WHOLE DUDE – WHOLE EDICT

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Shahanshah,King of Kings,Father of Persian People, Ideal Monarch,Liberator of Jews of Babylonia- The Legend of Cyrus is described by Greek historian Herodotus and Greek author Xenophon.

 

CYRUS THE GREAT,EMPEROR OF PERSIA, FATHER OF IRAN, 580-590 BC – 529 BC  

SHAHANSHAH, CYRUS II EMPEROR OF PERSIA  

Cyrus, the founder of Achaemenid Persian empire and ruled it from 549 BC to 529 BC. The conquest of the great and ancient city of Babylon in 539 BC made Cyrus the ruler of a vast domain from the Aegean and the Mediterranean Sea in the west to the Indus river of India in the east. Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylonia had destroyed Jerusalem in 586 BC and had forced the Jews to live in exile. Cyrus is famous in the Books of Old Testament of Holy Bible for freeing the Jews held captive in Babylonia. Cyrus had allowed more than 40,000 Jews to return to their Promised Land in 537 BC. He had asked them to take back the gold and silver utensils that were looted from the House of God in Jerusalem. Prophets Isaiah and Jeremiah foretold the destruction of Jerusalem, captivity of Jews and then release with the coming of Cyrus. He is remembered in the Cyrus Legend first recorded by Xenophon, a Greek soldier and author of Cyropaedia. Greek historian Herodotus has described Cyrus as tolerant, ideal monarch, Father of Persian people and as the Liberator of Jews held captive in Babylonia. Cyrus had conquered Lydia, Syria, Babylon, and Palestine. In the year 1971, Iran celebrated the 2,500th anniversary of the founding of the monarchy by Cyrus. He is glorified in the Books of The Old Testament. 

Book of Jeremiah, chapter 29, verse 10 : the LORD says, “when seventy years are completed for Babylon, I will come to you and fulfill my gracious promise to bring you back to this place…”  

Book of Isaiah, chapter 44, verse 28 : God says of Cyrus, “He is my shepherd and will accomplish all that I please; he will say of Jerusalem, “Let it be rebuilt,” and of the temple, “Let its foundations be laid.”  

Book of Isaiah, chapter 45, verse 13 : “I will raise up Cyrus in my righteousness; I will make all his ways straight, he will rebuild my city and set my exiles free, but not for a price or reward,” says the LORD Almighty.  

SHAHANSHAH’S EDICT OF RESTORATION  

Cyrus’s Edict to rebuild the House of God in Jerusalem is stated in the Book of 2 CHRONICLES, chapter 36, verse 23, and is reproduced in the Book of EZRA, chapter 1, verses 2 and 3.  

This is what Cyrus King of Persia says;  

“The LORD, the God of heaven, has given me all the kingdoms of the earth and he has appointed me to build a temple for Him at Jerusalem in Judah. Anyone of His people among you- may his God be with him, and let him go up to Jerusalem in Judah and build the temple of the LORD, the God of Israel, the God who is in Jerusalem.”  

CYRUS CYLINDER  

Cyrus Cylinder was discovered in the foundations of Esagila Temple, Babylon.

 

A clay cylinder was discovered in the foundations of the Esagila temple dedicated to chief Babylonian god Marduk. In cuneiform script, the following statement was inscribed on the clay cylinder:  

….I am Cyrus, King of the world. When I entered Babylon…. I did not allow anyone to terrorise the land….I kept in view the needs of people and all its sanctuaries to promote their well-being…. I put an end to their misfortunes. The Great God has delivered all the lands into my hand; the lands that I have made to dwell in a peaceful habitation….  

THE LEGACY OF EMPEROR CYRUS  

He was more than a great conqueror who founded an empire. He is best remembered for his unprecedented tolerance and magnanimous attitude towards those he vanquished. He showed a great forbearance and respect towards the religious beliefs and cultural traditions of other races. His policy of religious toleration and contribution to the rebuilding of several nations’ temples earned him the homage of all the people whom he had ruled. In the Book of Isaiah, chapter 45, verses 1 to 6, Cyrus is praised as the ‘ANOINTED OF THE LORD’. The Greeks whom he conquered regarded him as ‘Law-Giver’. The Babylonians treated him as ‘The Liberator’. The Iranians regard him as ‘The Father’. He is considered to be upright, generous, and benevolent and the Holy Book of Quran in Surah Al-Kahaf, verse 18 referred to a person known as “ZUL-QARNAIN” or “DHUL-QARNAYN”, a person wearing a crown of two horns like a ram. Cyrus, a ZOROASTRIAN by faith, had promised not to force any person to change his religion and faith and guaranteed religious freedom for all.  

