The Cap Badges and the Insignia of the British Royal Medical Corps and the Indian Army Medical Corps reveal the Rudi-Grant Connection. The Indian Army Medical Corps was created from the British Royal Army Medical Corps.
In 1965, while I was a student of Human Anatomy at Kurnool Medical College, I had the opportunity to know about Dr. J. C. B. Grant (1886-1973), the author of Grant’s Atlas of Anatomy. The 5th Edition of his Atlas was published in 1962 and was available in India in our Medical College Library.
Born in Loanhead (south of Edinburgh) in 1886, Grant studied medicine at the University of Edinburgh Medical School and graduated with an M.B., Ch.B. degree in 1908. While at Edinburgh, he worked under the renowned anatomist Daniel John Cunningham. Grant became a decorated serviceman of the Royal Army Medical Corps during the First World War before moving to Canada. He established himself as an ‘anatomist extraordinary’ at the University of Toronto, publishing three textbooks that form the basis of Grant’s Anatomy. The textbooks are still used in anatomy classes today, and made unforgettable memories for those who found themselves in his classes nearly a century ago. One of Grant’s many accomplishments was establishing a division of histology within the department.
As a medical student, I used Grant’s Atlas of Anatomy, the seminal work of Scottish-born Dr. John Charles Boileau Grant, who would become the chair of Anatomy at the University of Toronto in 1930 and retired in 1965.
Students continue to use Grant’s textbooks today, and for the more artistic anatomist there’s even a Grant’s Anatomy Coloring Book, published in 2018.
At the University of Toronto, Dr.McMurrich, Chair of Anatomy was succeeded as chairman in 1930 by Dr. John Charles Boileau Grant. Dr. Grant wrote three text books, of which “An Atlas of Anatomy” (published in 1943) rapidly gained international prominence and is still, one of the most widely used anatomical atlases in the world. It is now known as “Grant’s Atlas of Anatomy” and is in its tenth edition. The atlas was based on a series of elegant dissections done either by Grant or by others under his supervision. Many of these dissections are currently housed in Grant’s Museum at the University of Toronto.
The Rudi-Grant Connection is about knowing the human person, male and female, the building blocks and the structural units and organization of the human body. To defend the human existence, the Rudi-Grant Connection lays the emphasis on knowing the person who is at risk apart from knowing the agent posing the risk.
THE IDENTITY OF MULTICELLULAR HUMAN ORGANISM:
Daniel John Cunningham was born on 15 April 1850 in Scotland. After his initial schooling at his home town, Crieff, he took up the study of medicine at the University of Edinburgh and passed with honours. He is best known for the excellent series of dissection manuals, namely Cunningham’s Dissection Manuals. Cunningham’s Manual of Practical Anatomy has provided me the learning tools to know and understand the human body’s external and internal reality and its identity as described by Cells, Tissues, Organs,and Organ Systems that constitute the multicellular human organism.
M A T R U D E V O B H A V A
Ethical, Moral and Philosophical Aspects of
OBSTETRICS & GYNAECOLOGY
An Indian Perspective
DR R. ANJANEYULU, MD, DGO, FCPS
Emeritus Professor of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
B.J. Medical College and Sassoon Hospitals, Pune
Maharashtra State, India
Dr. K. Bhasker Rao, M.D., F.R.C.O.G., F.M.S.
Emeritus Professor of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Madras Medical College
(Formerly Director, Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology,
Govt. Hospital for Women and Children, Egmore, Madras)
In my analysis, the book Matrudevobhava has failed to understand the concept called Parthenogenesis described in Reproductive Biology. It will be factually wrong to suggest that Parthenogenesis could account for the generation of human males such as Jesus, and the Pandava princes known as Karna, Dharmaraja, Bhima, Arjuna, Nakula, and Sahadeva. The book also fails to recognize the generation of the human form using a very creative reproductive process called Meiosis and the generation of variation in the inherited traits as explained by the Mendel’s Laws of Inheritance. The book does not address the issue of Fundamental Dualism, the distinction between God and Man or Woman. While celebrating the divinity of Motherhood, the book fails to acknowledge the Superior Energy mentioned by Lord Krishna that formulates all existence. The book fails to acknowledge the spiritual nature of intraspecific biotic interactions while describing the role of Immunological Tolerance and Immunological Enhancement that serve the purpose of the developing human embryo.
R. Anjaneyulu; M.D., D.G.O.; F.C.P.S.
M A T R U D E V O B H A V A
The Universal Mother is in the form of Bhoomata who bears all of us ! She is the Prakriti or Shakti or energy without whom the world cannot exist. She is the same Shakti in the form of Goddess of Learning; Saraswati who helps Lord Brahma to create this world; in the form of Goddess Lakshmi; Goddess of wealth who helps Bhagwan Vishnu to protect the world bestowing health, happiness, prosperity and well-being of the people; in Goddess Parvati; she gave Shakti or energy to Lord Shiva to destroy the world.
She is the same Mother to whom we also pray as Durga during Navaratri, to destroy the evil forces and cut the knot of ignorance in our heart and also the quality of Ahamkara in us and bestows upon us knowledge and wisdom!
`The Universal Mother has many other manifestations – in the form of Gayatri – she protects us; as Ganga Bhavani – she gives us water for survival; as Gomata (cow) – she gives us milk for health the nourishment and as Mother Geeta (Bhagavadgeeta)whose door is open to any one who knocks and seeks refuge in distress in her bosom. Stree or Ammai is the incarnation of Shakti Swaroopa. Mother gives herself to the development of the child and works hard and sacrifices for the safety and survival of her children. It is this spirit of Tyaga or sacrifice that makes the value of motherhood great! In this world, no other person deserves to be more respected than MOTHER.
It is to the feet of all mothers of the world and the Supreme Mother that offer my Pranam and salutations while attempting to write this book.
SARVAMANGALA MANGALYE, SHIVE SARVARTHA SADHIKE
SHARANYE TRIAMBAKE GAURI, NARAYANI NAMOSTUTE
Oh Mother Durga, wife of Lord Shiva looking after the welfare of everybody and fulfilling all the desires, cherished by one and all, I am under your shelter and offer my Namaskarams to you!
Sarvasya ca ham hrudi Samnivisto
(Geeta Chapter 15)
I am seated in the hearts of all.
“Call the Lord by any name, Allah, Jesus, Rama or Krishna – One is referring only to the Divinity. Even the meaning of the words points to the same divinity. The word Allah Al-Divinity, Lah – to become laya or merge in it; Similarly Jesus (Yesu) means Ye – One and Su – Divinity. Rama constitutes three components of sounds Ra Aa Ma. Ra signifies Twam i.e. Brahma or Divinity, Ma signifies Twam; i.e., Thou, the Jiva or the individual and Aa connotes the kinship of identity of the two i.e., the Jiva and Brahma. The Lord is also secular in that the responds to anyone meditating on his name with purity and devotion in any language or religion. Thus Divinity is only one and the paths to reach Him are different”.
