    

THE PERCEPTION OF CHANGE  :    

The experience of time on this planet Earth is an illusionary experience and is not an ‘absolute’ experience. In New York City, at Times Square thousands of people gathered on the New Year’s Eve to watch the “Ball” drop to ring in the New Year.    

The Magical Moment in Times Square. The JOY of ushering the New Year.

 

The future does not exist except in our expectation. The expectation that the Ball would drop at a precise moment is the anticipated future. The future gets transformed into the past in an instant when the Ball drops down. The past does not exist except in our memory. The present represents that instant in the future and past continuum. The New Year has arrived at the middle of the night not because of a perceptible ‘Change’ in the environment. The ‘Change’ is recognized by the use of a clock and the Ball in Times Square drops by perceiving the ‘Change’ in the clock’s time. Time is perceived by the ‘Change’ it brings. Man has invented calendars and clocks to affix numbers to the passage of time. The most a clock can give is the time an instant ago and not even the time ‘now’.    

In Indian Tradition, it is dawn that ushers a New Day and a New Year.

 

In Indian Tradition, the New Year is associated with more perceptible changes in the physical environment. According to Indian calendars, the New Year arrives during the Spring Season, and the New Year’s Day is heralded by the dawn with the Sun rising above the horizon.     

THE HISTORY OF TIME MEASUREMENT  :    

Earth’s rate of spin is the determinant of our day. The speed of the Earth’s rotation can be described in two ways: 1. The Angular or Omega Speed – the Earth rotates 360 degrees in 24 hours, or 15 degrees per hour, or 0.5 degrees of rotation in two minutes. 2. The Linear Speed or Velocity of a point on the surface of the Earth is about 1,000 miles/hour. A clock ( from the Latin Cloca – bell ) is an instrument for measuring time intervals of less than a day as opposed to a Calendar which measures time intervals greater than a day.    

Galileo Galilei ( 1564-1642 ) discovered the pendulum

 

The invention of Pendulum - The History of Time Measurement.

 

Dutch Scientist Christiaan Huygens the inventor of first Pendulum Clock

 

In 1656, Huygens determined the mathematical formula that related pendulum length to time and built the first pendulum driven Clock.

 

The Grandfather Clock - The division of the day into hours, minutes, and seconds helps us to recognize the passage of time. We have no sensory perception of Earth's spin that gives us alternate periods of light and darkness.

 

The day is measured in relation to the time taken for Earth’s rotation that causes perceptible environmental changes. Dutch scientist Christiaan Huygens ushered us into the era of precision timekeeping. During 1884, Greenwich in England was adopted as the zero degree longitude. U.S. time zones came into existence in 1883, the global time zones came into use in 1884, and ‘daylight’ savings time came into use in 1915. However, the Earth is an erratic time keeper. The Earth’s rotation is affected by the tides, changing weather patterns, ocean currents, and polar ice variations. The net effect is that it is slowing, losing a few thousandths of a second per century. Half a billion years ago the planet took only 20 hours to make it through the day. In another 200 million years an Earth Day will last 25 hours. Man has acquired the ability to track the motion inside atomic nucleus. Picoseconds describe trillionths of a second, and Femtoseconds describe thousandths of a Picosecond. To give a better perspective, it could be stated that there are more Femtoseconds in one second than there were seconds in the past 31 million years.    

Pope Gregory XIII in 1582 developed the Gregorian Calendar that we use today.

 

The seasons of Winter, Spring, Summer, and Autumn and the phases of the Moon are used to measure the passage of time of a greater duration than a day. The Babylonians, and the Egyptians had used calendars. The Calendar developed by Pope Gregory XIII in 1582 is accurate to a day in every 3,323 years. The Calendar is related to Earth’s orbit around the Sun. Earth’s orbit around the Sun takes about 365 1/4 days. Earth orbits the Sun at a distance of about 93 million miles. Earth travels a distance of about 584 million miles per year at about a speed of 66,660 miles/hour. The Moon rotates on its axis and revolves around the Earth in about 29.5 days  and has helped man to devise the 30 day Lunar Calendar. Moon spins with the same period as its revolution around the Earth and hence the same face of the Moon always points towards the Earth.    

