Albert Einstein

WHOLEDUDE – WHOLEDESIGNER – PHOTOCHEMISTRY

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WHOLEDUDE – WHOLEDESIGNER – PHOTOCHEMISTRY:

WholeDude - WholeDesigner - Photochemistry: Johann Heinrich Schulze or Schultz(1687-1744), German Professor of Anatomy had discovered in 1727 that the phenomenon of darkening of silver salts was caused by light and not heat. He used those effects to capture temporary photographic images.
WholeDude – WholeDesigner – Photochemistry: Johann Heinrich Schulze or Schultz(1687-1744), German Professor of Anatomy had discovered in 1727 that the phenomenon of darkening of silver salts was caused by light and not heat. He used those effects to capture temporary photographic images.

Photochemistry is the study of chemical processes that are exclusively brought about by the interaction of light with matter. The term design describes the action to make a plan, a pattern and carry out the execution by artistic arrangement in a skillful way. Artists, Designers, and Architects are persons who make plans, patterns, the artful scheme for the arrangement of parts, the details, the form, the substance, the color, etc., so as to produce an artistic unit. The study of Photochemistry helps us to recognize the artistic work of a WholeDesigner, a WholeArchitect, and a WholeArtist who may have used Light, Matter, Color, Space, and Time to create living systems which are interdependent, interrelated, and interconnected. The existence of two major systems of Life, plants, and animals is perfectly synchronized and each performs its living functions to complement the living functions performed by the other. Photochemistry establishes the fundamental basis for this spiritual relationship among living systems. I am pleased to narrate my story about Photochemistry sharing the images of a number of chief players who contributed to the understanding of the design that formulates the interaction between the Laws of Physics, Chemistry, and Biology to generate this amazingly wonderful artistic unit called planet Earth which provides the home to all living things.

THE LAW OF PHOTOCHEMISTRY:

WholeDude - WholeDesigner - Photochemistry: Theodor von Grotthuss(1785-1822), German chemist in 1817 stated the first law of Photochemistry.
WholeDude – WholeDesigner – Photochemistry: Theodor von Grotthuss(1785-1822), German chemist in 1817 stated the first law of Photochemistry.
WholeDude - WholeDesigner - Photochemistry: John William Draper(1811-1882), American chemist, physician, photographer conducted research in Photochemistry. He pproduced the first clear photograph of human face.
WholeDude – WholeDesigner – Photochemistry: John William Draper(1811-1882), American chemist, physician, photographer conducted research in Photochemistry. He produced the first clear photograph of human face. He had confirmed the claim made by Grotthus; only light that is absorbed by a system can cause a photochemical reaction.

Grotthuss – Draper Law of Photochemistry: Light must be absorbed by a chemical substance in order for a photochemical reaction to take place. Photochemical reactions are chemical processes initiated by the absorption of energy in the form of visible, infrared or ultraviolet radiation. Johann Heinrich Schulze had discovered in 1727 that silver nitrate darkens upon exposure to light. The darkening of silver salts is a phenomenon known since the 16th century and possibly earlier and the effect of light on chemical substances was not understood. The art and science of Photography is based on a photochemical process, the action of light on grains of silver chloride, or silver bromide.

WholeDude - WholeDesigner - Photochemistry: Heinrich Rudolf Hertz(1857-1894), German physicist while experimenting on electromagnetic waves, discovered the Photoelectric Effect in which light falling on special surfaces can generate electricity.
WholeDude – WholeDesigner – Photochemistry: Heinrich Rudolf Hertz(1857-1894), German physicist while experimenting on electromagnetic waves, discovered the Photoelectric Effect in which light falling on special surfaces can generate electricity.

Heinrich Rudolf Hertz who expanded James Clerk Maxwell’s electromagnetic theory discovered the Photoelectric Effect in 1887. His research contributed to the development of radio, television, and radar.

THE PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT:

WholeDude - WholeDesigner - Photochemistry: Albert Einstein(1879-1955), American theoretical physicist received the 1921 Nobel Prize for Physics particularly for his work on Photoelectric Effect.
WholeDude – WholeDesigner – Photochemistry: Albert Einstein(1879-1955), American theoretical physicist received the 1921 Nobel Prize for Physics particularly for his work on Photoelectric Effect.

Photoelectric effect describes the emission of electrons by substances when light falls on their surface. Light energy is transferred in discrete packets, or photons. The energy of each photon is equal to the frequency of the light multiplied by Planck’s Constant “h”. Light imparts energy to a charged particle when one of its photons collides with the particle. In a photochemical process, one atom or molecule absorbs a single quantum of light energy called photon. The immediate consequence of the absorption of one photon by one atom or molecule is called the primary photochemical process. The basic process by which light is absorbed by matter was first proposed by Albert Einstein(1905). His Theory of Light has established that a beam of light is a beam of photons, or quanta(energy packets) of electromagnetic radiation.

WholeDude - WholeDesigner - Photochemistry: The Photoelectric Effect describes the emission of electrons by substances when light falls on their surface.
WholeDude – WholeDesigner – Photochemistry: The Photoelectric Effect describes the emission of electrons by substances when light falls on their surface.
WholeDude - WholeDesigner - Photochemistry: The energy change initiating a photochemical process always involves excitation of one electron from a state of low energy to a state of higher energy. The energy content of light depends upon its frequency.
WholeDude – WholeDesigner – Photochemistry: The energy change initiating a photochemical process always involves excitation of one electron from a state of low energy to a state of higher energy. The energy content of light depends upon its frequency.