I have quoted quite often from the Divine messages of Bhagvan Sri Satya Sai Baba in this book including the above paragraph. His teachings are so lucid and simple that even a lay man like myself can understand and comprehend the essence or core of what is written in Geeta, Upanishads or Vedas. “One sees in his preaching’s a combination of Hindu concept of Vedic cosmic awareness, the Islamic concept of Allah as universe, the one who sustains us all and the Buddhist and Christian compassion”. Truly a great teacher and in the real sense, Guru, (one who removes ignorance from everyone’s mind). President Shankar Dayal Sharma said that ‘Bhagwan’s mission is to bring change in Naitika, Dharmika and Adhyathmic thoughts so that all of us strive to realise our own true nature; i.e. That Thou Art.” I pray and seek Bhagwan’s Blessings in writing this book.
Late Shri SAL Narayana Row, erstwhile Chairman Board of Direct Taxes was always a friend philosopher and guide to me. My brother-in-law, Dr B Dayananda Rao, is not only an eminent neurosurgeon but an erudite scholar of English Literature. I have had the good fortune of his having gone through the entire manuscript of this book and the benefit of his advice.
Dr Banoo Coyaji has, since he time I came to Pune been a source of great inspiration. A true karmayogi, her pioneering work in all aspects of maternal health and Safe Motherhood have throughout been the cardinal example to follow.
I have gained immensely from the discussions I have had with Pandit KL Gautam, a renowned Sanskrit and Hindi scholar and Dr Padmakar Vartak, who has an indepth knowledge and understanding of our traditions, philosophy and medicine. Both of them gave me valuable advice and information which I have duly incorporated in the book.
I have also had fruitful discussions with Doctors Sudhikumar, Mrs Rajlaxmi, Mrs Asha Joshi and Mrs Rashmi Gapchup. Mrs Jyotsna Apte had very kindly undertaken to make the line drawings. Dr Nishikant Shrotri and Dr Mrs Aparna Shrotri have given me valuable help and advice in printing the book. My grateful thanks to all of them.
Trophoblast is of foetal origin and has antigens of paternal type. In the blood flowing through the chorio-decidual space there are both foetal cells from the trophoblast and the maternal cells. Yet the antigens on the trophoblast are either masked, shed, or modified at the cell surface and do not express their antigenicity. On the part of the mother (as described above) the maternal cells in decidua do not produce immune response in spite of the production of the specific antibodies (humoral or cellular).
In short, maternal cells and foetal cells develop tolerance to each other and this is classically known as Immunological Tolerance of Pregnancy. In this way no antigen antibody reaction occurs thereby preventing rejection of the graft foetus by the host mother, which in fact accepts the foetus.
The other important phenomenon that occurs in normal pregnancy is that the humoral antibodies (LGG) unite with the helper T-cells and blocks and protects the placental antigens and renders them immune from the T-cells (killer cells) attack. These antibodies are known as blocking antibodies and the phenomenon as Immunological Enhancement. Such protection from blocking antibodies is not observed in abnormal reproductive states like abortion or toxaemias of pregnancy.
HETEROLOGOUS ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION OR ‘AID’ – ADOPTION : ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS
‘If in the course of investigations an irremediable barrier for fertilization is found in the husband, the gynaecologist should explain the hapless predicament to the barren couple and in a sympathetic way, guide the couple to adjust their married philosophy to that of a childless union. There are of course two alternatives – neither of which should be suggested by the gynaecologist. They may decide to adopt a child or have the wife to submit to heterologous artificial insemination (AID).’
WHAT DO OUR SHASTRAS SAY REGARDING HETEROLOGOUS ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION OR ‘AID’?
It is interesting to know the view prevalent in our Puranas and scriptures. It was a regular accepted procedure to call some male to fertilize the woman in case the man was impotent and this is called Niyoga. This applied even to kings. In Mahabharata King Santanu’s wife Satyavati requested Vedavyasa to impregnate Amba, Ambika and Ambalika, when their husbands died without leaving any progeny. That was how Dhrutarashtra and Panduraja were born. Unfortunately Panduraja was cursed by a Rishi couple (when he mistakenly killed them) that he would die the moment he tries to enjoy with his wives Kunti and Madri. Pandu told Kunti to have children from whomsoever she desired. Kunti was given five boons (varas) by Rishi Durvasa Mahamuni when she served the Rishi before her marriage. In her ignorance Kunti wanted to test the boons or varas. She thought of Bhagwan Surya and when the Lord really came she was stunned. Karma was born then. It was written by Vedavyasa in Mahabharata that Karna was born not of consummation of marriage but by Parthenogenesis or self fertilization. It is the solar energy that was responsible. In the same way, after marriage, when Pandu told Kunti to have children from someone else, she refused. Keeping in mind the boons she prayed to Yama Dharma Raja; i.e. lord of Death. He typifies the energy which hold the universe and is protector of Dharma like Lord Brahma. That was how Dharmaraja was born. Kunti then prayed to Lord Vayu Deva the energy which is blowing and present everywhere just like electromagnetic waves and Bhima was born. Arjuna was born from the blessings of Lord Indra who represents the Atman. Lord said He is Indra among all devatas. Then Kunti requested Ashwini Devatas to bless Princess Madri. Ashwini Devatas are twins who represent energy one as a positive charge and other as a negative charge, without which current cannot pass through. By the blessings these Devatasi Madri gave birth to Nakula and Sahadeva. It must be emphasied again that Pandavs as well as Karna were Varaputras and also born by parthenogenesis. In his sankalpa to be born again and again whenever there is a deterioration of Dharma Lord Almighty takes birth on the earth, as He has promised’……Sambhavami Yuge Yuge.’ He had taken the birth of Lord Jesus again through Parthenogenesis. So Kunti, Madri and Virgin Mary are all incarnations of purity and virtue.
What is Parthenogenesis?