HUMAN CONCEPTS ABOUT TIME  :    

We run our lives by numbers on Clocks and Calendars. The Clocks and Calendars create the illusion that we live in a world of mathematically measured segments of time. Man acquired advanced language abilities to descirbe the past in terms of personal experience. Because of linguistic skills, man is able to communicate his expectations about future and reminisce about past events. Time is lloked upon as a flow like a river.    

Sir Issac Newton ( 1687 ) stated that the Flow of Time is Absolute.

 

Sir Issac Newton claims that the time “flows equably without relation to anything external.” In 1905, while postulating the Theory of Relativity, Albert Einstein had observed that time is not absolute and that the measurement of time is affected by the motion of the observer.    

Albert Einstein stated that Time is not Absolute and is relative to the motion of the observer.

 

The relativity of time becomes significant only at very great speeds. Rapidly moving clocks tick more slowly than clocks at rest. Herman Minkowski, a mathematician, added time as the fourth dimension of three dimensional space. Time is seen as a dimension like height, and width, and it gives meaning to events and the order in which they occur. Gravity affects both time and light. Time is affected by the gravitational field of each celestial body and thus is unique to any one spot in the universe. The physicists tend to view time and space as the building blocks of the universe. However, time is not a substance and it is only a measuring tool. Motion and time are invariably linked. There can be no velocity without the concept of time. While time is not absolute, the speed of light ( 186,282 miles/second ) is absolute. Now, we have the practical ability to actually look at past while living in the present. By looking at light reaching us from a far away Galaxy, or a Supernova, we are looking as it was billions of years ago.    

THE BIOLOGICAL CLOCK :    

The Biological Clock is an Internal Clock that monitors time and brings about changes that affect the body and its functions.

 

A  biologist sees time in the ‘internal clocks’ that keep all living entities in sync with nature. The body’s dominant time cycle is called the ‘Circadian Rhythm’ ( Latin Circa – approximately; and Dies – day or About a Day ). For most of us a normal circadian cycle is 25 hours. A seven day week could be described as a unit of time for the biological rhythms that regulate changes in body chemicals, the response pattern of the immune system, the rise and fall of heart beat and changes in circualtion display this periodicity of functioning. Human body undergoes age related changes in structure and function with the passage of time and it is unrelated to man’s ability to measure time or man’s concepts about time. Aging is a time related biological phenomenon on which man has very little control. The biological clock measures time and the activity of genes is selectively turned on or off. Apart from cell damage due to the products of cell metabolism, effects of physical environment, and biological agents, cells experience senescence. We are predestined to exist as mortal individuals and the human body experiences changes in its structure and function even if we fail to keep track of the passage of time. Humans lack the biological and physiological abilities to transform our physical bodies into sources of perpetual enjoyment. Time has influence over both animate and inanimate world. Apart from human existence, the existence of this created universe is subject to time’s Power of Dissolution. The White Dwarfs, the Brown Dwarfs, the Super Novae offer observable evidence about the effects of time on physical objects and its power to cause change, transformation, and eventually dissolution.    

WHERE ARE WE NOW ?    

Where were we in the year 2009? Where would we exist in the year 2011? In the year 2010, where are we now? Our measurement of time gives the illusionary experience of the material world in which we exist. Our experience of time is illusionary as we do not know as to when time began and we do not know as to when it may cease to exist. Indian thinkers have described time or “KAALA” as eternal and time existed before creation, and would continue to exist after dissolution of creation. During this middle interval, after creation and before its dissolution, time exists in relation to motion. When there is no motion in absolute terms, there would be no time interval that could be measured, and  the stillness arrests the flow of time. Since, time is related to movement, we need a reference point to know our exact position at any given instant. Our position on the surface of the Earth keeps changing as Earth participates in the motions of the Sun as a member of the Milky Way Galaxy. The Sun also revolves around the galactic center at a speed of about 155 miles/second and Earth participates in this motion along with the rest of the Solar System. We need to know the precise location of the Sun in the Milky Way Galaxy at any given time and also know the precise location of the Milky Way Galaxy in the universe in which it exists. Without this information, our experience and understanding of time remains purely a local experience relative to a spot in this universe of unknown dimensions.    

