Antislavery Campaign of 2018
SEPTEMBER 22 – THIS DAY IN HISTORY – MY QUEST FOR FREEDOM TRAPS ME IN SLAVERY
On September 22, 1971, I was Taken on Strength (TOS) of Establishment No. 22, Special Frontier Force, a military organization created in response to ‘The Cold War in Asia.’
On September 22, 2018, I live in Ann Arbor, Michigan to welcome the first day of Fall Season. Today, I claim that my quest for Freedom in Occupied Tibet traps me in Slavery in a nation which abolished Slavery with a presidential proclamation on September 22.
On September 22, 1971, I had the freedom to reject my posting to Establishment No. 22. I was given the choice to choose or decline rendering service in support of Freedom in Occupied Tibet. The choice to serve in Establishment No. 22 comes with risks for the Service Mission differs from the military mission of Indian Army which I joined on a voluntary basis.
It may appear that I am making my own choices in accepting calculated risks to my life. On September 22, 2018, I am still struggling to reconcile with the choices I made for I must reconcile with the reality of my Slavery while living in a country which sponsored my quest for Freedom in Occupied Tibet.
On September 22, 1971, I did not arrive at the final destination of my life. Chakrata represents the struggle ahead, a struggle waiting for me before I can arrive at the final destination of my life.
SEPTEMBER 22, THIS DAY IN HISTORY – WHAT HAPPENED TODAY
Clipped from: http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history
On this day in 1862, President Abraham Lincoln issues a preliminary Emancipation Proclamation, which sets a date for the freedom of more than 3 million black slaves in the United States and recasts the Civil War as a fight against slavery.
When the Civil War broke out in 1861, shortly after Lincoln’s inauguration as America’s 16th president, he maintained that the war was about restoring the Union and not about slavery. He avoided issuing an anti-slavery proclamation immediately, despite the urgings of abolitionists and radical Republicans, as well as his personal belief that slavery was morally repugnant. Instead, Lincoln chose to move cautiously until he could gain wide support from the public for such a measure.
In July 1862, Lincoln informed his cabinet that he would issue an emancipation proclamation but that it would exempt the so-called border states, which had slaveholders but remained loyal to the Union. His cabinet persuaded him not to make the announcement until after a Union victory. Lincoln’s opportunity came following the Union win at the Battle of Antietam in September 1862. On September 22, the president announced that slaves in areas still in rebellion within 100 days would be free.
On January 1, 1863, Lincoln issued the final Emancipation Proclamation, which declared “that all persons held as slaves” within the rebel states “are, and henceforward shall be free.” The proclamation also called for the recruitment and establishment of black military units among the Union forces. An estimated 180,000 African-Americans went on to serve in the army, while another 18,000 served in the navy.
After the Emancipation Proclamation, backing the Confederacy was seen as favoring slavery. It became impossible for anti-slavery nations such as Great Britain and France, who had been friendly to the Confederacy, to get involved on behalf of the South. The proclamation also unified and strengthened Lincoln’s party, the Republicans, helping them stay in power for the next two decades.
The proclamation was a presidential order and not a law passed by Congress, so Lincoln then pushed for an antislavery amendment to the U.S. Constitution to ensure its permanence. With the passage of the 13th Amendment in 1865, slavery was eliminated throughout America (although blacks would face another century of struggle before they truly began to gain equal rights).
Lincoln’s handwritten draft of the final Emancipation Proclamation was destroyed in the Chicago Fire of 1871. Today, the original official version of the document is housed in the National Archives in Washington, D.C.
Also on this day
Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation is announced
Motivated by his growing concern for the inhumanity of slavery as well as practical political concerns, President Abraham Lincoln changes the course of the war and American history by issuing the preliminary Emancipation Proclamation. Announced a week after the nominal Union victory at the Battle of Antietam, near Sharpsburg, Maryland.
President Kennedy signs Peace Corps legislation
In an important victory for his Cold War foreign policy, President John F. Kennedy signs legislation establishing the Peace Corps as a permanent government agency. Kennedy believed that the Peace Corps could provide a new and unique weapon in the war against communism.