The Laws of Creation: Bhagavad Gita: Chapter 7, Verse 5
अपरेयमितस्त्वन्यां प्रकृतिं विद्धि मे पराम् |
जीवभूतां महाबाहो ययेदं धार्यते जगत् || 5||
apareyam itas tvanyāṁ prakṛitiṁ viddhi me parām
jīva-bhūtāṁ mahā-bāho yayedaṁ dhāryate jagat
aparā—inferior; iyam—this; itaḥ—besides this; tu—but; anyām—another; prakṛitim—energy; viddhi—know; me—my; parām—superior; jīva–bhūtām—living beings; mahā-bāho—mighty-armed one; yayā—by whom; idam—this; dhāryate—the basis; jagat—the material world
apareyam itas tvanyam prakritim viddhi me param
jiva-bhutam maha-baho yayedam dharyate jagat
BG 7.5: Such is My inferior energy. But beyond it, O mighty-armed Arjun, I have a superior energy. This is the jīva śhakti (the soul energy), which comprises the embodied souls who are the basis of life in this world.
Shree Krishna explains that beyond the eight-fold prakṛiti, the material energy, which He says is inferior; there exists another that is far more superior. This energy is completely transcendental as compared to the lifeless matter. It is His spiritual energy, the jīva śhakti, which includes all the living souls of the world. Now, He has moved from explaining material science toward the spiritual realm.
Many great philosophers of India have given their perspectives and described the relationship between God and the jīva, the individual soul. For example, the non-dualists state: jīvo brahmaiva nāparaḥ “The soul itself is God.” But this concept gives rise to several questions, such as:
How can the soul itself be God? God is most powerful, and Maya is His subservient energy. The souls are always overpowered by; Maya. Then is Maya stronger than God?
The individual soul is always; gripped by ignorance and misery. It needs a continuous reminder from the saints and scriptures, even about its existence and purpose. How can God, who is all-knowing, be considered a soul which is subject to ignorance?
The Vedas repeatedly state that God is all-pervading in this world and beyond. Similarly, individual souls should also be able to exist anywhere at any given time. Then what about the question of going to heaven or hell after death?
There is only one God, but the souls are countless. If the soul itself is God, then there should be many Gods. Therefore, the claims by non-dualistic philosophers that the soul itself is God are inconclusive.
The dualist philosophers’ state that the souls and God are separate. Even though it may answer some of the above questions, yet it is still an incomplete philosophy in light of what Shree Krishna states in this verse. He says that the soul is a part of jīva śhakti God’s spiritual energy. And as explained earlier, Maya, the material energy, is also His subservient. Thus, God is supreme; He is the governor of both the lower material and the higher spiritual energies. Now let us see what the scriptures and various saints have said:
eka-deśha-sthitasyāgnir jyotsnā vistāriṇī yathā
parasya brahmaṇaḥ śhaktis tathedam akhilaṁ jagat (Viṣhṇu Purāṇ 1.22.53)
“Just as the sun resides in one place but its sunlight pervades; the entire solar system. Similarly, there is one God, who by His infinite powers pervades the three worlds.”
Chaitanya Mahaprabhu said:
jīva-tattva śhakti, kṛiṣhṇa-tattva śhaktimān
gītā-viṣhṇupurāṇādi tāhāte pramāṇa (Chaitanya Charitāmṛit, Ādi Leela, 7.117)
“The soul is the energy of God, while He is the Supreme Energetic.”
Once we understand and accept that the soul is a small part of God’s infinite energy, the concept of non-duality of the entire creation becomes clear. Energies can exist concurrently within the same energetic. For example, fire contains both heat and light, which are different entities and have different properties. But they are part of the same fire which emits them. Likewise, God as the Energetic and the souls His energy can be considered one. At the same time, due to their distinct properties, both entities are different from each other. Jagadguru Kripaluji Maharaj has encapsulated and perfectly expressed Shree Krishna’s statement in this and the previous verse:
jīvu’ ‘māyā’, dui śhakti haiñ, śhaktimān bhagavān
śhaktihiñ bheda abheda bhī, śhaktimān te jān (Bhakti Śhatak verse 42)
“The soul and Maya are both energies of God. Hence, they are both one with God and also different from God.”
Considering the unison of both; the Energetic and His energies, it is stated that God and His creation are non-different. The entire world is a veritable form of God.
sarvaṁ khalvidaṁ brahma (Chhāndogya Upaniṣhad 3.14.1)
“All is Brahman.”
īśhāvāsyam idam sarvaṁ (Īśhopaniṣhad 1)
“Everything that exists in the world is God.”
puruṣha evedaṁ sarvaṁ (Śhwetāśhvatar Upaniṣhad 3.15)
“The Supreme Divine Personality is everything that exists.”
According to these Vedic verses, there is only one God and nothing else. Yet, when we consider the Energetic and energy concept, there is diversity within this unity and an incredible variety. God, the souls, and matter, all three are different entities with different properties. God is Supremely sentient; He is the source of both the souls and the matter. Yet, souls are sentient, and the inanimate matter insentient.
The scriptures also state the existence of three entities in creation:
kṣharaṁ pradhānamamṛitākṣharaṁ haraḥ
kṣharātmānāvīśhate deva ekaḥ
tasyābhidhyānād yojanāt tattvabhāvad
(Śhwetāśhvatar Upaniṣhad 1.10)
“There are three entities in existence: 1) Living Matter with Forms and the Forms are perishable. 2) Non Living Matter or Chemical Elements and the individual souls (Jeev Atman) who are imperishable. 3) God, who is the controller of both matter and the souls. By meditating upon God, uniting with Him, and becoming more like Him, the soul is free from the world’s illusion.”
The Vedas have expounded on both dualistic and non-dualistic concepts. Jagadguru Shree Kripaluji Maharaj has upheld the concepts of concurrent coherence, yet variance between the soul and God. This means God and the soul are one because of unity and not identity; yet, separate from each other as God, the Supreme Controller keeps Himself aloof, distant and even disinterested in His own Creative actions and activities.
The Rudi Connection at Whole Foods joins the Maha Navratri Celebration of the Divine Mother
In Physics, Power/Energy/Force is not associated with gender. But, when living things exist as male and female, the description of Power/Energy/Force may have gender association. In the Indian tradition, ‘Deva’ means God and ‘Devi’ means Goddess. Devi in Indian tradition is the personification of God’s Supreme Power/Force/ Energy or ‘Shakti’. To fully account for the human existence, the man needs two distinct or separate Principles that come together to produce the harmonious singular identity of the man. The issue is not about God’s gender. Father Principle is called the Originating Principle. Mother Principle is called the Source Principle, for Mother is the Source of Matter, Energy, and Knowledge to establish Life of a Living Thing. Father provides Identity to the human form, Mother provides Substance, the structural and functional basis of the human form.