LINEAR  vs  CIRCULAR TIME FLOW  :    

Is past, present, and future are arranged in a straight line? In the West, time is more often viewed as a one-way track. The “monochronic” perception about time in the West could be related to its cultural beliefs such as resurrection which gives a sense of the arrow of time pointing in one direction. In India, time is viewed as a circle and all things are expected to return to a former state of existence. In nature, the seasons repeat themselves, and the living entities follow this pattern of cyclical growth and regeneration. According to the Indian concept of ‘Samsara’, the individual soul is eternal but is trapped in a cyclical existence of birth, death, and rebirth. The Indian concept of  ‘Karma’ also very firmly binds the individual soul to its past states of existence and the individual experiences the past in his present existence, and also in all of his future states of existence. The cyclical flow of time would let us experience the past and lets time to repeat itself.    

TIME’S POWER OF DISSOLUTION :    

Indian thinker Adi Shankaracharya has described Time's Power of Dissolution:"Maa kuru dhana, jana, yowvvana garvam, Harati nimeyshaat kaala sarvam, Mayaa maya midam akhilam hitvaa, Brahma padam tvam bravisa viditvaa.

 

 Time exerts a powerful influence over the qualitative aspects of human existence. Whatever qualities or attributes such as material wealth, power, status, and social position that man cherishes and desires most could be dissolved and rendered useless by the effects of time. Indian thinker Adi Shankaracharya has cautioned people to be aware of the powerful force of Illusion called ‘MAYA’ and we are asked to avoid the perceptual problems it generates. Since the manifested world and universe gives illusory experience, we need to be careful about the effects of time that tends to dissolve the manifested universe at an individual level and also as a collective human sensory experience. A philosopher had observed that:”Time is the Best Teacher, unfortunately, it kills all its pupils.” Humans have no choice. Time alters our ability to perceive the sensory experience and enjoyment of our physical body. Time with its Power of Dissolution would eventually compel us to investigate and to explore the Concept of Absolute and Unchanging Reality. The Strong Nuclear Force, the Weak Nuclear Force, Electromagnetism, and the Gravitational Force operate the Four Fundamental Interactions and the role of time has not been explained by physicists. Natural scientist Charles Darwin had observed that things in nature change with time. Does time exert a force entirely of its own to change things in nature? If time is viewed as a power or a force, who controls this force and what are the Laws that operate this Force? Indian thinkers are of the opinion that Purusha ( the Divine Soul ), Prakriti ( the material Nature ), and Kaala or Time are eternal and these three entities existed before formation of this created universe, will operate during the existence of this created universe, and eventually remain existing after the total dissolution of the present created universe. The flow of time is eternal, but time is not absolute. Purusha or the Supreme Divine Soul is the ultimate Controller of Energy in all of its forms. The Power of Time to dissolve the creation has no effect on the Creator. All the living entities are created by the Superior Energy of the Supreme Divine Soul, and the individual souls have the ability to exploit energy of an inferior source such as Prakriti ( material Nature ). The physical body experiences dissolution as per a predetermined time ( Kaala Sutra ), and the individual souls alone survive the dissolution of animate and inanimate world and universe.    

The Unchanging Ultimate and Absolute Reality is Unmanifested. In the manifested world and universe, everything is subject to change and gets changed, transformed, and eventually dissolved under the influence of time. Lord Rama has existed in this manifested world. But, the name, the two letters of "RA", and "MA" which are manifested in this physical world represent the Unmanifested Truth which is not subject to change and exists beyond the influence of time. Ra+ ma could be viewed like a mathematical formula to represent the Reality called Truth.

 

 ESSENCE AND EXISTENCE  : 

Everything that is born arrives with a plan for its dissolution. In the multicellular human organism, each individual cell has its life span and the human individual has his life span. How is the existence of the individual is established in a multicellular organism? Man may choose to define his essence, and the cells need to function to support the existence of the individual. Man’s identity is just one face of the coin, and the second face of the same coin represents the individuality of that person. Man exists as long as the individuality is maintained. Man is not capable of independent existence. The individuality is sustained because of ‘God Connection’; the Connection that connects the individual who is energy seeker with his energy provider. Man’s intellectual or physical effort is not the basis for this God Connection. As time flows, man lives his life span because of the mercy, compassion, and grace of the Creator, who had caused the existence of this object that has identity and individuality. 

Please view related blog post titled ‘The Perception of Reality-Maya is a Fundamental Force’  

http://bhavanajagat.wordpress.com/2009/11/11/the-perception-of-reality-maya-is-a-fundamental-force/   

Dr. R. Rudra Narasimham,   

Kurnool Medical College, Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh, India,   

M.B.B.S.,  Class of   April, 1970.