When a quantum of light energy( a photon ) is absorbed by a molecule, the direct consequence of this interaction is that the molecule is raised to an electronically excited state. The electronically excited state can be viewed as a molecule in which the distribution of the electrons about the atoms that compose the molecule is changed relative to the normal, or ground state of the molecule. Because the electronic distribution affects such properties as bond strengths and molecular geometry, many changes can take place in an electronically excited state that may not occur in the normal, or ground state. The consequences of the absorption of light by a chemical molecule and the subsequent formation of an electronically excited state can be grouped into two main classes; 1. Physical processes, and 2. Chemical processes. In a Photophysical process, a molecule undergoes no direct change in its chemical identity. Examples: Fluorescence, Phosphorescence, and the Photoelectric Effect. In Photochemical processes some change takes place in the bonding arrangement of the atoms in the molecule. Simple photochemical reactions involve the breaking or rearranging of a chemical bond, or both. Visible light and Ultraviolet light are intrinsically energetic enough to break several types of chemical bonds. Photochemistry differs from most other aspects of Chemistry in one regard. If an atom or molecule absorbs energy from a beam of light, it gains far more energy than it ever could by other methods; eg. from ordinary heating. Consequently, photochemical processes are sometimes extremely efficient for the conversion of energy from light into Chemical energy. The most important photochemical process for living systems is the process of Photosynthesis.

PHOTOELECTRIC CELL:

Photoelectric Cell or Photocell is a device whose electrical characteristics vary when light is incident upon it. Three different kinds of Photoelectric Cells exist that use the three different forms of the Photophysical reaction called the Photoelectric Effect. 1. The Photoconductive Cell, known as a Photoresistor is the sensor that scans codes on grocery items in Supermarkets at Checkout Counters.

Whole Dude - WholeDesigner - Photochemistry: Photoconductive Cell or Photoresistor is popularly used in Supermarkets to scan the codes on grocery items at Checkout Counters.
Whole Dude – WholeDesigner – Photochemistry: Photoconductive Cell or Photoresistor is popularly used in Supermarkets to scan the codes on grocery items at Checkout Counters.

2. The Photoemissive Cell; Phototubes, “Electric Eyes” that trigger the automatic opening of doors are examples of the Photoemissive Cells.

WholeDude - WholeDesigner - Photochemistry: Photoemissive Cells. A common example is the Electric Eye that triggers the automatic opening of doors.
WholeDude – WholeDesigner – Photochemistry: Photoemissive Cells. A common example is the Electric Eye that triggers the automatic opening of doors.

3. The Photovoltaic Cell used in Fiber Optics technology, and the Solar Cells are common examples of Photovoltaic Cells which convert light energy into electric energy. For Solar Cells, Solar Energy, or Sun is the source of light and it has several applications.

WholeDude - WholeDesigner - Photochemistry: Photovoltaic Cell, Solar Cell uses Sunlight as the source of energy and converts it into electric energy.
WholeDude – WholeDesigner – Photochemistry: Photovoltaic Cell, Solar Cell uses Sunlight as the source of energy and converts it into electric energy.

Photochemical reactions that play a vital role in biological systems are called Photobiological processes. Photochemistry establishes relationship between the laws of Physics, and Chemistry with the living functions to synchronize the interactions between Light and Matter that is important for Life to exist on planet Earth. 

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WHOLE DUDE – WHOLE GOD

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Albert Einstein’s hand-written letter in German questions whether an entity named God exists:

SPIRITUALISM – SPIRIT AND SOUL ARE TWO SIDES OF THE SAME COIN. SPIRIT IS RELATED TO THE HUMAN NATURE THAT SEEKS FREEDOM. SOUL IS RELATED TO THE RELATIONSHIP THAT ESTABLISHES THE DEPENDENT NATURE OF HUMAN EXISTENCE. ALBERT EINSTEIN FAILED TO EXAMINE THE TWO ASPECTS OF HUMAN NATURE AND ITS CONDITIONED EXISTENCE.

SPIRITUALISM – ABOUT SPIRIT AND SOUL – THE TWO SIDES OF THE SAME COIN :

 

I am pleased to share this letter with my readers. I am not surprised. Albert Einstein is no exception and like all others before him and after him( like Richard Dawkins ), he just chooses to examine one side of the coin and forgets that the same coin could have a second face. This is the same problem that I encounter while I read the thoughts of a variety of people. They fail to make the fundamental distinctions( for example, the distinction between the living and the non-living, or animate/inanimate ) and they tend to examine one aspect of the standard dualism( for example, Appearance – Reality, and Conditioned – Unconditioned ) . However, I have no reason to reject their views as they present a view of the coin, the face that they recognize. I would give a brief response and invite all to discuss the issue if that would be of any interest to you.