During 2022, Indians celebrate ‘DEVI NAVRATRI’ or ‘SHARAD NAVRATRI’ from Monday, September 26, to Wednesday, October 05. The term ‘Nav’ or ‘Nava’ means Nine. ‘Ratri’ means Night. This celebration happens in the lunar month called ‘ASVAYUJA’ (or ASHWAYUJA – September – October), the month in which Full Moon Day is associated with the first star (Tithi) called ‘ASVINI’ in Indian Astrology. Sharad Navratri commences on the first and ends on the tenth day of the bright half of the 7th Lunar month, Ashwin. The name “SHARADIYA” refers to the name of the Season or “RITU” called Sharad Ritu or Autumn.
Devi or Shakti is often called ‘DURGA’ for She is the embodiment of great strength. She is also called BHADRAKALI, JAGADAMBA, ANNAPURNA, SARVA MANGALA, BHAIRAVI, CHANDIKA, LALITA, BHAVANI, AND MOOKAMBIKA. During the 9-Night or Navratri festival, Indians worship nine different forms of Goddess Durga with 1,000 names. She is simply adored as Divine Mother and often addressed as ‘MOTHER’ (“MATA” or “MAA”) whatever may be the name or form She assumed on different occasions.
Goddess Shakti has three Supreme Forms called DURGA, SARASVATI, and LAKSHMI. In India, the traditions vary from region to region. First 3 – days of Navratri are dedicated to Goddess Durga, following 3-days are dedicated to Goddess Lakshmi and concluding 3-days are dedicated to Goddess Sarasvati or Goddess of Knowledge, Wisdom, and Speech. Saturday, October 01, 2022, the Sixth Day or Shashti is dedicated to Goddess called ‘KATYANI’ (legendary daughter of a devotee by name ‘KATA’). On this day, Goddess Sarasvati is also worshiped for this day is associated with a Nakshatra (Star) called ‘MOOLA’.
DEVI NAVRATRI CELEBRATION-SEPTEMBER 26 TO OCTOBER 04, 2022 CALENDAR:
Monday, September 26, Day 1 – Pratipada, Ghatasthapana, Shailputri Puja
Tuesday, September 27, Day 2 – Dvitiya, Chandra Darshana, Brahmacharini Puja
Wednesday, September 28, Day 3 – Tritiya, Sindoor Tritiya, Chandraghanta Puja
Thursday, September 29, Day 4 – Chaturthi, Kushmanda Puja, Vinayaka Chaturthi, Upang Lalita Vrat
Friday, September 30, Day 5 – Panchami, Skandamata Puja, Sarasvati Avahan
Saturday, October 01, Day 6 – Shashthi, Katyayani Puja.
Sunday, October 02, Day 7 – Saptami, Kalaratri Puja
Monday, October 03, Day 8 – Ashtami, Durga Ashtami, Sarasvati Puja, Mahagauri Puja.
Tuesday, October 04, Day 9 – Navami, Ayudha Puja, Navami Homa, Navratri Parana.
Wednesday, October 05, Day 10 – Dashami, Durga Visarjan, Vijaya Dashami.
The Rudolf-Rudi Connection at Whole Foods. The concept of Whole Inheritance
What is inheritance?
Inheritance is the process by which genetic information is passed on from parent to child. This is why members of the same family tend to have similar characteristics.
- We actually have two genomes each
- We get one copy of our genome from each of our parents
- Inheritance describes how genetic material is passed on from parent to child.
How is genetic material inherited?
- Most of our cells contain two sets of 23 chromosomes (they are diploid).
- An exception to this rule are the sex cells (egg and sperm), also known as gametes, which only have one set of chromosomes each (they are haploid).
- However, in sexual reproduction the sperm cell combines with the egg cell to form the first cell of the new organism in a process called fertilization.
- This cell (the fertilized egg) has two sets of 23 chromosomes (diploid) and the complete set of instructions needed to make more cells, and eventually a whole person.
- Each of the cells in the new person contains genetic material from the two parents.
- This passing down of genetic material is evident if you examine the characteristics of members of the same family, from average height to hair and eye colour to nose and ear shape, as they are usually similar.
What is Cytoplasmic Inheritance?
Cytoplasmic inheritance is a type of inheritance which involves DNA of cytoplasmic organelles. In this inheritance, the offspring receives genes from the cytoplasmic organelles (plasma genes or extranuclear genes). Mitochondria and chloroplasts contain genomes composed of DNA. This organelle DNA travels from the mother egg cell to zygote. However, compared to nuclear inheritance, a small number of genes are inherited by the cytoplasmic inheritance. Moreover, it does not follow the Mendelian inheritance pattern, unlike nuclear inheritance.
What is Nuclear Inheritance?
Nuclear inheritance occurs due to the genes present on the chromosomes. Therefore, the mother nucleus and father nucleus equally contribute to nuclear inheritance. Moreover, the offspring inherits millions of genes from parents via nuclear inheritance.
I coined the phrase ‘Whole Mendelism’ to interpret the information about Biogeneration and Propagation using the mechanism of reproduction. Mendel’s Laws of Inheritance describe the transmission of hereditary traits from parent species to offspring. However, the story of Inheritance as described in Biology is not ‘Whole’ or complete for it fails to include other important aspects of ‘Inheritance’.
Cells are the building blocks of life. Each living Cell has three basic components, 1. Nucleus or genetic material, 2. Corporeal substance, living matter called protoplasm, cytoplasm, or cytosol which has several kinds of intracellular organelles with membranes, and 3. Limiting Membrane called Cell Membrane, Plasma Membrane or Biological Membrane with which a living Cell separates itself from its surrounding environment including other living cells.
Modern Evolutionary Biologists interpret Theory of Evolution chiefly as that of transmission of genetic traits giving attention to genes and alterations of genetic information or mutation. They do not give attention to the Maternal Cytoplasmic Inheritance and Inheritance of Biological Membrane when a Mother Cell reproduces to develop Daughter Cells.
I account for my human existence coining the phrase Whole Inheritance which includes the contributions of the Divine Providence, the Father or Paternal Inheritance, and the Mother or Maternal Inheritance. The term inheritance must include the inheritance of Matter and Knowledge apart from the genes which are involved in the inheritance of genetic traits as the fact of existence needs the support from an external environment at any given time and place.
The Divine Providence ensures the creation of the newborn who arrives in a physical and social environment to exist as an Individual with Individuality, an original, one of its own kind of object even if the birth involves the use of reproductive technology such as the production of genetically identical clones.
The Concept of Whole Inheritance
The establishment of the human existence primarily involves three kinds of inheritance. 1. The Inheritance of the Human Genome, 2. The Cytoplasmic Inheritance which includes the inheritance of the Cell, Plasma, or Biological Membrane apart from cytoplasmic organelles containing DNA such as the mitochondria, and 3. The Inheritance of Physical and Social Environment that supports the existence
The Inheritance of Cell or Plasma Membrane:
The Functions of Cell Membrane or Biological Membrane:
1. Protection: It protects the cell from its surroundings or extracellular environment. Plant cell possess wall over the plasma membrane for extra protection and support.