WHOLE DUDE – WHOLE ILLUSION

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TRIBUTE TO CAPTAIN. R. R. RAO
"What you leave behind is not what is engraved in stone monuments, but what is woven into the life of others."

 

‘A MILLION HAPPY LANDINGS’ – A LONG AVIATION CAREER   :    

Captain. R. R. Rao, Aviation Consultant, SKYCARE Aviation Society ( India ) as a pilot, General Secretary of the Indian Commercial Pilots Association, a Manager, and as a Flight Instructor, won the hearts of several thousands of pilots, colleagues, and students. His dedication for aviation and his constant drive to improve safety of flight will forever remain his greatest contribution to all pilots and the flying public.    

A   PSALM   OF   LIFE   :    

“Tell me not in mournful numbers,    

Life is but an empty dream!    

For the soul is dead that slumbers,    

And things are not what they seem.”    

( Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, 1807-1882 )    

‘THINGS ARE NOT WHAT THEY SEEM’ – AN ENCOUNTER WITH REALITY AND AN ILLUSION  :    

1948 Single Engine Aircraft - An encounter with Reality and Illusion.
Myself, and my friends, while I was ten years of age, walked eight miles to view a single engine, fixed wing aircraft that had arrived at an airfield in Rajahmundry.

 

Rajahmundry Airport at Madhurapudi.
During 1958, this airfield at Madhurapudi, Rajahmundry was not providing any civil aviation service.

 

During the academic year of 1958-1959, at about ten years of age, I was a 9th Grade ( IV FORM ) student at Danavaipeta Municipal High School, Rajahmundry, Andhra Pradesh, India. Amongst other subjects, I was  studying Physics and the Laws of Physics that operate in the physical world. One day, myself, and a few of my classmates saw a small airplane circling in the sky over Rajahmundry. At that time, we had no Airport in Rajahmundry. The airfield at Madhurapudi had one runway and had no terminal building. It is located 8 miles away from Danavaipeta. Myself, and my friends had spontaneously decided to physically see this aircraft and had walked all the way to the airfield under the hot Sun. Fortunately, the plane had returned and we found it parked on the runway. We found the pilot relaxing under the shade of the plane. Captain. R. R. Rao, my uncle was that pilot. As far as my memory goes, that was my very first time I was meeting him during my life and it was also the last time that I had met him during my life. During that brief and purely chance encounter, he had asked me to climb into the cockpit and had guided me in checking the instrument panels, operate the wing flaps and the tail while explaining a few basic aspects about flying a plane. Apart from this reality of meeting my pilot uncle at Madhurapudi airfield, I had also witnessed for the first time in my life the illusionary phenomenon known as Mirage. Rajahmundry gets very hot but we do not get the right atmospheric conditions to actually witness a highway or a hot road Mirage. I had learned about it in my Science class but the actual sensory experience of this illusion in the natural world is really memorable.    

THE PERCEPTION OF PHYSICAL WORLD  :    

This 'FULL MOON' exists in the sensible, manifested, perceived World. While living upon planet Earth, we perceive the waxing and waning phases of the Moon. The appearance of the Moon changes, but in reality it is one and unchanging. To understand the unchanging reality, we need to understand the problems of Perception.

 

Human perception is the process and experience of gaining sensory information about objects and events of the natural world. The process of perception translates sensory stimulation into organized experience. That mental impression or percept is the joint product of the stimulation and of the process which involves the intuitive and rational parts of the brain. However, a real, physical world exists independent of man’s experience. A real, physical world has existed long before man’s arrival and man’s  physical interaction with the elements of nature. The branches of Physics concerned with electromagnetic energy, optics, and mechanics describe the apparent physical world. When physical energy such as light interacts with the perceiving individual, percepts are formed. The degree of correspondence between percepts and the physical objects or events to which they relate also depends upon certain other external factors beyond human control. There could be a difference between Real World and the ‘Perceived World’. Sometimes, man perceives physical objects or events that may not exist in reality, and yet other times man fails to perceive physical objects or events that may actually exist and the manner in which they really exist. These perceptual problems are not attributable to the sense organs and are not due to inadequate sensory endowment. Apart from the basic Four Fundamental Forces that operate this physical world, there is another Fundamental Force that alters or transforms human perception. The Force of Gravitation gives the man the ability to experience his body weight and like all other objects in the environment, man exists on the face of Earth according to the Laws of Motion and the influence of Gravitation.    