REBUILD BETH-EL, HOUSE OF GOD AT TEMPLE MOUNT, JERUSALEM : 

   

The remnants of Second Temple, the Temple renovated by King Herod. The First Temple was built by King Solomon. The most holy site in Judaism is known as the Western Wall or the Wailing Wall. The Minaret of Al-Aqsa Mosque and the Dome of the Rock are seen behind the Western Wall.

 

 The House of God, the Temple in Jerusalem acts as the figurative “footstool” of God’s presence in the physical world. The First Temple was built by King Solomon in 957 BC. It stood for about 375 to 410 years. The Babylonians destroyed it in 586 BC. The Second Temple was completed during 516 BC and the Roman Emperor POMPEY desecrated it in 63 BC. King Herod had renovated it in 19 BC. The Roman troops of General TITUS totally destroyed it in 70 CE. Just the Western outer wall of the Temple still stands today. An Islamic shrine, the Dome of Rock was built on the site of the Temple Mount in late 7th century CE, and the al-Aqsa Mosque also stands in the temple courtyard. The Jews envision the construction of the Third Temple in Jerusalem. The building of religious shrines on top of the ruined monuments of other faiths causes problems for rebuilding the Temple Mount. This is a problem that Indians have encountered repeatedly in all of their holy places such as Varanasi, Mathura, and Ayodhya. If Shahanshah Cyrus is asked to decide on the religious dispute between Muslims and Jews, he would direct us to rebuild the original House of God or Beth-El at Temple Mount in Jerusalem and to restore the faith and the worship of God that it represents. Let us rebuild ‘House of God’ and let its foundations be laid where it belongs.  

Dr. R. Rudra Narasimham,  

Kurnool Medical College, Kurnool, A.P., India.,  

M.B.B.S., Class of April, 1970.

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SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE – WHOLE JEW

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GENERAL JACK FREDERICK RALPH JACOB – THE ARCHITECT OF SURRENDER AT DACCA
Bangladesh declared its independence on March 25, 1971 and had accomplished it when General A.A.K. Niazi, Pakistani Army Commander had signed the ‘instrument of surrender’ at a public function held at Dhaka’s ‘Racecourse Maidan’, at 4.30 p.m. on 16th December, 1971. Major General J F R Jacob, the Chief of Staff at Hq Eastern Command of Indian Army was the architect of this instrument of surrender. He is a Baghdadi Jew.
 
OPERATION EAGLE AND LIBERATION WAR OF BANGLADESH :
Indira Gandhi, Prime Minister of India, during 1971, initiated Liberation of Bangladesh with military action in Chittagong Hill Tracts. The battle plan of this military action is known as Operation Eagle. I had participated in ‘Operation Eagle’. The South Column Unit of Operation Eagle commanded by Lieutenant Colonel B K Narayan of the Regiment of Artillery included a Kochi Jew, Captain Kottayam Chacko Kurien who had served as the Unit Adjutant.
 
Dr. R. Rudra Narasimham, B.Sc., M.B.B.S.,
Kurnool Medical College, Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh, India,
M.B.B.S.  Class  of  April,  1970.
 

OPERATION EAGLE – WHOLE BIRTH

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Dacca, Bangladesh

Indian T-55 tanks on their way to Dhaka.
Indian T-55 tanks on their way to Dhaka. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