2. Holding cell contents: Plasma membranes hold the semi fluid protoplasmic contents of the cell intact; thus keeping the individuality of the cell.
3. Selective Permeability: Cell membrane allows only selected or specific substances to enter into the cell and are impermeable to others.
- Gases like O2 and CO2 can diffuse rapidly in solution through membranes.
- Small compounds like H2O and methane can easily pass through where as sugars, amino acids and charged ions are transported with the help of transport proteins.
- The size of the molecules which can pass through the plasma membrane is 1-15 A0. This property is responsible for keeping a cell ‘as a cell’, an individual unit.
4. Shape: It maintains form and shape of the cell. It serves as site of anchorage or attachment of the cytoskeleton; thus providing shape to the cell (especially in animal cells without cell wall).
5. Organelles: Cell membrane delimits or covers all sub-cellular structures or organelles like nucleus, mitochondria, plastids, Golgi apparatus, endoplasmic reticulum, microbodies etc. thus protecting them form the surroundings and also helps in maintaining a constant internal environment.
6. Compartmentalization: Cell membrane separate the cells from their external environment and cell organelle from cytosol. It help the cells and their organelles to have their own microenvironments, structural and functional individuality.
7. Cell Recognition: With the help of glycolipids and glycoproteins on its surface, cell membranes are able to differentiate similar cells from dissimilar ones, foreign substances and cells own materials. Cell recognition is useful for tissue formation and defence against microbes.
8. Antigens: Cell membranes possess antigens which determine blood grouping, immune response, acceptance or rejection of a transplant (graft rejection by MHC’s on plasma membrane).
9. Microvilli: They are microscopic finger like projections of plasma membrane present on some cells like intestinal epithelial cells, which are involved in a wide variety of functions, including increasing surface area for absorption, secretion, cellular adhesion etc.
10. Sheaths of cilia and flagella: Cilia and flagella are projections from the cell; made up of microtubules which are covered by an extension of the plasma membrane.
11. Cytoplasmic bridges in plasmodesmata and gap junctions: Plasmodesmata in plant cells and gap junctions in animal cells; meant for intercellular transport and communication, form cytoplasmic bridges between adjacent cells through plasma membrane.
12. Endocytosis and Exocytosis: Bulk intake of materials or endocytosis occurs through development of membrane vesicles or invagination and engulfing by plasma membrane.
Exocytosis: It is reverse of endocytosis that provides for releasing waste products and secretory materials ot of the cells with the help of plasma membrane.
13. Impulse transmission in neurons: The transmission of a nerve impulse along a neuron from one end to the other occurs as a result of electrical changes across the plasma membrane of the neuron
14. Cell metabolism: Cell membranes control cell metabolism through selective permeability and retentivity of substances in a cell.
15. Electron transport chain in bacteria: In bacteria; Electron transport chain is located in cell membrane.
16. Osmosis through cell membrane: It is movement of solvent molecules (generally water) from the region of less concentrated solution to the region of high concentrated solution through a semi permeable membrane. Here the semi permeable membrane that helps in osmosis is the cell membrane. Eg: Root cells take up water from the soil by osmosis
17. Carrier proteins for active transport: They occur in the cell membranes and control active transport of substances. Example, GLUT1 is a named carrier protein found in almost all animal cell membranes that transports glucose across the bilayer or plasma membrane.
18. Plasma Membrane enzymes: Many enzymes are present on the plasma membrane with wide variety of catalytic activity. Example: Red blood cell plasma membranes contain a number of enzymes such as ATPases, anion transport protein, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, protein kinases, adenylate cyclase, acetylcholinesterase.
19. Cell Membrane Receptors: Receptor on the plasma membrane performs signal transduction, converting an extracellular signal into an intra-cellular signal. Membrane possess receptors for hormones, neurotransmitters, antibodies and several other biochemicals.
20. Plasma membrane assisted Cell movements: Undulation and pseudopodia are cell membrane phenomenon involved in cell movement. Amoeba, macrophages and WBCs move with the helps of temporary organelles like pseudopodia. Pseudopods are temporary cytoplasmic projections of the cell membrane in certain unicellular protists such as Amoeba. Some mammalian cells such as fibroblasts can move over a solid surface by wave like undulations of the plasma membrane.
The Divine Principle has to be both male and female and in this article, I present the feminine aspect of Divine Principle as “Whole Angel”, the harmonious blending or coming together of Angel of Beauty, Angel of Mercy, and Angel of Knowledge. My understanding of Mother and Motherhood comes from the study of the building blocks of Life. The most important building block of human life is the fertilized Egg Cell.
The Father and the Mother – The Principles governing Life:
Father is described as the male parent, an ancestor, an originator, and as a Controller. Very often, God is considered as both the Father and the Mother of all life forms. Mother is described as the female parent and something that is regarded as a ‘Source’. Father may be viewed as the ‘Prime Cause’ and Mother is the Source of ‘Prime Energy’. Mother is the source of energy in performance of all kinds of actions and in accomplishment of all kinds of work. The Mother Principle represents the Endeavor/Work/Effort that makes action possible. If Life is defined as function at the level of biological molecules, Mother represents the Source or the Origin of these organic molecules; Mother is the Source of Energy for the synthesis of these organic molecules; and Mother is the Source of Knowledge that provides the ability of recognition and the ability to use the molecules in a sequential manner to manage the biochemical reactions of these organic molecules to function as Life.
MOTHER – SOURCE OF LIFE:
The complex, multicellular human organism begins as a single cell. That single cell is the source of life, energy, and knowledge.
I, as a human organism exist in this world as I arrived from a previously existing ‘Mother Cell’. By repeated cell growth and cell division or replication known as ‘Mitosis’, the human organism grows and develops into a form containing thousands of billions of cells. This process of development is called ‘Morphogenesis’ which involves not only cell growth but differentiation into specialized types of cells. All the tissues and organs of which the human body is composed have originally developed from a microscopic cell known as ‘Ovum’ or the ‘Egg Cell’. This Ovum or Egg Cell may be regarded as a perfect cell and could be described as ‘Mother Cell’. All the solid tissues in the human body can be shown to consist largely of similar cells; it is true that they may differ, but they are essentially similar to an Ovum. The Ovum is a reproductive cell that is adapted to meet the nutritional requirements of the early developmental stages of the embryo. It is always a large cell because it contains sufficient cytoplasmic substance for the development of a self-sufficient embryo. Some of the substance which is packaged in yolk particles contains cell components; typically an Ovum contains sufficient quantities of components for many cells. Thus the Ovum need not grow as it divides; as the nuclei divide, the cytoplasm subdivides until the Ovum consists of a large number of normal-sized cells. By contrast, the male reproductive cells known as ‘Spermatozoa’ contain very little cytoplasm and they cannot further divide into new cells.