President Ford survives a second assassination attempt
On this day in 1975, Sarah Jane Moore aims a gun at President Gerald Ford as he leaves the Saint Francis Hotel in San Francisco, California. The attempt on the president’s life came only 17 days after another woman had tried to assassinate Ford.
SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 22, 2018. MY PASSION FOR FREEDOM IN TIBET WHICH BEGAN AT CHAKRATA DOES NOT RECONCILE WITH MY SLAVERY OF TODAY. THE SCENIC BEAUTY OF CHAKRATA PLAYED NO ROLE IN THE CHOICE I MADE ON SEPTEMBER 22, 1971.
Chakrata is not the final destination of my life. It is just the beginning of a struggle that remains ahead, both in terms of time and location.
MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 03, 2018 – LABOR DAY MUSINGS – THE CLINTON CURSE DEFINES THE AMERICAN WORKPLACE
In the United States, Labor activists, and Labor Unions made great progress to defend the rights of Working Class. Unfortunately, President Bill Clinton undermined this progress by approving legislation that took away the dignity of unskilled, hourly wage earners who legally work in the US paying taxes. President Clinton on August 22, 1996, signed into Law, Public Law 104-193, ‘The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act’ (PRWORA) which places restrictions on the payments of monthly retirement income benefits to workers in the US under Title II of the Social Security Act. Refer to Section 401(b) (2) of PRWORA.
For many unskilled, hourly wage earners performing labor in the US, American Workplace is defined as Work until Death for they have no Retirement option. In other words, those who have no Retirement option, American Workplace is defined by the Book of Genesis, Chapter 3, verses 17 to 19.
I ask my readers to reflect upon the consequences of President Clinton’s actions on this Labor Day. Apart from alien workers, the ground gets cursed with consequences to all its denizens. The Clinton Curse compels Americans to live and work paying off their foreign debt. This nation lives on money borrowed from other nations.
SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE
IN 1882, LABOR DAY ORIGINATED WITH A PARADE HELD IN NEW YORK CITY
Posted on Monday, September 04, 2017 by EMILY NONKO
An illustration of the first Labor Day parade, via Wiki Commons
Though Labor Day has been embraced as a national holiday–albeit one many Americans don’t know the history of–it originated right here in New York City. The holiday is a result of the city’s labor unions fighting for worker’s rights throughout the 1800’s. The event was first observed, unofficially, on Tuesday, September 5th, 1882, with thousands marching from City Hall up to Union Square. At the time, the New York Times considered the event to be unremarkable. But 135 years later, we celebrate Labor Day on the first Monday of every September as a tribute to all American workers. It’s also a good opportunity to recognize the hard-won accomplishments of New York unions to secure a better workplace for us today.
According to Untapped Cities, the holiday has its roots in a common 19th-century tradition in which laborers held picnics and parades to draw awareness to worker’s rights. Organized unions emerged from there, and New York City became a hotbed for labor activists by the Industrial Revolution of the 1880s.
View of South Street during the Industrial Revolution, via the Metropolitan Museum of New York
Back then, laborers were fighting against low wages, unfair hours, child labor and unsafe working environments. (Most workers at the time worked six days a week, 10 or 12 hours a day, and Sunday was the only day off. There were no paid vacations, no sick days and very few breaks during a day.) Two labor groups, the Knights of Labor and the Tailor’s Union, established a city-wide trade consortium–known as the Central Labor Union of New York, Brooklyn, and Jersey City, or the CLU–in January of 1882 to promote similar goals. They called for things like fair wages, an eight-hour workday and an end to child labor. The group also proposed that for one day a year, the country celebrates American workers with parades and celebrations. The CLU went ahead and organized the first parade for the September 5th of that year.
According to Brownstoner, two different men within the labor movement were credited for the parade. Matthew Maguire, a machinist, first proposed a holiday and parade in 1882. He was the secretary of the CLU. But that same year, Peter J. McGuire, co-founder of the American Federation of Labor, also proposed a parade. The debate between the original founder of Labor Day was never settled, though Matthew Maguire usually gets the credit.