FLYING  AND  PERCEPTUAL APPRECIATION OF REALITY  :    

Flying demands an acute awareness of the physical world. Man interacts with his physical environment using his sense organs of vision, hearing, touch, and smell. To move effectively, we must perceive our own movements to balance ourselves. The eye is by far the most effective organ for sensing. Movement detectors exist in the human brain. The vestibular organs in the inner ears provide us with the sense of balance and equilibrium apart from other kinesthetic sensations from muscles, tendons, and joints. A visual field containing familiar objects provides a stable framework against which relative motion may be judged. For purposes of path recognition and navigation while flying in air, the pilot requires reliable perception of the vertical and horizontal dimensions. Preservation of perceptual constancy for the vertical and horizontal dimensions during the flight are based on the parallel activity of vision and the vestibular sense of balance or equilibrium. Even in flying small aircraft it has been shown that the pilot becomes disoriented unless he preserves visual control of the horizontal dimension. The movement of an airplane produces centrifugal and centripetal forces, particularly as the plane tilts or changes direction, which easily mislead a person’s vestibular( balance ) receptors. For this reason, in high-altitude flying the horizontal line of the surface of the Earth is simulated for the pilot by an optical display unit. When an aircraft takes off to begin the flight, and when it returns to land at the end of the flight, the perception of depth and distance are of critical importance. The perception of depth and distance depends on information transmitted through various sense organs. Sensory cues indicate the distance at which objects in the environment are located from the perceiving individual. Man has the ability to differentiate his own body from the surrounding environment. Man has the ability to perceive his own movement, and also the movement of other objects in his physical environment. But, man has no sensory perception of the reality of the movement of his earthly home in space. Man only recognizes relative motion of objects in his visual field. Just recall the illusion that your train is moving, when in reality, it is really the moving train along that is seen through the window; and the moving train on the adjoining track is falsely accepted as the visual frame of reference.    

PERCEPTUAL  CONSISTENCY  AND  CONSTANCY  :    

The Moon Illusion - Perceptual Consistency and Constancy
The intuitive and rational parts of brain interact to modify sensory information. In these images, the moon is of the same size but is perceived differently.

 

Spatial perception tends to ensure that a person experiences the continually changing circumstances of the environment in which he moves and lives with some degree of stability or constancy. Some degree of selectivity in perception is required for the survival of the individual. The individual gradually learns about the significance of observable ( empirical ) spatial cues. There is a well-known apparent difference in the size of the moon when it is at the horizon and when it is fully risen. The horizon moon, though it is actually further away from the observer, looks larger than it does when it is high in the sky and closer. The retinal images in the eye of the high moon and the horizon moon are about the same, but the perceived size of the moon differs grossly. Indian thinkers have always asserted that ‘TRUTH’ and ‘REALITY’ have the qualities of consistency and constancy and hence are not subject to sensory perceptions which tend to vary because of external influences.    

THE  NATURE  OF  ILLUSIONS  :    

Pencil in Water Illusion
Stimulus Distortion Illusion - A visual or optical illusion produced by the refraction or bending of light rays as it passes from one substance to another in which the speed of light is significantly different. A ray of light passing from one transparent medium(Air) to another(Water) is bent at the surface where the air and water meet.Thus the pencil standing in water seems bent.

 

Desert Mirage- The Perception of Reality- MAYA is a Fundamental Force.
Mirage is an illusion that depends on atmospheric conditions.

 

inferior_mirage - An optical illusion produced when the stimulus presented to the senses has been altered by environmental conditions that affect the refractive index of the air.
The vision of a pool of water is created by light passing the layers of hot air above the heated surface of the land. The cooler layers of air are denser and refract the sun's rays at different angles than the less dense strata of heated air. The result is the appearance of water where there is none.

 

Figure and Ground Illusion
This Illusion depends upon the 'Perceiver' and his selection of figure and ground.Illusion of organizational phenomena caused by perceptual distinction between figure and ground.