THE SOURCE OF LIFE – PROTOPLASM:
The most significant feature of the similarity between the cells of a man and that of the ‘Mother Cell’ from which he had arrived is presence of a soft gelatinous, semi-fluid, granular material inside the cell. This substance known as ‘Protoplasm’ is similar to that found in the Ovum. The Ovum consists of this viscous, translucent, colloidal substance enclosed in a membrane called Plasma Membrane. A small spherical body called nucleus is embedded in the protoplasm. The protoplasm could also be differentiated into cytoplasm and nucleoplasm based upon its location. Cytoplasm refers to protoplasm located outside the nucleus. Nucleoplasm refers to protoplasm located inside the nucleus. The two essential features of any living cell in the human body are that of presence of protoplasm and the nucleus.
The most striking characteristics of protoplasm are its vital properties of “Motion” and “Nutrition”. Protoplasm has the intrinsic power to change its shape and position. Motion of protoplasm is called ‘amoeboid movement’ as it resembles the movements observed in the Amoeba proteus animalcule. Nutrition is the power which protoplasm has of attracting itself the materials necessary for its growth and maintenance from surrounding matter and environment. The Egg Cell or the Ovum is the Source or the Mother of Life. This living matter, living substance, or corporeal material has divine attributes. It is conscious, it is aware, and it performs cognitive functions to sustain its own living condition.
THE LAW OF INDIVIDUALITY- HEREDITY AND VARIATION:
Heredity is the sum of all biological processes by which particular characteristics are transmitted from parents to their offspring. A child inherits a genetic constitution from its biological parents. This hereditary endowment, the total of the genes that the child has received from both parents is called the genotype. The genotype of an individual is formed from the constituents of the genotypes of his parents. The genotype in a fertilized Egg Cell influences the developmental pattern of the child. Progeny is not exact duplicates of their parents and usually vary in many traits. Heredity and Variation are two sides of the same coin. The outward appearance of an organism is called the phenotype. The same individual shows different phenotypes in childhood, in adulthood, and in old age. The genotype, on the other hand, does not change during an individual’s life. Each cell in the human body contains the same total genetic information that was present in the fertilized Egg. However, the cells are not identical. In different types of cells, groups of genes are controlled (in effect switched on and off) by various biochemical processes, so that each cell manufactures the proteins and structures needed for it to function. Cells are regulated by the DNA in the nucleus and by the transfer of selected portions of the DNA information to the cytoplasm through the intermediate molecules of ‘Messenger RNA’. It is estimated that, on average, only about 10 percent of the genes of any cell are functional; selection of functional genes varies with the type of cell. This biological phenomenon of selective gene functioning may contribute to what I term as ‘The Law of Individuality’. Deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA accounts for the ability of all living matter to replicate itself exactly and to transmit genetic information from parent to offspring. The child maintains its individuality by selectively switching the inherited DNA on and off. The Law of Individuality applies to all living organisms. Despite the basic biological, chemical, and physical similarities found in all living things, diversity of life exists not only among and between species but also within every natural population.
The Mother Cell is the Source of Life for its child and yet the child comes into existence as a brand new and original product with its own Identity and Individuality. The Mother Cell does not manufacture the new multicellular organism called child. A child is always a created object even when it derives its life from a Mother Cell.
MOTHER – SOURCE OF ENERGY:
To maintain life an organism not only repairs or replaces (or both) its structures by a constant supply of the materials of which it is composed but also keeps its life processes in operation by a steady supply of energy.
Living systems must be supplied energy for continual synthesis of new organic molecules and to replace or to repair broken organic molecules. This functional activity; the processes of synthesis and breakdown of organic molecules by a living cell, is known as metabolism. Metabolism involves a living system’s continual exchange of some of its materials with its surroundings, principally in the process of building up or destroying its protoplasm. growth involves a higher rate of synthesis of protoplasm than a rate of breakdown of that matter.
ACQUISITION OF ENERGY:
Organisms acquire energy for their metabolism by two general methods and could be classified as autotrophs or self feeders and heterotrophs or feeders of other organisms. Plants are known as Photoautotrophs as they acquire useful free energy from the energy of Sunlight. In a process known as Photosynthesis, plants use Sunlight to break water into Oxygen and Hydrogen. Hydrogen is then combined with Carbon dioxide to produce such energy-rich molecules as Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and carbohydrates and the Oxygen is released back into the atmosphere. Humans and most other animals are known as heterotrophs – these organisms acquire energy by the controlled breakdown of pre-existing organic molecules ( food ) supplied by other organisms. Humans utilize the atmospheric Oxygen ( released by plant life ) to combine chemically with organic matter ( food ) they have eaten and release Carbon dioxide and water as waste products. Metabolic processes do not occur in one step. It is not similar to burning sugar in air.
KREB’S TRICARBOXYLIC ACID CYCLE:
The glucose, a simple sugar is broken down by a series of successive and coordinated steps, each mediated by a particular and specific enzyme. The human organism extracts useful energy by a metabolic process described as Oxidation-Reduction Reactions. The glucose is broken down in a series of about 71 enzymatically catalyzed steps. The first 11 of these biochemical reactions do not involve the use of Oxygen. These Oxidation-Reduction Reactions occur in intracellular organelles known as Mitochondria in the cytoplasm of cells.
MITOCHONDRIA – THE POWERHOUSE OF CELLS:
Mitochondria are typically sausage-shaped particles about 0.5 to one micron wide and about 5 to 10 microns long. They are surrounded by an outer unit membrane which controls the passage of material into and out of the mitochondria and govern their internal environment. The inner membrane is the site of the respiratory functions that make the mitochondria the so-called Powerhouse of the Cell. The inner membrane is folded repeatedly into shelf like folds called cristae which contain the enzymes that play an essential role in conversion of the energy of foodstuffs into the energy used for cellular activities.