The parade began outside City Hall, with the CLU advertising it as a display of the “strength and esprit de corps of the trade and labor organizations.” It was important to the event that the men gave up a day’s pay to partake in the festivities. And they did arrive in droves, with banners and signs with slogans like “NO MONEY MONOPOLY” and “LABOR BUILT THIS REPUBLIC AND LABOR SHALL RULE IT.”
No drinking was allowed at the parade, which featured everyone from the Jewelers Union of Newark to the typographical union, which was known as ‘The Big Six.’ Along the route, which passed Canal Street on its way to Union Square, hundreds of seamstresses hung out the windows cheering the procession, blowing kisses and waving their handkerchiefs. It’s said as many as 20,000 men marched that day.
The party after the marchers hit Union Square was celebratory, according to the New York history book Gotham. Here’s a passage from the book:
Finally, after passing by a reviewing stand filled with labor dignitaries, the participants adjourned, via the elevated, to an uptown picnic at Elm Park. There they danced to jigs by Irish fiddlers and pipers and were serenaded by the Bavarian Mountain Singers while the flags of Ireland, Germany, France, and the USA flapped in the autumn air.
Labor Day parade float in New York City, early 20th century, via New York Department of Labor
Labor parades began in other cities around the county, and for a while, the day was known as “the workingman’s holiday.” By 1886, several cities had an annual parade, with legislation in the works to make the day a state holiday. Though New York was the first state to introduce a bill to make the holiday official, Oregon was the first to actually pass it as law in 1887. New York quickly followed suit that same year, as did New Jersey, Massachusetts and Colorado.
Labor unions, of course, went on to secure rights like the eight-hour workday, collective bargaining, health insurance, retirement funds and better wages. These days, the holiday is better known as a marker to the end of summer than a celebration of the working class. But it’s a nice reminder such hard-fought battles, which brought accomplishments that now define the American workplace, took root in New York.
Tags: Labor Day
THE CLINTON CURSE – AMERICA’S FINANCIAL BONDAGE
“Think what you do when you run in debt,” said Benjamin Franklin, “You give another power over your liberty.” No man is truly free who is in financial bondage. To the same extent, no nation is truly free when it is in financial bondage.
President Clinton approved Public Law 143 – 193 to address the mounting problem of National Debt. To ‘Balance the Budget’, President Clinton imposed Slavery, Bondage, Servitude, Serfdom, and Forced Labor on aliens working in the United States paying Federal, State, Social Security, Medicare, and Local Taxes. His action is of no help. The US External Debt keeps growing compromising the freedom of Americans for the Debt gives power to other nations over American Liberty.
THE WORLD FACTBOOK – CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY
THE CLINTON CURSE – CLINTON’S IMMORAL SOCIAL SECURITY POLICY
Social Security is the largest owner of the US Debt. In 1996, President Clinton amended the Social Security Act of 1945 by approving Public Law 104 – 193. President Clinton made an immoral choice to address the problem of mounting US Debt. His plan to reduce the US Debt by denying the payment of Old Age Retirement Income Benefits to senior alien workers has backfired. God has given His Promise. It delivers Blessings for the obedience of Commandments. Disobedience of God’s Commandments has consequences. The Clinton Curse reveals the consequences of President Clinton’s corrupt conduct. As of today, the US satisfies the government’s need for revenue by borrowing from foreign nations.
WHO OWNS THE MOST U.S. DEBT?
To satisfy the U.S. government’s need for revenue, Washington collects taxes and fees. What happens if this isn’t enough? What happens if the federal government needs more? That is the subject of this article in which we’ll reveal who owns the most U.S. debt and how much of it is owned by foreign nations. We’ll begin by explaining, in simple terms, how the debt market functions.