 

1. Human Identity and Human Individuality

2. Human Essence and Human Existence

3. Human Spirit and Human Soul

4. Human Creation and Human Evolution

5. Reality and Illusion.

 

There are two aspects or elements of human nature that are in perpetual tension with each other; 1. Freedom, and 2. Dependence. In ‘Spirit’ we seek Freedom, Independence, Liberation, Release, and Salvation. Freedom is associated with man’s ability called imagination, and man can find inspiration from within himself and from without to express his creativity. Man has this unique ability to set himself “FREE” in his mind. Man is endowed with an intellectual ability to seek “FREEDOM” even when that concept has no correspondence with an external Reality. Man can think that he is “FREE” while he exists in captivity. Man primarily uses his Freedom, the Free ‘Spirit’ to manipulate the dependent nature of his “conditioned” existence that is represented by the vital, animating, Life Principle called ‘SOUL’ on the flip side of the same coin. Man seeks to exist as an Individual with Individuality while being attached to the environment and the biological community in which he always exists. Man cannot escape from being an Individual with Individuality as this Individualism is the expression of the Individualistic behavior of the molecules( Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid or DNA) that are the biological basis for his existence. At the same time, man cannot find Freedom for he survives on support from an external source which demands a constant relationship with an external community of living things. I describe the second face of the coin as the ‘Soul’ which provides the attachment for man’s dependence. Man’s Spirit is expressed as his Essence and man seeks to describe his Identity in terms of this Essence and will be able to do so if and only if the Spirit is in relationship with the Soul that provides the attachment to draw energy from an external source. Man’s Dependence is associated with an emotional state or condition called ‘Devotion’ which is expressed as a behavioral attitude called Humility.

The matter that concerns us is not that of verifying the existence of God. Man is condemned to exist under the influence of an Illusion that generates Ignorance or inability to perceive the Reality. The experience of Ignorance is a fundamental requirement to support human existence. The perception of Reality puts an end to man’s existence. Man is free in his Spirit to seek Mercy, Grace, and Compassion to understand the nature of Reality while he is trapped by the powerful influence of Illusion. The Illusion that I speak about, describes the lack of sensory perception of the fact of existence on the surface of a fast-moving object. Man is free to describe the motion, but is not free to have a direct, sensory perception of that motion. Man’s Freedom is in his Free Spirit called ‘Bhavana’ and his relationship with the world and universe called ‘Jagat'( that which is constantly moving and changing ) in which he lives, is called Spirituality and Spiritualism. I like the concluding remarks made by Albert Einstein in his letter and it reads: “Therefore I think that we would understand each other quite well if we talked about concrete things.” In that spirit, I would invite my readers to talk about concrete things; this discussion is not about Albert Einstein’s personal belief, it is not about his Identity as a Jew, it is not about the stories found in Bible, and it is not about God. Let us talk about concrete things; man, his structure, his function, his behavior, his nature, and his existence in the world that we know and understand today.

 

Rudra N Rebbapragada
Ann Arbor, MI 48104-4162, USA
www.Facebook.com/Bhavanajagatorg.

Spiritualism and Albert Einstein’s God Letter :  What is Appearance? What is Reality? What is Conditioned? and What is Unconditioned? Can man know the reality of the nature of his physical existence? Man exists like this Pencil in Water and has no choice other than that of the experience of an Illusion.

Albert Einstein’s Historic 1954 “God Letter”

by Richard Dawkins posted on September 17, 2012 02:34PM GMT

Go to:

http://richarddawkins.net/news_articles/2012/8/15/Albert-Einstein-s-historic-1954-god-letter-handwritten-shortly-before-his-death

EXCERPTS:

E-Bay will auction the original, handwritten, in German, letter and envelope,
sent on Princeton University letterhead, by Albert Einstein to
Eric B. Gutkind, on January 3, 1954, a year before Einstein passed away in 1955,
sent as response to Gutkind’s book “Choose Life: The Biblical Call to Revolt”.

Key Passages in Translation into English from German:

… I read a great deal in the last days of your book, and thank you very much for

sending it to me.

What especially struck me about it was this. With regard to the factual attitude to life
and to the human community we have a great deal in common.

… The word God is for me nothing more than the expression and product of human weaknesses, the Bible a collection of honorable, but still primitive legends which are nevertheless pretty childish. No interpretation no matter how subtle can (for me) change this. These subtilised interpretations are highly manifold according to their nature and
have almost nothing to do with the original text. For me the Jewish religion like all other religions is an incarnation of the most childish superstitions. And the Jewish people to
whom I gladly belong and with whose mentality I have a deep affinity have no different quality for me than all other people. As far as my experience goes, they are also no better
than other human groups, although they are protected from the worst cancers by a lack of power. Otherwise I cannot see anything ‘chosen’ about them.

In general I find it painful that you claim a privileged position and try to defend it by two walls of pride, an external one as a man and an internal one as a Jew. As a man you claim,
so to speak, a dispensation from causality otherwise accepted, as a Jew the privilege of monotheism. But a limited causality is no longer a causality at all, as our wonderful
Spinoza recognized with all incision, probably as the first one. And the animistic interpretations of the religions of nature are in principle not annulled by monopolization.
With such walls we can only attain a certain self-deception, but our moral efforts are not furthered by them. On the contrary.