MITOCHONDRIA AND CHLOROPLASTS – A DIVINE SOURCE FOR ENERGY ACQUISITION:
Mitochondria and Chloroplasts found in the green plant cells perform the same fundamental processes. The Chloroplasts contain the green colored pigment known as Chlorophyll. The Chloroplasts convert the energy of Sunlight into energy-rich ATP and use ATP to convert Carbon into specific organic substances. The most important equations for living things are mutually inverse. Respiration of human organisms represents the reverse of Photosynthesis of Green Plants. Both Mitochondria and the Chloroplasts are semi-independent and self-reproducing parts of the living cells. They have a degree of autonomy and they are unlike the other components of cells. Mitochondria contain DNA in the form of a Chromosome arranged in a ring. The DNA of Mitochondria has different distribution of bases from that of the DNA found in the Chromosomes present in the nucleus. Mitochondria carry the genes for their own replication and for the enzymes found in them. They can synthesize some of their own proteins and reproduce by themselves. In one respect the mitochondria function as the parts of the cells and in another respect, they behave like independent organisms that reproduce on their own.
The Mother Cell is the source of Mitochondria found in all the cells of my human body. During the Growth and Development of Human Embryo and Fetus, all the newly formed cells contain Mitochondria derived from the Egg Cell. Hence, mother as a biological parent represents the Source of Energy for all the Living Functions and activities of her children. I cannot move a muscle in my body without drawing energy supplied by the maternal Mitochondria which continue to live and replicate establishing my mother as the Source of Energy for my existence during my entire Life’s Journey.
MOTHER – SOURCE OF KNOWLEDGE:
Life is the state of an individual characterized by the capacity to perform certain functional activities including the ability of responsiveness. Life is further characterized by presence of complex transformation of organic molecules and by organization of such molecules into the successively larger units of protoplasm, cells, organs, and tissues. Hence, I have defined Life as “Knowledge in Action.”
Responsiveness represents the ability of an organism to change in response to alteration in its environment. Responsiveness, alertness, awareness, and consciousness separates living from nonliving matter and defines life’s underlying principle. Living cells are aware or conscious of the environment in which they exist as well as the state of their own internal environment. The one very important part of environment of a cell is other cells. The ability called awareness and responsiveness is important for recognition, association, and cooperation between cells. Cells function together by exchanging chemical signals.
THE BIOLOGICAL MEMBRANE – AN ORGAN OF SENSE PERCEPTION:
Cell is the most elementary unit of Life. Cell is bounded by a Plasma Membrane which is more correctly described as a Biological Membrane. It separates the cell from the environment and from other cells. It helps to maintain a constant milieu in which intracellular reactions occur. The Biological Membrane allows a highly controlled exchange of matter across the barrier it poses, some compounds are able to pass through the membrane easily, others are blocked. Cells contain various internal structures such as the nucleus, and mitochondria, each of which is enclosed by a Membrane. Both the Biological Membrane and some of the intracellular membranes are parts of a continuous Membrane System that extends through much of the body of the cell. It serves two purposes. A compartmentalization of cell is required for many cellular activities, including uptake and conversion of nutrients, synthesis of new molecules, production of energy, transportation, and release of cell products, and regulation and coordination of metabolic sequences. The cellular organelles are protected from one another’s enzymatic activities, and those of the cytoplasm. The Biological Membrane System functions like an Organ of Sense Perception and maintains the responsiveness of the cell.
THE CYTOPLASMIC OR MATERNAL INHERITANCE:
Deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA accounts for the ability of all living matter to replicate itself exactly and to transmit genetic information from parent to offspring. While offspring inherit a genetic constitution and hereditary traits from both parents, some characteristics are inherited through the maternal line only. For example, there are no Chlorophyll containing Chloroplasts in pollen grains of (male) flowers. The act of Pollination does not contribute this most important characteristic known as Chloroplasts. Chloroplasts are found only in the Egg Cells of (female) flowers. Similarly, humans inherit the Powerhouses called Mitochondria only from Maternal cytoplasm. A Cytoplasmic Inheritance is entirely Maternal. Human functions that involve Sensory Perception, Mental Cognition, Learning, and the functions of Memory and Consciousness should be viewed as functions of the cytoplasm. Cytoplasm represents the Seat of Knowledge. Man begins Life as a single cell with its cytoplasm and cell membrane. The cell grows and divides while building more of its cytoplasm. Knowledge is the Fact of Knowing, the State of Knowing, and the Act of Knowing a range of information. The Mother or the Source of Knowledge is the Maternal Cytoplasm and the Cell Membrane inherited from the Egg Cell, Ovum, or the Mother Cell.
Rudolf is reborn as Rudi to describe the spiritual connection between the Cell and its Energy Provider
Rudi acknowledges his German heritage at Whole Foods when he discovered the spiritual connection between man, food, and Providence. Whole Foods, Whole People, and Whole Planet are connected by a material substance called Protoplasm, a divine plan to provide nourishment to Life.
The Rudolf and Rudi Connection at Whole Foods, Ann Arbor can be best described as the concept of Whole Spirituality, the three dimensional spiritual relationship between the multicellular human organism, food, and the Divine Providence.
SPIRITUALISM – THE CELL THEORY OF SPIRITUALITY:
In Biology, cell is the basic or fundamental unit of structure, function, and organization in all living things or it is the building block of life. Let me begin with my respectful tribute to some of the people who contributed to ‘The Cell Theory’, one of the foundations of Biological Sciences. Cells were first observed in the 17th century shortly after the discovery of the microscope. Robert Hooke, british curator of instruments at The Royal Society of London, during 1665 coined the word cell. Dutch microscopist Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723) made over 247 microscopes and examined microorganisms and tissue samples. He gave the first complete descriptions of bacteria, protozoa (which he called animalcules), spermatozoa, and striped muscle. He also studied capillary circulation and observed Red Blood Cells.
Improvements in microscopy during early 19th century permitted closer observation and the significance of cells had received better understanding. Matthias Jakob Schleiden (1838), german botanist, Theodor Schwann (1839), german physiologist, and Rudolf Virchow (1855), german pathologist, and others made important contributions to the Cell Theory that describes cell as the building block of all Life.
The Cell is the smallest unit in the living organism that is capable of carrying on the essential life processes of sustaining metabolism for producing energy and reproducing. Many simple, small, single-celled organisms like Protozoa perform all life functions. In higher, complex, bigger, multicellular organisms, groups of cells are structurally and functionally differentiated into specialized tissues and organ systems. Thus, the Cell Theory includes the following foundational principles of the Biological Sciences:
1. All living things are made up of cells. Cell is the most elementary or basic unit of Life.
2. Cell is a fundamental unit of structure, function, and organization in all living things including plants and animals.
3. Cells only rise from division of previously existing cells.
4. All cells are similar in composition, form, and function. All cells are basically the same in chemical composition (in spite of variations) in organisms of similar species. For example, all the solid tissues in the human body can be shown to consist largely of similar cells; differing it is true, but that are essentially similar to an Ovum.
5. The cells exhibit functional autonomy. The activity of an organism depends on the total activity of ‘INDEPENDENT’ cells.