An individual takes on debt when they finance a new car, house, etc. The U.S. government does so when it issues securities. Specifically, the federal government issues Treasury bills, notes, and bonds. The primary difference is in their maturity. For example, Treasury bills have a maturity of less than one year. Treasury notes mature in one to ten years. Treasury bonds have maturities greater than 10 years.
To issue its debt, the government holds periodic Treasury auctions. A successful auction indicates a strong demand for U.S. Treasury securities. If the auction doesn’t go well, it means demand for Treasuries is weak. Who owns the most Treasury’s?
Owners of U.S. Debt
The largest owner of U.S. debt is Social Security. Since the Social Security system is a government entity, how can the government own its own debt? Good question. This is where the “house of cards” theory resides. Some believe the federal government is merely moving the IOUs from one shell to another, hoping to escape the watchful eye of its citizens. In any event, Social Security owns about 16% of the debt followed by other federal government entities (13%), and the Federal Reserve (12%). How much is owned by foreign governments? The following chart contains the answer.
According to the U.S. Treasury Department, at the end of August 2014, more than a third of the debt was owned by foreign countries (34.4%). The largest foreign holders of U.S. debts are Mainland China (7.2%) and Japan (7.0%). What is the consequence of having such a large percentage of debt held by foreign nations? It depends. It depends on the relationship between the U.S. and the specific foreign country. It also depends on the global interest rate environment. Finally, it depends on the geopolitical climate and the degree of fear around the globe. This is the case because when fear rises money flows into U.S. Treasuries which is viewed as a safe place to invest. The percentage of debt owned by countries that are less friendly to America is about 10%. This includes China, several oil exporters (Ecuador, Venezuela, Iran, Iraq, Libya, etc.), and a few others. The worst case would materialize if the largest holders decided to sell their Treasury securities at the same time. This could potentially decrease demand which would push yields higher. If yields rose, the federal government would find it more difficult to service the debt, pushing the deficit higher. If the deficit rose, the total debt burden would accelerate and, unless demand for U.S. debt was to increase, it could get ugly. Will this transpire? It’s not too likely. At least not for the foreseeable future anyway.
Given the state of the global markets, the U.S. is still considered to be the best house in a bad neighborhood. Even though more than one-third of the debt is owned by foreign nations, as long as there are no safer places to invest, money will find its way here. Therefore, global turmoil would be in the best interest of the federal government. Anything which raises fear will bring money to the Treasury and allay the need for higher taxes. However, one day this unsustainable path we’re on will reach its day of reckoning. However, that’s probably not any time soon.
AUGUST 09, 2018 – THIS DAY IN MY LIFE – JOURNEY FROM FREEDOM STRUGGLE TO ANTISLAVERY CAMPAIGN
August 09 is the unique day of my life. On August 09, 1974 I was in Doom Dooma, Tinsukia District, Assam, India involved in Struggle for Freedom, Peace, and Justice in Occupied Tibet. In American History, Ford becomes President due to unusual succession on 9th Day of August 1974. On that day, I never expected or anticipated that I live this day of my life in City called Ann Arbor. To the same extent, I never expected or anticipated that I will be promoting Antislavery Campaign while living on the US soil. My Struggle for Freedom in Occupied Tibet seems unreal and unusual just like the Ford Presidency.
UNUSUAL SUCCESSION MAKES FORD PRESIDENT ON AUGUST 09, 1974
In accordance with his statement of resignation the previous evening, Richard M. Nixon officially ends his term as the 37th president of the United States at noon. Before departing with his family in a helicopter from the White House lawn, he smiled farewell and enigmatically raised his arms in a victory or peace salute. The helicopter door was then closed, and the Nixon family began their journey home to San Clemente, California. Richard Nixon was the first U.S. president to resign from office.
Minutes later, Vice President Gerald R. Ford was sworn in as the 38th president of the United States in the East Room of the White House. After taking the oath of office, President Ford spoke to the nation in a television address, declaring, “My fellow Americans, our long national nightmare is over.”