LT GENERAL(Retd) JACK FREDERICK RALPH JACOB,PVSM, THE ARCHITECT OF SURRENDER AT DACCA

THE BIRTH OF BANGLADESH

Bangladesh declared its independence from Pakistani rule on March 25, 1971 but the Liberation was accomplished on 16th December, 1971 at 4.30 p.m. when the Pakistani army commander Lt General. A. A. K. Niazi signed the surrender document before people of Dhaka(DACCA) at Dhaka’s ‘Racecourse Maidan’ which is now known as ‘Suhrawardy Udyan’. Major General J F R Jacob, Chief of Staff of Indian Eastern Army had drafted the “instrument of surrender”. Earlier on that day of surrender, General Jacob had arrived to meet General Niazi who had actually wanted to discuss “only a ceasefire under the U.N.”The credit of arranging this modern history’s only public surrender by a vanquished force goes to this Jewish General of Indian Army. General Jacob’s Hebrew name is YAACOV RAFAEL. He is a ‘BAGHDADI’ Jew and the family had arrived in Calcutta about 200 years ago. About 36 years after the surrender ceremony, a 11-member delegation of Indian war veterans led by General Jacob were invited to Bangladesh to witness the 37th Independence Day celebrations on March 26, 2008. Some of the historical events are described by General Jacob in his book titled ‘SURRENDER AT DACCA:BIRTH OF A NATION’ and the book was published by Manohar Publishers in the year 2001. It is very interesting to note that General Jacob in an interview at Dacca had given some appreciation to the military operation in Chittagong Hill Tracts and the Liberation of Chittagong by Forces which operated outside the jurisdiction of Indian Army’s Eastern Command.

THE SPIRIT OF A JEW :

The Spirit of a Jew-The Birth of Bangladesh. I am able to recognize his Spirit as I had served in the same military operation and participated in military action in Chittagong Hill Tracts. My Unit Adjutant Captain Kottayam Chacko Kurien( Emergency Commission Officer who had earlier served in Indian Army), a Kochi Jew had enriched my experience and understanding of Jewish Spirit.

General Jacob joined the British Indian Army(ARTILLERY) in 1942 because of his concerns about the persecution of Jews by the Nazis. Very interestingly, his first assignment during the World War II was in Iraq from where his ancestors had migrated to India. He had also served in Africa, Burma, and Sumatra during World War II. He had retired in 1978 after serving as the Commander of India’s Eastern Army. He was instrumental in saving the lives of many Pakistani service personnel, civilian staff, paramilitary forces and their families by successfully negotiating the modalities of the surrender at Dacca. The surrender had ensured that the prisoners would be treated with Dignity and Respect that they are entitled to under the Geneva Conventions of 1948. It guaranteed the safety and wellbeing of all who surrender. Much attention was given to safely remove the non-combatants and the soldiers were particularly protected from reprisal attacks by the victorious Bangla freedom fighters(Mukti Bahini).

SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE – OPERATION EAGLE – LIBERATION WAR OF BANGLADESH 1971:

OPERATION EAGLE 1971 – REVISITING THE BIRTH OF BANGLADESH

Indira Gandhi, Prime Minister of India during 1971, initiated Liberation of Bangladesh with military action in Chittagong Hill Tracts. The battle plan of this military action is known as Operation Eagle.

 

While General Jacob was the Chief of Staff at the Eastern Army Headquarters, the only other Jew in the Liberation War of Bangladesh was the Adjutant of my Unit.The Adjutant, Captain.Kottayam Chacko Kurien is a Kerala Jew. The Jews of Kerala were the first members of Jewish community to arrive in India and their migration dates back to the biblical times,starting with the Roman destruction of Jerusalem in 70 A.D. and even the earlier period of their Babylonian Exile.There is evidence to prove that there was a Jewish community in India prior to the arrival of Saint Thomas in 52 A.D.Since I had participated in the 1971 War without my personal weapon, Captain Kurien was also assigned the responsibility of defending me. He took that task with a sense of cheer and true to his spirit of a Jew, he had solemnly announced that I would be the last person to get killed(by the enemy) in my Unit and had assured me that I should have no concerns for being unarmed. As we moved in, it did not take too long for an alert enemy patrol to spot our movement and they opened an intense barrage of gun fire. Captain. Kurien quickly dug up a trench and had asked me to take cover till things cool down. It was a very dark night, we responded with great restraint, and as we waited with our own attack plan, we allowed the enemy patrol to think that we were beaten back. As I was in good company, I could totally focus on my primary task of giving medical support to the men without any other concern about my personal safety. In the same operational zone, several miles away, a doctor had a very rough experience for lack of proper understanding of his role and for not trusting the men whom he was to support.