Now that I have quite openly stated our differences in intellectual convictions it is
still clear to me that we are quite close to each other in essential things, i.e; in our
evaluations of human behavior. What separates us are only intellectual ‘props’ and ‘rationalization’ in Freud’s language. Therefore I think that we would understand each
other quite well if we talked about concrete things.

With friendly thanks and best wishes,

Yours, A. Einstein

The translation above is an abridgment of the letter from Albert Einstein to Eric Gutkind from Princeton in January 1954,
translated from German by Joan Stambaugh.

WHOLE DUDE – WHOLE INTELLECT

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SPIRITUALISM AND INTELLIGENCE :

 

Spiritualism and Intelligence :I would like to pay my tribute to Albert Einstein( b. March 14, 1879, d. April 18, 1955), German-American Physicist who won the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1921 and who had developed the Special and General Theories of Relativity, Photon Theory of Light, Photoelectric Law, and work in theoretical Physics such as the equivalence of Mass and Energy. The scientific inquiry of Intelligence would establish its biological basis and show that all living organisms are Intelligent.

What is Man? I would begin this investigation by sharing my motivation for asking this question. The motivation comes from a statement that is expressed in Sanskrit language: “SARVESHAM SWASTIR BHAVATU”, a statement that seeks the well-being of all people, of all races, of all cultures, of all religions, and of all nations. The meaning and purpose of life are affected by whatever we think is the real or true nature of man. It is important to recognize that our efforts to support the well-being of man would require correct understanding and knowledge of the real or true man.

WHAT IS INTELLIGENCE?

 

Spiritualism and Intelligence: I would like to suggest that Amoeba proteus is an intelligent living organism like human beings, and all other living entities. I would like to describe Intelligence as a biological characteristic and it influences a broad range of biological activities and living functions. Amoeba proteus has the abilities of perception, cognition, responsiveness, communication,awareness of its environment, and consciousness of its own existence in its given environment. Its living functions such as the Power of Motion, Power of Nutrition, and Power of Reproduction demonstrate the operation of Intelligence to support, to maintain, and to preserve its existence.

Intelligence can only exist in living matter and living entities and the word Intelligence(Latin. Intelligentia) involves perception, discernment, the ability to learn or understand from experience, and the ability to acquire and retain knowledge. Intelligence is associated with all-around effectiveness of a living organism to maintain its existence. Intelligence influences a broad range of living functions and could be observed in the performance of those functions. The potentiality or capacity called Intelligence has a biological basis. However, in popular usage, Intelligence is used to describe the cognitive( knowing ) component distinct from the affective( emotional ), and motivational( drive ) components of human behavior. Very often, people use the term Intelligence to describe the variations in the ability to learn, to function in society and to behave according to contemporary social expectations. I would like to differ from this conception of Intelligence as an innate ‘brain- power’- a mental faculty which distinguishes the more highly evolved animals from simple organisms, and tries to measure Intelligence levels and the differences among individuals and separate geniuses from average persons. I find it may not be reasonable to think of Intelligence as an exclusive function or faculty of the mind. Psychologists who describe the psychological basis of Intelligence tend to view Intelligence as a combination of the innate characteristics of an individual’s Central Nervous System which is molded by experience, learning, heredity, and environmental factors. Psychologists describe Intelligence as a collection of a large number of highly varied, although overlapping mental skills and abilities. Intelligence may include about 120 specific abilities which are grouped under three categories as: 1. logical processes, 2. the kinds of information processed, and 3. the products of such information processed( eg. classes, systems, relations ). It is understandable to know Intelligence as multidimensional and Intelligence serves as the basis for the performance of a wide variety of functions that involve knowing information, use or application of information, and physical performance or observed behavior which could be called Intelligent Behavior. Still, there is no single definition of Intelligence. There is no agreement if Intelligence could be directly observed and be accurately measured. Intelligence remains as a hypothetical ability. There is an abstract faculty that apprehends, conceptually and perceptually, relations among objects. I would like to present this abstract function of Intelligence to recognize relations among objects as a feature of a living cell and its ability to recognize the presence of other living cells present in its environment, its ability to recognize substances present in its environment, its ability to selectively use or dispose of molecules, its ability to express cooperation, tolerance, mutual assistance, defence, communication, and functional subordination in various biotic interactions with its own being, or in its interactions with other living species. My purpose is that of recognizing the fact of Intelligence as the characteristic of all living organisms and living cells and it could be important to recognize the association between Intelligence and Consciousness as the basis for a living entity to exist in its environment. We cannot afford to ignore the fact that millions of human beings have perished because of Intelligence displayed in operation and behavior of a variety of Viruses, Bacteria, Protozoa, other parasites, venomous creatures(eg. spiders, scorpions, and snakes) and carnivorous animals.

SPIRITUALISM AND INTELLIGENCE :

 

The single fertilized egg cell grows, develops, and differentiates to produce all the tissues and organ systems of the human being. Brain, the chief organ of the Central Nervous System is derived from this fertilized egg cell. This Egg Cell is Intelligent and Intelligence represents an Innate ability and capacity to learn and adapt, to acquire, to retain, and to use Knowledge in the performance of a wide range of living functions.