Ford, the first president who came to the office through appointment rather than election, had replaced Spiro Agnew as vice president only eight months before. In a political scandal independent of the Nixon administration’s wrongdoings in the Watergate affair, Agnew had been forced to resign in disgrace after he was charged with income tax evasion and political corruption. In September 1974, Ford pardoned Nixon for any crimes he may have committed while in office, explaining that he wanted to end the national divisions created by the Watergate scandal.
Ford is inaugurated
On this day in 1974, one day after the resignation of President Richard M. Nixon, Gerald R. Ford is sworn in as president, making him the first man to assume the presidency upon his predecessor’s resignation. He was also the first non-elected vice president and non-elected president, which made his presidency unique.
Nixon leaves office
Having announced his resignation the day before, Richard M. Nixon steps down from the presidency of the United States and is succeeded by Vice President Gerald R. Ford. Nixon had resigned rather than face almost certain impeachment because of the Watergate Scandal.
World War II
Atomic bomb dropped on Nagasaki
On this day in 1945, a second atom bomb is dropped on Japan by the United States, at Nagasaki, resulting finally in Japan’s unconditional surrender. The devastation wrought at Hiroshima was not sufficient to convince the Japanese War Council to accept the Potsdam Conference’s demand for unconditional surrender.
COMMEMORATION OF THE NATIONAL SECURITY ACT OF 1947 – JULY 26, 2018 MARKED AS ANTISLAVERY CAMPAIGN DAY
COMMEMORATION OF THE NATIONAL SECURITY ACT OF 1947 – JULY 26, 2018 MARKED AS ANTISLAVERY CAMPAIGN DAY
On this Day, July 26, 1947, President Harry Truman signed The National Security Act that set up The Central Intelligence Agency that plays a crucial role in promoting US Policy in support of Freedom, Democracy, Peace and Human Rights.
REPEAL PRWORA PROJECT – CAMPAIGN FOR HUMAN RIGHTS
WHERE IS PROTECTION FOR MAN DURING GOLDEN YEARS OF HIS LIFE?
THE GREAT AWAKENING MOVEMENT – RESIST SPIRITUAL WICKEDNESS IN HIGHEST PLACES
A NEW BEGINNING IN AUGUST 1996 – ASSAULT ON UNIVERSAL HUMAN RIGHTS
PRESIDENT CLINTON’S NEW BEGINNING IN 1996 – TRAMPLING OF
FUNDAMENTAL FREEDOMS AND HUMAN DIGNITY
On August 22, 1996, US President Bill Clinton (Democrat) signed into Law that reintroduced Slavery, Involuntary Servitude, Serfdom and Forced Labor in the pretext of making ‘A New Beginning’. Welfare Reform Act or Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) is unjust and unfair for it violates Constitutional Law that defends natural rights of all people living in United States. All US taxpayers must be treated as equals for receiving retirement income benefits for which they paid taxes. President Clinton’s action constitutes transgression of President Abraham Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation that saved US Non-Citizens or Aliens from burdens of Slavery.
GIVING VOICE TO HIDDEN PROBLEM – TRAVESTY OF EMANCIPATION PROCLAMATION
NATURAL LAW vs MAN MADE LAW – SLAVERY IS CONTEMPT OF FUNDAMENTAL FREEDOMS
US CONGRESS SLAVE DRIVER
I ask my readers to review 43-word 13th Amendment and tell me if those words still govern, rule, and operate the lives of all people, wage earners who perform labor paying taxes.
My readers should not be surprised if I describe US Congress as “Slave Driver.” The reason for my claim is based on PRWORA enacted by the US Congress in 1996 that amended the US Social Security Act of 1935. This legal provision enacted by 104th US Congress is incorporated as Section 202(y) of the Social Security Act. It mandates that no Retirement Income benefits shall be payable to registered alien(non-citizen) taxpayers in the United States without showing proof of lawful residency as determined by the Attorney General. In my view, unexpired Employment Authorization Document (EAD) must not be demanded if the worker has attained full retirement age as determined by law.