 

Perceptions accord more often with object’s properties than with the sensory stimulation. Perceptual constancies cause one to perceive the world more correctly than would be expected from sensory stimulation. Illusions are perceptions where perception accords neither with how the sensory receptors are stimulated nor with the characteristics of the objects themselves. Illusions are pervasive phenomena. Such experiences have been regularly and consistently reported by virtually everyone. Illusions are defined as special perceptual experiences in which information arising from “real” external stimuli leads to an incorrect perception or false impression.An illusion is not a simple error in perception. Illusions have features whose nature it is to evoke an incorrect perception. Illusions describe subjective perceptual experience that contradicts objective reality. Some of these false impressions arise from factors beyond an individual’s control. Bending or refraction is a property of light rays. We seek light energy for its ability to provide a realistic experience. When the illumination is insufficient, such as in a dark room, a rope could be misinterpreted as a snake(“Rajju Sarpa Bhranti”). The moment the room is illuminated with light, the darkness is gone, and the misconception is destroyed. Indian traditions encourage individuals to avoid the products or results of an illusionary experience. A rational individual would not chase a mirage to find water. When we use sensitive instruments, we take care to avoid optical errors while recording our observations. Any impression that contradicts the ‘facts of reality’, or fails to report the ‘true’ character of an object or an event should be discarded. The apparent daily motion of the Sun and stars across the sky is an illusion that we experience all through our existence. This illusion is not caused by any of the Four Fundamental Forces that operate in the universe. Gravitation is the universal force of attraction that affects all matter and it could explain the consistency of Earth’s orbit around the Sun. Gravitation is not the force that is mediating the mechanism that gives us alternating periods of darkness and light while the reality of Sun is different.    

Sunrise is an Illusion
Sunrise, Sunset, and the apparent motion of Sun across our sky is an illusion with which we exist all of our lives.

 

MAYA  IS  A  FUNDAMENTAL  FORCE  :    

The most important motion of the Earth is its rotation or spinning on an axis. This is the motion that gives us the experience of alternating days and nights while in reality, the Sun shines brightly all the time.The speed of the earth’s rotation can be described in two ways, the angular speed and the linear speed( of a point on the surface of the Earth). The angular or Omega speed of Earth is 0.00007272 radians per second or about 0.5 degrees of rotation in two minutes. The Linear speed or the Linear velocity on the surface of the Earth is 0.278 miles per second or about 1,000 miles per hour. It is surprisingly a very fast motion. While it spins on its axis, the Earth orbits the Sun at a speed of 18.6 miles per second( 30 Kms/Second ). On an average, Earth travels about 66,660 miles per hour and in a year Earth travels about 584 million miles. Earth also partakes of the Sun’s motion as a member of the Milky Way Galaxy. The Sun revolves around the galactic center at a speed of about 155 miles per second( 250 Kms/Second ). We exist upon this planet Earth with no sensory perception of the physical motions of the Earth.We exist in a universe without knowing the reality of our physical movement and position in a system that is constantly in motion. However, the periodicity of man’s earthly existence depends upon Earth’s spin. Man’s fundamental biological functions are synchronized with the rhythmic phases of environmental changes caused by Earth’s rotation. Apart from ‘Sleep-Wakefulness’ Cycles, man seems to be unable to live without some concept of time. Through conditioning to time, and by way of biological rhythms ( Diurnal Rhythm, Solar Rhythm, or Circadian Rhythm), human physiology provides a biological clock that offers points of reference for temporal orientation. The biological clock induces age related changes. As long as Earth is spinning, it would cause both environmental changes as well as physical changes in our bodies. Since, we do not have the ability to stop the Force/Power/Energy that is causing the rotational spin, we are encouraged to dissociate our sense of ‘Identity’ with our physical body which is subject to physical changes such as old age and death. To perceive is to become aware of a stimulation in the present. The present is only a point along the continuum of becoming an instant when future is transformed into past. As the Earth is constantly spinning beyond man’s control, the instant known as ‘present’ gets transformed into ‘past’. Indian tradition claims that ‘ reality’ could not be an experience of past, present, or future. Reality has to exist in a state that is unchanging and eternal. A Fundamental Force that moves the Earth and contributes to this spin governs man’s earthly existence. Man is virtually ruled and dominated by this Force/Power/Energy which causes the rotation of Earth on its axis. No other planet that we know today exhibits an Earth like spin. The length of day and night is totally different on planet Venus. One day on planet Venus is equal to 243 Earth days. Moon spins with the same speed as it revolves around the Earth, one face always points towards the Earth. The Moon rotates on its axis and revolves around the Earth in 27  1/3 days. Because of the rotation and revolution speed being the same, man never sees the dark side of the Moon. Man celebrates ‘Full Moon’ Days when in reality Moon is never fully lit. Man marks his Lunar Calendar with important events with his limited knowledge about the waxing and waning phases of Moon. Man is literally trapped to exist upon Earth and live in accordance with the changes it brings while it is spinning. These are the trappings of the Fundamental Force which I would like to describe as “MAYA” which provides the man with an illusionary sensory experience of Sunrise and Sunset. The physical world is real. Sun is a real object. Darkness and Light are actual, real visual experiences. But, Sunrise and Sunset, in reality are not actual events in man’s life and existence. The reality of man, the reality of man’s identity does not belong to the material realm where man perceives the physical world in which he exists. “Maya” is also described as “AVIDYA” which contributes to ignorance and it would not let man gain true knowledge of his identity. Man gains true knowledge when he gets away from the trappings of Maya and recognizes that there is no dawn or dusk and he has the same identity of that Light described as “PARAM JYOTI” which shines with constancy and consistency and is the Ultimate Reality.     