 

Spiritualism and Intelligent Behavior: Human Embryo Implantation at about 6 days after fertilization of egg cell is an example of Intelligent Behavior. Intelligence is identified as the Cognitive or Knowing aspect that is distinct from the Affective or Emotional aspect, and Motivation or Drive aspect of Human Behavior. Human Embryo is Conscious and Intelligent for it knows about its condition, or state, and fact of living.

 

I suggest that we need to make a distinction between Intelligence and Intellect, the mental function which is associated with thinking. Brain like all other organs and tissues of the human body has grown and developed from the protoplasm of a single, fertilized egg cell. The intellectual abilities of brain are dependent upon the basic, underlying nature and ability of its living matter or protoplasm. Intelligence represents innate ability or capacity to learn and adapt. It has the ability to acquire new knowledge from experience. This potentiality and capacity of Intelligence is reflected in mental abilities like creative thinking and analytical thinking. In my view, both Consciousness, and Intelligence are the defining features of Soul or Spirit and hence I submit that the living matter or protoplasm is of Spiritual nature as it knows to formulate its relations with other living entities with a nature that exhibits traits of Compassion, Sympathy, and Understanding to achieve both internal, and external Harmony, Tranquility, and Peace to support its existence and living condition. Man because of his intellectual abilities entertains thoughts about immortality, eternal life, and everlasting life as he recognizes the potentiality and capacity of his Intelligence that sustains and maintains his living condition.

Dr. R. Rudra Narasimham, B.Sc., M.B.B.S.,

Kurnool Medical College, Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh, India,

M.B.B.S.  Class  of  April,  1970.

WHOLE DUDE – WHOLE INTELLIGENCE

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"The domain of cognitive science occupies...
"The domain of cognitive science occupies the intersection of philosophy, neuroscience, linguistics, cognitive psychology, and computer science (artificial intelligence)." Gerrig et al. (2008, p. 248). Gerrig, R. J., Zimbardo, P. G., Campbell, A. J., Cumming, S. R., & Wilkes, F. J. (2008). Psychology and life (Australian edition). Sydney: Pearson Education Australia. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

WHOLE DUDE – WHOLE INTELLIGENCE :

The word ‘intelligence'( Latin. intelligentia) involves perception, discernment, the ability to learn or understand from experience, ability to acquire and retain knowledge. While psychologists are not able to come to a common understanding to define ‘intelligence’, it is clearly understood that ‘intelligence’ can only exist in living entities that have the abilities of perception, cognition, memory, responsiveness, communication, awareness, and consciousness. ‘Intelligence’ is used to indicate all-around effectiveness of an individual’s mental processes, particularly capabilities of comprehension, learning and recall, and thinking and reasoning. I want to suggest that it would be incorrect to conceive ‘intelligence’ as an innate brain power, an attribute which distinguishes the more highly ‘evolved’ animals from simpler organisms, and geniuses from average persons. I would like to contest this commonly held view or opinion about ‘intelligence’ which defines ‘intelligence’ as a unitary power or faculty of the mind.

 

Whole Dude - Whole Intelligence: Albert Einstein( b. March 14, 1879, d. April 18, 1955) won Nobel Prize for Physics in 1921, German-American Physicist who developed the Special and General Theories of Relativity,the Photoelectric Law,theoretical physics such as the equivalence of mass and energy, and the Photon Theory of Light. He demonstrated the relationship between Creative and Analytical Thought.

 

INTELLIGENCE AND WHOLE INTELLIGENCE :

I would like to pay my tribute to Albert Einstein for his ‘intelligence’ and for demonstrating the relationship between creative thought and analytical thought. While I agree that ‘intelligence’ is the abstract faculty that apprehends, conceptually and perceptually, relations among objects. The size of the object is also important when we consider the existence of microscopic objects like the size of  living cells, bacteria, viruses, proteins, and organic and inorganic molecules of numerous varieties. It is now agreed that ‘intelligence’ is a collection of a large number of highly varied, although overlapping skills rather than as a single faculty. ‘Intelligence’ may include 120 specific abilities which could be classified into three categories: logical processes, the kinds of information processed, and the products of such processing. ‘Intelligence’ includes factors such as verbal, spatial, memorizing, and reasoning abilities and needs to connect creative thought with analytical thought. All these things that are mentioned in the context of describing ‘intelligence’ focus on a combination of the innate characteristics of an individual’s Central Nervous System which is molded by experience, learning, heredity, and environmental factors. The term ‘Intelligence Quotient’ or IQ is often used to show the relation of, or ratio of mental to chronological age of the given person. Tests have been devised to measure ‘Intelligence Quotient’ or IQ of people. I would like to introduce the concept of ‘Whole Intelligence’ and state it as the ability of Living Matter or that of Living Entities to know a range of information, process information, and perform functions using the stored information and that of acquired information. It needs ‘Whole Intelligence’ to perform the numerous, complicated tasks that are essential to maintain life and to sustain the living functions. ‘Whole Intelligence’ is characterized by the presence of knowledge in the Living Matter. Knowledge means the act of knowing, the state of knowing, and the fact of knowing a range of information. Living cell typically uses a vast variety of biological information to perform functions of its metabolism, growth, maintenance, and reproduction. These functions require the abilities of recognition of specific molecules and other microscopic materials and use them or dispose them in a very selective manner involving precise, sequential reactions. Non-living matter has no intelligence. The Laws of Physical Science operate in the material universe. ‘Whole Intelligence’ describes the ability to exploit the Laws of Physical Science for the material benefit of the living, intelligent entity. Physical systems that are non-living do not apply intelligence of their own in their operations and they function according to the design of the system. Whereas a living system uses its ‘Whole Intelligence’ to preserve, to sustain, and to promote its living condition. Myself or Albert Einstein do not have the ‘Whole Intelligence’ capabilities displayed by the cells, tissues, and various organ systems that constitute our human bodies. We do not have those abilities to perform the tasks they perform.  I say, my heart is beating and pumping all the time using ‘Whole Intelligence’ and if not, I would be Brain Dead. What would do you say????  Please share your thoughts and views.