Social Security Act, Section 202(y) violates the principle enshrined in those 43 words called the 13th Amendment. This 1996 amendment to the Social Security Act is fundamentally flawed for it is unconstitutional. It takes away property rights (earnings, wages, and retirement income) of individuals who paid Federal, State, Local, Social Security and Medicare Taxes working in this country to attain full retirement age.
The Emancipation Proclamation issued by President Abraham Lincoln (Republican) in September 1862 came into effect on January 01, 1863 freeing slaves in all territory still at War with the Union. These slaves were not citizens of the Land and had no political rights of their own. In Law, Servitude or Slavery refers to the burden imposed upon the property of a person by a specified right another has in its use. Servitude involves labor in which the person who performs labor has no right to his earnings from labor. The Emancipation Proclamation specifically protects, defends, preserves and safeguards rights of aliens or non-citizens residing in the United States.
The amended Social Security Act unconstitutionally gives power to Social Security Administration to withhold property (wages, earnings, monthly retirement income benefits) of alien workers who are not convicted by US Court of Law. In my analysis, The Social Security Act of 1935 amended in 1996 does not uphold Constitution as the Supreme Law of this Land.
I ask my readers to make a distinction between Social Security Tax and Monthly Retirement Benefit. The first represents tax paid to the government and the second represents earning or wage entitled to a retired person to provide income and security during old age.
Ann Arbor, MI 48104-4162 USA
SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE
The 150th Anniversary of the 13th Amendment
December 9, 2015|Speaker Ryan’s Press Office
WASHINGTON – Earlier today, at a ceremony in Emancipation Hall of the United States Capitol Visitor Center, President Obama and leaders of Congress commemorated the 150th anniversary of the 13th amendment to the Constitution. Following are House Speaker Paul Ryan’s (R-WI) remarks at the ceremony, as prepared for delivery:
The Thirteenth Amendment is just 43 words long. It is so short that, when you read it, you can almost miss the whole significance. You have to stop and remind yourself that 600,000 people died in the Civil War—600,000 died over 43 words. Or to be more precise, they died in a war that decided whether those 43 words would ever be written.
The Repeal movement exposes President Clinton’s contemptuous violation of Constitutional Principles of equal protection, equal justice and equal treatment under Law.
US Social Security Administration must either obtain a criminal conviction or designate US taxpayer as “SLAVE” to withhold payment of monthly retirement income benefit of septuagenarian senior alien.
President Clinton’s Slavery Law of 1996 tramples upon fundamental freedoms and human dignity entitled to all human beings without any concern for their country of origin or citizenship status. US Congress can levy taxes but cannot deprive any person of Life, Liberty and Property without due process of Law. Slavery represents Spiritual Wickedness for Jesus gave His precious life to keep man free.
JULY 26, 2018 – THIS DAY OF MY LIFE – MY CIA CONNECTION
Thursday, 26th Day of July 2018. I am dedicating this Day of my life to Antislavery Campaign of 2018, Repeal PRWORA Project, The Great Awakening Movement claiming that I will not wrestle or struggle against people but, I will confront spiritual wickedness in highest places.
On the 26th Day of July 1970, I started my preparation to participate in CIA’s Secret War in Occupied Tibet. In man’s plan, I exist as a mere pawn used in War on Communism, the legacy of the Cold War Era of Geopolitics. What is God’s Plan for my life?
On Thursday, 26th Day of July 2018, I confess that I have not arrived at the destination of my life. I continue to struggle for my personal freedom and I continue to wrestle against dark forces keeping Tibetans away from freedom.
On this day, July 26, 1947, President Harry Truman signed the National Security Act that set up the Central Intelligence Agency. The Cold War Era secret diplomacy shaped the course of my life that began in Mylapore, Madras, Chennai. My Life’s Journey from Mylapore to Doom Dooma, Assam and later to Ann Arbor, Michigan is a direct consequence of my CIA Connection destined on July 26, 1970.