6. Energy flow (metabolism and biochemistry) occurs within cells.
7. Cells contain hereditary, biological information (DNA) which is passed from cell to cell during cell division.
THE CELL THEORY OF SPIRITUALITY:
The basic or fundamental unit of life in the human organism is derived from the fertilized egg cell that eventually develops into a complete organism. The most significant feature of similarity between the cells of the human body is the presence of a soft, gelatinous, semi-fluid, granular material inside the cell. This substance known as Protoplasm or Cytoplasm, or Cytosol is similar to the ground substance found in the Ovum or the Egg Cell.
This viscous, translucent, colloidal substance is enclosed in a membrane called Cell Membrane, Plasma Membrane or Biological Membrane. A small spherical body called nucleus is embedded in the Protoplasm of the cell. The three essential features of any living cell in the human body are that of the presence of protoplasm, the nucleus, and the cell membrane.
PROTOPLASM – THE GROUND SUBSTANCE OF SPIRITUALISM AND SPIRITUALITY:
I seek the existence of Soul or Spirit in a substance that is basic to life activities, and in a material that is responsible for all living processes. I, therefore, propose that the understanding of the true or real nature of this ground substance of all living matter will help man to discover peace, harmony, and tranquility in all of his internal and external relationships while man exists in a physical environment as a member of a social group, social community, and Society. In this blog post, I would like to pay my respectful tribute to Jan Evangelista Purkinje and Hugo Von Mohl for their great contribution to the scientific understanding of the living substance, living material, and living matter.
Purkinje conducted his research on human vision at the University of Prague and later on, he served there as a Professor of Physiology (1850-69). He went to Germany and was appointed the Chair of Physiology and Pathology (1823-50) at the University of Breslau, Prussia. There Purkinje created the world’s first independent Department of Physiology (1839) and the first Physiological Laboratory (Physiological Institute, 1842). He is best known for his discovery of large nerve cells with many branching extensions found in the cortex of Cerebellum of the brain (Purkinje Cells, 1837). He discovered the fibrous tissue that conducts electrical impulses from the ‘pacemaker’ called Atrioventricular node or A-V node along the inside walls of the ventricles to all parts of the heart to help in Cardiac contractile function (Purkinje Fibers, 1839). In 1835, he invented and introduced the scientific term ‘Protoplasm’ to describe the ground substance found inside young animal embryo cells. He discovered the sweat glands of the skin (1833); he discovered the nine configuration groups of Fingerprints used in biometric identification of man (1823); he described the germinal vesicle or nucleus of the unripe ovum that now bears his name (1825), and he noted the protein digesting power of pancreatic extracts (1836).
Hugo Von Mohl named the granular, colloidal material that made up the main substance of the plant cell as “Protoplasm” in 1846. Purkinje invented the word, but Hugo gave more clarity, understanding, and knowing the nature of this ground substance. He viewed cell as an “elementary organ” and in Physiology he explained Protoplasm as an organ of Motion or Movement, Nutrition, and Reproduction. It is the preliminary material in cellular generation. He was the first to propose that new cells are formed by division of preexisting cells and he had observed this process of Cell Division in the algal cells of Conferva glomerata. His observations are very important to understand the Cell Theory that explains cells as the basic building blocks of Life. He was the first to investigate the phenomenon of the stomatal openings in leaves.
Protoplasm is a complex, viscous, translucent solution of such materials as salts and simple sugars with other molecules, mostly proteins and fats, in a colloidal state, that is dispersed but not dissolved in one another. Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Nitrogen constitute more than 90 percent of Protoplasm. It exhibits properties such as Protoplasmic Streaming or Cytoplasmic Streaming or Motion that is called “Amoeboid Movement.” It has the intrinsic power to change its shape and position. It has the power of Nutrition by which it can attract and obtain the materials necessary for its growth and maintenance from surrounding matter/environment. These functions involve acquiring, processing, retaining, and using information to perform tasks in a sequential manner for a predetermined purpose and hence describe Consciousness, Memory, and Intelligence. The terms Soul and Spirit belong to the materialistic realm where the Physical Reality of man’s biological existence is established. I have not yet discovered any good reason to use the terms Soul and Spirit as a metaphysical or transcendental Reality.
The Ground Substance of Spiritualism and Spirituality. The vital characteristics, the animating principles of Protoplasm could be known by observing Amoeba proteus. The Living Substance works as an organ of Motion or Movement, as an organ of Nutrition, and as an organ of Reproduction to generate new cells which have a life span of their own. In these physiological functions, I describe the characteristics such as Cognition, Consciousness, Memory, and Intelligence as spiritual attributes of Life as they bring functional unity and harmony in the interactions between different parts of the same individual organism while it exists in an environment as a member of a biological community.
THE SPIRITUALITY OF SUBSTANCE, FUNCTION, ORGANIZATION, ACTION, AND INTERACTIONS:
To establish the biological existence of the human organism, I add the concept of Spiritualism and Spirituality to the Cell Theory. The Single Fertilized Egg Cell has ground substance that is of Spiritual nature and the Spiritualism and Spirituality consists of the following functional, and organizational characteristics:
1. The Cell is Conscious of its own existence and knows its internal condition and knows it external environment.
2. The Cell is intelligent and it has the cognitive abilities like perception and memory to acquire information, to retain information, to recall information, and to use information in the performance of its complex tasks in a sequential manner.
3. The Cell has the ability to show characteristics such as mutual cooperation, mutual tolerance, and display functional subordination and subservience while being independent.
4. The Cell grows, divides, and develops into a complete organism while it acquires substances and energy from an external environment. The power of Protoplasm/Cytoplasm to attract matter found in its external environment is called Nutrition. The Cell continuously transforms matter to build matter of its own kind for its own benefit to sustain its existence with its own identity and individuality. The Organism represents a social group or a biological community of Cells. The Spiritual nature of Protoplasm/Cytoplasm brings this functional harmony and unity in the Social Group or Biotic Community of Cells by bringing together its Essence and Existence.
5. The Cell Theory is incomplete for it does not describe the conditioned nature of the Cell’s existence. The Cell represents a Living System that is thermodynamically unstable. It requires a constant supply of matter and energy from its external environment to sustain its living functions. The concept of Whole Spirituality formulates the connection between the Cell and its external source of matter and energy.
The theoretical claims about Spirit and Soul, the religious and philosophical doctrines of Spiritualism and Spirituality must be verified using the Cell Theory that defines the human organism. To describe Soul or Spirit as nonmaterial or immaterial Self will not help man to know the real or true man.
Whole Foods, Whole People, and Whole Planet come together in a Wholesome Relationship as God is the Energy Provider, the Original Source of Matter and Energy for Life.