Related article :

What is Life? Life is Knowledge in Action : http://bhavanajagat.com/2010/08/05/what-is-life-life-is-knowledge-in-action/

  

WHOLE DUDE – WHOLE PERCEPTION

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Lunar Eclipse
Image via Wikipedia

ONCE IN A ‘BLUE MOON‘ – WELCOME TO NEW YEAR   :    

Once in a 'Blue Moon', we encounter a second Full Moon on New Year's Eve.

 

The sensory perception about Moon depends upon the place where we exist on this planet Earth. The visual experience of Moon is not the same, it is not absolute and is only relative.

 

In the United States, on New Year’s Eve, we had a ‘Blue Moon’ to ring in the Year 2010. As the saying goes, the Blue Moon is a rare event. In any given season, we encounter three Full Moons. Blue Moon is defined as the third Full Moon in a season with four Full Moons. It is also easy to define a Blue Moon as the second Full Moon in a given month. A Full Moon occurs every 29.5 days and most years have 12 Full Moons. An extra Full Moon in a month is described as a Blue Moon. The name has nothing to do with the color of our celestial neighbor. The first Full Moon of the month occurred on December 2nd. On Thursday, December 31, the New Year’s Eve, the Full Moon appeared for the second time. An extra Full Moon occurs every 2.5 years. New Year’s Eve Blue Moons are rarer occuring every 19 years. The last time was in 1990, and the next Full Moon comes on New Year’s Eve again in 2028.     

A partial Lunar Eclipse on New Year's Eve was visible in the East and not in the Americas.

 

While the United States ushered the New Year with a Blue Moon and in the Eastern Hemisphere, people celebrated the arrival of the New Year with a partial Lunar Eclipse when part of the Moon entered the Earth’s shadow. This Eclipse was not visible in the Americas. As to how we recognize the arrival of New Year depends upon the place where we live on this planet Earth. This New Year’s Blue Moon is unique to the place where we live.    

THE PERCEPTION OF CHANGE  :    

The experience of time on this planet Earth is an illusionary experience and is not an ‘absolute’ experience. In New York City, at Times Square thousands of people gathered on the New Year’s Eve to watch the “Ball” drop to ring in the New Year.    

The Magical Moment in Times Square. The JOY of ushering the New Year.

 

The future does not exist except in our expectation. The expectation that the Ball would drop at a precise moment is the anticipated future. The future gets transformed into the past in an instant when the Ball drops down. The past does not exist except in our memory. The present represents that instant in the future and past continuum. The New Year has arrived at the middle of the night not because of a perceptible ‘Change’ in the environment. The ‘Change’ is recognized by the use of a clock and the Ball in Times Square drops by perceiving the ‘Change’ in the clock’s time. Time is perceived by the ‘Change’ it brings. Man has invented calendars and clocks to affix numbers to the passage of time. The most a clock can give is the time an instant ago and not even the time ‘now’.    

In Indian Tradition, it is dawn that ushers a New Day and a New Year.

 

In Indian Tradition, the New Year is associated with more perceptible changes in the physical environment. According to Indian calendars, the New Year arrives during the Spring Season, and the New Year’s Day is heralded by the dawn with the Sun rising above the horizon.     

THE HISTORY OF TIME MEASUREMENT  :    

Earth’s rate of spin is the determinant of our day. The speed of the Earth’s rotation can be described in two ways: 1. The Angular or Omega Speed – the Earth rotates 360 degrees in 24 hours, or 15 degrees per hour, or 0.5 degrees of rotation in two minutes. 2. The Linear Speed or Velocity of a point on the surface of the Earth is about 1,000 miles/hour. A clock ( from the Latin Cloca – bell ) is an instrument for measuring time intervals of less than a day as opposed to a Calendar which measures time intervals greater than a day.    

Galileo Galilei ( 1564-1642 ) discovered the pendulum

 

The invention of Pendulum - The History of Time Measurement.

 

Dutch Scientist Christiaan Huygens the inventor of first Pendulum Clock

 

In 1656, Huygens determined the mathematical formula that related pendulum length to time and built the first pendulum driven Clock.

 

The Grandfather Clock - The division of the day into hours, minutes, and seconds helps us to recognize the passage of time. We have no sensory perception of Earth's spin that gives us alternate periods of light and darkness.