I was granted Short Service Regular Commission in Indian Army Medical Corps in the rank of Lieutenant on July 26, 1970. On completion of my military training, I received the promotion, the substantive rank of Captain with effect from July 26, 1971. My first posting of Military Service sent me to Special Frontier Force, Headquarters Establishment No. 22 in support of CIA’s Mission in South Asia. I describe “My CIA Connection” as ‘Kasturi-Sarvepalli-Mylapore-Madras-India-Tibet-US Connection’.
On July 26, 1986, I left Muscat, Oman to arrive in the United States in search of Final Destination of my Life.
On July 26, 2017, I lived in Ann Arbor, Michigan still hoping to arrive at the Final Destination of my Life. My CIA Connection may either sanction Slavery in the United States or Prisonhood in Enemy’s Camp.
SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE
This Day in My Life – July 26 – My CIA Connection. God’s Calendar predestined meeting between Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru and US President Harry Truman. Cold War History. War on Communism.
This Day in History
Truman signs the National Security Act
Truman signs the National Security Act
President Harry S. Truman signs the National Security Act, which becomes one of the most important pieces of Cold War legislation. The act established much of the bureaucratic framework for foreign policymaking for the next 40-plus years of the Cold War.
By July 1947, the Cold War was in full swing. The United States and the Soviet Union, once allies during World War II, now faced off as ideological enemies. In the preceding months, the administration of President Truman had argued for, and secured, military and economic aid to Greece and Turkey to assist in their struggles against communist insurgents. In addition, the Marshall Plan, which called for billions of dollars in U.S. aid to help rebuild war-torn Western Europe and strengthen it against possible communist aggression, had also taken shape. As the magnitude of the Cold War increased, however, so too did the need for a more efficient and manageable foreign policymaking bureaucracy in the United States. The National Security Act was the solution.
The National Security Act had three main parts. First, it streamlined and unified the nation’s military establishment by bringing together the Navy Department and War Department under a new Department of Defense. This department would facilitate control and utilization of the nation’s growing military. Second, the act established the National Security Council (NSC). Based in the White House, the NSC was supposed to serve as a coordinating agency, sifting through the increasing flow of diplomatic and intelligence information in order to provide the president with brief but detailed reports. Finally, the act set up the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). The CIA replaced the Central Intelligence Group, which had been established in 1946 to coordinate the intelligence-gathering activities of the various military branches and the Department of State. The CIA, however, was to be much more–it was a separate agency, designed not only to gather intelligence but also to carry out covert operations in foreign nations.
The National Security Act formally took effect in September 1947. Since that time, the Department of Defense, NSC, and CIA have grown steadily in terms of size, budgets, and power. The Department of Defense, housed in the Pentagon, controls a budget that many Third World nations would envy. The NSC rapidly became not simply an information organizing agency, but one that was active in the formation of foreign policy. The CIA also grew in power over the course of the Cold War, becoming involved in numerous covert operations. Most notable of these was the failed Bay of Pigs operation of 1961, in which Cuban refugees, trained and armed by the CIA, were unleashed against the communist regime of Fidel Castro. The mission was a disaster, with most of the attackers either killed or captured in a short time. Though it had both successes and failures, the National Security Act indicated just how seriously the U.S. government took the Cold War threat.
This Day in My Life – July 26 – My CIA Connection. God’s Calendar predestined events of my Life’s Journey From Mylapore, Madras to Ann Arbor, Michigan. Thanks to US President Harry S. Truman’s War on Communism.
This Day in My Life – July 26 – My CIA Connection. Cold War Era History. God’s Calendar predestined events of My Life’s Journey From Mylapore, Madras to Ann Arbor, Michigan. Thanks to US President Harry S. Truman’s War on Communism.
On July 26, 1908, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is born when U.S. Attorney General Charles Bonaparte orders a group of newly hired federal investigators to report to Chief Examiner Stanley W. Finch of the Department of Justice.
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This Day in My Life – July 26 – My CIA Connection. In Man’s Plan, I exist as mere Pawn used in War on Communism, Legacy of Cold War Era Geopolitics. What is God’s Plan?