Adi Shankaracharya - MAYA is a Fundamental Force.
Man's perception of Reality is changed by the external Force/Power/Energy known as Maya. "MAAYA MAYA MIDAM AKHILAM HITVAA"

 

The only Force/Power/Energy which can help man to overcome “AVIDYA”, the Force that causes the Illusion of Sunrise and Sunset, is the Force that I have described before as “KRUPA”( Krupa – A Force to Preserve Human Existence, published on August 10, 2009). I have described the importance of Gravitational Force in my post titled ‘Earthly Existence – Enjoy the Fragrance’ published on November 20, 2008. Man should realize that he is not the perceiver. He is not the organ of perception. What has been perceived does not describe his true identity or the ‘Real World’. Since its time of origin, the Milky Way Galaxy, the Sun, and Earth have existed in a state of motion. The universe is still expanding, the Galaxies are moving apart and we do not know our precise location in this ever-changing universe. As long as man is attached to his physical body, man would experience the changes in his environment and also in his body that causes old age and death. He need to illuminate his mind with a light that illuminates the three planes of human existence, the physical, the mental, and the causal or spiritual dimensions in a constant and consistent manner.    

Gayatri Maha Mantra - The Perception of Reality
Gayatri Maha Mantra connects the person to the illuminating power of Light, a power that shines constantly and consistently and this illumination is not associated with the property of refraction that contributes to illusions.

 

Lord Rama - The Fundamental Force of "MAYA"
Lord Rama's earthly journey is celebrated according to a calendar which is created by the Force of Maya. The position of Sun, Moon, Planets and Stars that describe the major events of 'RAMAYANA' in reality are not actual positions but are only apparent postions perceived by man. Man needs the Force of "KRUPA" to overcome the trappings of "MAYA".

 

The personality of Rama had an earthly existence. The name of Rama is identified as Eternal Truth. His name is associated with the power to destroy the Force of illusion that causes old age and death.    

Jayatu, Jayatu Mantram, Janma saaphalya Mantram,    

Janana marana chheda klesha vichheda Mantram,    

Sakala nigama Mantram, sarva saastraika mantram,    

Raghupati nija Mantram, Raama Raameti Mantram.    

Please view related blog post titled ‘The Ushering of the New Year – The Perception of Change’ 

http://bhavanajagat.wordpress.com/2010/01/07/the-ushering-of-the-new-year-the-perception-of-change/ 

Dr. R. Rudra Narasimham,   

Kurnool Medical College, Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh, India,   

M.B.B.S.,   Class of   April, 1970.

WHOLE DUDE – WHOLE HUMILITY

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Sri Vakra tunda mahaa kaaya,koti Surya sama prabha
Nirvighnam Kuru me Deva subha karyeshu sarvada.
 