 

The day is measured in relation to the time taken for Earth’s rotation that causes perceptible environmental changes. Dutch scientist Christiaan Huygens ushered us into the era of precision timekeeping. During 1884, Greenwich in England was adopted as the zero degree longitude. U.S. time zones came into existence in 1883, the global time zones came into use in 1884, and ‘daylight’ savings time came into use in 1915. However, the Earth is an erratic time keeper. The Earth’s rotation is affected by the tides, changing weather patterns, ocean currents, and polar ice variations. The net effect is that it is slowing, losing a few thousandths of a second per century. Half a billion years ago the planet took only 20 hours to make it through the day. In another 200 million years an Earth Day will last 25 hours. Man has acquired the ability to track the motion inside atomic nucleus. Picoseconds describe trillionths of a second, and Femtoseconds describe thousandths of a Picosecond. To give a better perspective, it could be stated that there are more Femtoseconds in one second than there were seconds in the past 31 million years.    

Pope Gregory XIII in 1582 developed the Gregorian Calendar that we use today.

 

The seasons of Winter, Spring, Summer, and Autumn and the phases of the Moon are used to measure the passage of time of a greater duration than a day. The Babylonians, and the Egyptians had used calendars. The Calendar developed by Pope Gregory XIII in 1582 is accurate to a day in every 3,323 years. The Calendar is related to Earth’s orbit around the Sun. Earth’s orbit around the Sun takes about 365 1/4 days. Earth orbits the Sun at a distance of about 93 million miles. Earth travels a distance of about 584 million miles per year at about a speed of 66,660 miles/hour. The Moon rotates on its axis and revolves around the Earth in about 29.5 days  and has helped man to devise the 30 day Lunar Calendar. Moon spins with the same period as its revolution around the Earth and hence the same face of the Moon always points towards the Earth.    

HUMAN CONCEPTS ABOUT TIME  :    

We run our lives by numbers on Clocks and Calendars. The Clocks and Calendars create the illusion that we live in a world of mathematically measured segments of time. Man acquired advanced language abilities to descirbe the past in terms of personal experience. Because of linguistic skills, man is able to communicate his expectations about future and reminisce about past events. Time is lloked upon as a flow like a river.    

Sir Issac Newton ( 1687 ) stated that the Flow of Time is Absolute.

 

Sir Issac Newton claims that the time “flows equably without relation to anything external.” In 1905, while postulating the Theory of Relativity, Albert Einstein had observed that time is not absolute and that the measurement of time is affected by the motion of the observer.    

Albert Einstein stated that Time is not Absolute and is relative to the motion of the observer.

 

The relativity of time becomes significant only at very great speeds. Rapidly moving clocks tick more slowly than clocks at rest. Herman Minkowski, a mathematician, added time as the fourth dimension of three dimensional space. Time is seen as a dimension like height, and width, and it gives meaning to events and the order in which they occur. Gravity affects both time and light. Time is affected by the gravitational field of each celestial body and thus is unique to any one spot in the universe. The physicists tend to view time and space as the building blocks of the universe. However, time is not a substance and it is only a measuring tool. Motion and time are invariably linked. There can be no velocity without the concept of time. While time is not absolute, the speed of light ( 186,282 miles/second ) is absolute. Now, we have the practical ability to actually look at past while living in the present. By looking at light reaching us from a far away Galaxy, or a Supernova, we are looking as it was billions of years ago.    

THE BIOLOGICAL CLOCK :    

The Biological Clock is an Internal Clock that monitors time and brings about changes that affect the body and its functions.

 

A  biologist sees time in the ‘internal clocks’ that keep all living entities in sync with nature. The body’s dominant time cycle is called the ‘Circadian Rhythm’ ( Latin Circa – approximately; and Dies – day or About a Day ). For most of us a normal circadian cycle is 25 hours. A seven day week could be described as a unit of time for the biological rhythms that regulate changes in body chemicals, the response pattern of the immune system, the rise and fall of heart beat and changes in circualtion display this periodicity of functioning. Human body undergoes age related changes in structure and function with the passage of time and it is unrelated to man’s ability to measure time or man’s concepts about time. Aging is a time related biological phenomenon on which man has very little control. The biological clock measures time and the activity of genes is selectively turned on or off. Apart from cell damage due to the products of cell metabolism, effects of physical environment, and biological agents, cells experience senescence. We are predestined to exist as mortal individuals and the human body experiences changes in its structure and function even if we fail to keep track of the passage of time. Humans lack the biological and physiological abilities to transform our physical bodies into sources of perpetual enjoyment. Time has influence over both animate and inanimate world. Apart from human existence, the existence of this created universe is subject to time’s Power of Dissolution. The White Dwarfs, the Brown Dwarfs, the Super Novae offer observable evidence about the effects of time on physical objects and its power to cause change, transformation, and eventually dissolution.    

WHERE ARE WE NOW ?    

Where were we in the year 2009? Where would we exist in the year 2011? In the year 2010, where are we now? Our measurement of time gives the illusionary experience of the material world in which we exist. Our experience of time is illusionary as we do not know as to when time began and we do not know as to when it may cease to exist. Indian thinkers have described time or “KAALA” as eternal and time existed before creation, and would continue to exist after dissolution of creation. During this middle interval, after creation and before its dissolution, time exists in relation to motion. When there is no motion in absolute terms, there would be no time interval that could be measured, and  the stillness arrests the flow of time. Since, time is related to movement, we need a reference point to know our exact position at any given instant. Our position on the surface of the Earth keeps changing as Earth participates in the motions of the Sun as a member of the Milky Way Galaxy. The Sun also revolves around the galactic center at a speed of about 155 miles/second and Earth participates in this motion along with the rest of the Solar System. We need to know the precise location of the Sun in the Milky Way Galaxy at any given time and also know the precise location of the Milky Way Galaxy in the universe in which it exists. Without this information, our experience and understanding of time remains purely a local experience relative to a spot in this universe of unknown dimensions.    