Lord Ganesha is unique amongst all deities. He has a human form with the head of an asian elephant. Like the elephant which can grasp objects with its trunk, the entire realm of knowledge is in His grasp. In brilliance, He outshines Sun(Surya) and His radiant appearance can illuminate the entire universe. His body is so huge, it can accommodate the entire creation. He is worshiped to remove obstacles. He removes obstacles when we contemplate actions that promote our well-being and brings us the good will of others and the actions should have no evil design or purpose. Lord Ganesha removes obstacles and paves the way for accomplishment and success in human endeavors.The notion that success is the result of divine
sanction rather than being entirely due to personal effort, would let us reach
our goals with a sense of modesty and humility.The primary goals for man have been described as Dharma, Artha, Kama and Moksha. Dharma(right conduct)is not only a goal but also is the way.The other three goals should only be reached following the way of Dharma.To prepare for the journey on the path of Dharma, the traveler finds direction from a sense of humility.The radiant and immense personality of Ganesha endows us with humility. Having reached the goals of Artha(personal wealth ,social status and position), and Kama(fulfilment of desires,progeny and family), we inevitably encounter with the consequences of the powerful effects of time.The following verse from ‘ Bhaja Govindam’ sets us on a mission to seek the fourth goal of human existence.

 Maa kuru dhana jana yauvvana garvam, Harati nimeshaa tkaala sarvam
Maya mida makhilam hitvaa, 
Brahma padam tvam bravisa viditvaa.

The fear that time would dissolve every thing we possess would help us to overcome arrogance that may be associated with acquiring wealth, family and being youthful in age. Sooner or later, we set our sights for the fourth goal and it will not be very easy to visualize the final destination.To achieve Moksha or Mukti, to reach the shore of liberation and conclude the journey across the ocean of Samsara, a person endowed with humility would be able to say the following prayer and get the needed help. Human existence is permanently bound to illusionary sensory experience of Sunrise and Sunset. Sun shines with all His radiance all the time. The living entities exist in an illusionary state which helps them to mark their existence by the alternating periods of light and darkness. We do not have the biological ability to detect the spin of the Earth and we have synchronized our existence with Sunrise and Sunset and this biological rhythm, known as Solar Rhythm, Circadian Rhythm, or Diurnal Rhythm, manages several of our biological functions. It is not easy to comprehend the Ultimate Reality when the existence is synchronized with an illusion. Time’s Power of Dissolution would eventually compel us to investigate and to explore the concept of Absolute and Unchanging Reality. A prayer to Lord Ganesha would endow us with humility that we need to achieve the four primary goals and gives us success in life.
 
MENTORSHIP  :
 
Bammera Potana, the well-known Telugu poet while translating the epic poem of Bhagavatam from Sanskrit language into Telugu had stated that he would narrate the story of Bhagavatam using imagination and inspiration entirely provided by Lord Rama: 
 
“Palikedithe Bhaagavata ma ta, Palikinchu Vibhundu Ramabhadrun da ta, ne

Balikina bhava hara magu na ta, Palikeda verundu gadha balukaga nela?”

I would like to narrate my story, describe my ideas, and share my thoughts drawing inspiration from Lord Rama and it would be my endeavor to destroy the state of conditioned existence called ‘Bhava’, and get over the fear of ‘Samsara’, a journey of the embodied soul across uncharted sea which constantly evokes a sense of fear of the unknown.   
LORD RAMA, THE SOURCE OF INSPIRATION FOR CREATIVE WRITING.
Maharishi Valmiki, Adi Kavi, had no formal education. He was totally inspired to narrate the Story of Lord Rama called RAMAYANA. Telugu Poet Bammera Potana who also had no formal education translated the epic poem known as Bhagavatam from Sanskrit into Telugu and displayed his immense powers of Creativity. He had not only dedicated his work to Lord Rama but also acknowledged that every word that he had used was inspired by Lord Rama. For my humble endeavor, I seek the same inspiration.

 Anya dhaa saranam naasti,Tvaa meva saranam mama
Ta smaat karunya bhaavena,kshamasva Parameshvara.
 

Please also read related blog post titled ‘A  prayer to Ganesha’ 

http://bhavanajagat.wordpress.com/2009/07/08/a-prayer-to-ganesha 

Dr. R. Rudra Narasimham, B.Sc., M.B.B.S.,

Ex- Number. MS-8466 Rank. Captain  AMC/SSC  &  Number. MR-03277K Rank. Major  AMC/DPC

Medical Officer, South Column, Operation Eagle,

Directorate General of Security,

Office of Inspector General Special Frontier Force,

East Block V, Level IV, R. K. Puram, New Delhi – 110 022.