LINEAR  vs  CIRCULAR TIME FLOW  :    

Is past, present, and future are arranged in a straight line? In the West, time is more often viewed as a one-way track. The “monochronic” perception about time in the West could be related to its cultural beliefs such as resurrection which gives a sense of the arrow of time pointing in one direction. In India, time is viewed as a circle and all things are expected to return to a former state of existence. In nature, the seasons repeat themselves, and the living entities follow this pattern of cyclical growth and regeneration. According to the Indian concept of ‘Samsara’, the individual soul is eternal but is trapped in a cyclical existence of birth, death, and rebirth. The Indian concept of  ‘Karma’ also very firmly binds the individual soul to its past states of existence and the individual experiences the past in his present existence, and also in all of his future states of existence. The cyclical flow of time would let us experience the past and lets time to repeat itself.    

TIME’S POWER OF DISSOLUTION :    

Indian thinker Adi Shankaracharya has described Time's Power of Dissolution:"Maa kuru dhana, jana, yowvvana garvam, Harati nimeyshaat kaala sarvam, Mayaa maya midam akhilam hitvaa, Brahma padam tvam bravisa viditvaa.

 

 Time exerts a powerful influence over the qualitative aspects of human existence. Whatever qualities or attributes such as material wealth, power, status, and social position that man cherishes and desires most could be dissolved and rendered useless by the effects of time. Indian thinker Adi Shankaracharya has cautioned people to be aware of the powerful force of Illusion called ‘MAYA’ and we are asked to avoid the perceptual problems it generates. Since the manifested world and universe gives illusory experience, we need to be careful about the effects of time that tends to dissolve the manifested universe at an individual level and also as a collective human sensory experience. A philosopher had observed that:”Time is the Best Teacher, unfortunately, it kills all its pupils.” Humans have no choice. Time alters our ability to perceive the sensory experience and enjoyment of our physical body. Time with its Power of Dissolution would eventually compel us to investigate and to explore the Concept of Absolute and Unchanging Reality. The Strong Nuclear Force, the Weak Nuclear Force, Electromagnetism, and the Gravitational Force operate the Four Fundamental Interactions and the role of time has not been explained by physicists. Natural scientist Charles Darwin had observed that things in nature change with time. Does time exert a force entirely of its own to change things in nature? If time is viewed as a power or a force, who controls this force and what are the Laws that operate this Force? Indian thinkers are of the opinion that Purusha ( the Divine Soul ), Prakriti ( the material Nature ), and Kaala or Time are eternal and these three entities existed before formation of this created universe, will operate during the existence of this created universe, and eventually remain existing after the total dissolution of the present created universe. The flow of time is eternal, but time is not absolute. Purusha or the Supreme Divine Soul is the ultimate Controller of Energy in all of its forms. The Power of Time to dissolve the creation has no effect on the Creator. All the living entities are created by the Superior Energy of the Supreme Divine Soul, and the individual souls have the ability to exploit energy of an inferior source such as Prakriti ( material Nature ). The physical body experiences dissolution as per a predetermined time ( Kaala Sutra ), and the individual souls alone survive the dissolution of animate and inanimate world and universe.    

The Unchanging Ultimate and Absolute Reality is Unmanifested. In the manifested world and universe, everything is subject to change and gets changed, transformed, and eventually dissolved under the influence of time. Lord Rama has existed in this manifested world. But, the name, the two letters of "RA", and "MA" which are manifested in this physical world represent the Unmanifested Truth which is not subject to change and exists beyond the influence of time. Ra+ ma could be viewed like a mathematical formula to represent the Reality called Truth.

 

 ESSENCE AND EXISTENCE  : 

Everything that is born arrives with a plan for its dissolution. In the multicellular human organism, each individual cell has its life span and the human individual has his life span. How is the existence of the individual is established in a multicellular organism? Man may choose to define his essence, and the cells need to function to support the existence of the individual. Man’s identity is just one face of the coin, and the second face of the same coin represents the individuality of that person. Man exists as long as the individuality is maintained. Man is not capable of independent existence. The individuality is sustained because of ‘God Connection’; the Connection that connects the individual who is energy seeker with his energy provider. Man’s intellectual or physical effort is not the basis for this God Connection. As time flows, man lives his life span because of the mercy, compassion, and grace of the Creator, who had caused the existence of this object that has identity and individuality. 

Please view related blog post titled ‘The Perception of Reality-Maya is a Fundamental Force’  

http://bhavanajagat.wordpress.com/2009/11/11/the-perception-of-reality-maya-is-a-fundamental-force/   

Dr. R. Rudra Narasimham,   

Kurnool Medical College, Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh, India,   

M.B.B.S.,  Class of   April, 1970.