Having taken part in the military operation of 1971 to Liberate Bangladesh, I would give credit to the Indian Air Force who clinched the victory and the surrender by the Pakistani forces.Indian ground forces could rapidly advance towards Dacca and Chittagong as they never came under an air strike by Pakistan.General Jacob in his book had claimed that the Eastern Army had prepared a better operational plan but the facts are the ground assault can not proceed without air support and the coordinated support for the attack is planned at the Army Headquarters in New Delhi rather than at Kolkata where the Eastern Army Command is based. Indian Air Force dominated the air space and they were able to hit any enemy target with great precision and with the display of their air superiority and power, Pakistani General Niazi had no chance of protecting his ground forces and took the wise course of ending the battle and over 93,000 people eventually returned to Pakistan.

THE PHANTOMS OF CHITTAGONG : THE FIFTH ARMY IN BANGLADESH  :

THE BIRTH OF BANGLADESH – The Indo-Pak War of 1971 and the Birth of Bangladesh are very significant achievements of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. As I was then serving in an Establishment under the Cabinet Secretariat, I had direct and personal understanding of her Foreign Policy Initiatives. She had personally approved our military Operation in Chittagong Hill Tracts. In the conduct of this War, we had faced a very critical moment and it needed her personal intervention and a decision that she alone could make. I rendered my services and had overcome the challenge posed by that critical situation. The importance of this situation could be understood as it needed an intervention from the Prime Minister. I am now asking the Government of India to recognize my GALLANT response in enemy’s territory without any concern for my personal safety.
THE BIRTH OF BANGLADESH – Major General Sujan Singh Uban, Inspector General of Special Frontier Force, was my Commander during Indo-Pak War of 1971

Major General ( Retd) Sujan Singh Uban, AVSM, the former Inspector General of Special Frontier Force had narrated the exploits of his Force in his book titled ‘The Phantoms of Chittagong : The Fifth Army in Bangladesh’. General Uban had missed an opportunity to narrate several interesting aspects of this military operation and I am pleased to share some of the stories at my Blog Posts listed below :

Lieutenant Governor of Andaman & Nicobar Islands(December 1985 to December 1989) – Lieutenant General(Retd) TS Oberoi, PVSM, VrC., former General Officer Commanding-in-Chief, Headquarters Southern Command, Pune, former Inspector General, Special Frontier Force, former Commandant, Headquarters Establishment No. 22. He is the tall person in this photo wearing dark brown turban. I knew him since 1971. Under his able leadership, the Liberation of Bangladesh had commenced in the year 1971 during the Indo-Pak War.Apart from his military wisdom, he took a good care of all men under his Command. While I was proceeding to Chittagong Hill Tracts, he had individually greeted all the members of my team and had delayed the departure of aircraft to ensure that a hot breakfast was served to all the men boarding the aircraft. He paid personal attention to all the aspects of the military mission to ensure the well-being of men apart from achieving success in accomplishing the military task. The sense of warmth he radiated is easily felt when we meet him in person. His grandson provided me the link to this photo. Photo Credit – Trishna-Ajay-Picasa Web Album.

Dr. R. R. Narasimham, B.Sc., M.B.B.S.,  

Ex – Service Number: MS-8466, Rank. LIEUTENANT/CAPTAIN  AMC/SSC

Medical Officer South Column Operation Eagle 1971

Headquarters Establishment No. 22  C/O  56  APO.

Related Blog Posts :

http://bhavanajagat.wordpress.com/2010/04/03/award-of-gallantry-awards-indo-pak-war-of-1971/

http://bhavanajagat.wordpress.com/2010/04/05/the-medical-plan-for-fifth-army-the-experience-of-madhurya-in-chittagong-hill-tracts/

1. A Sermon in Kaptai, Bangladesh – September 22, 2007

2. About Guns, Victory, and Gallantry Awards – Bangladesh Liberation War of 1971 – October 23, 2007

3. Liberation War of Bangladesh – Fallen Heroes on Both Sides – October 28, 2007

4. India and Iran – What is the Connection ? – January 28, 2008

5. The Phantoms of Chittagong – A Story from Chittagong Hill Tracts 

6. The Fifth Army – The Untold Story from Chittagong Hill Tracts 

7. The Medical Plan for Fifth Army in Bangladesh – The Experience of Madhurya in Chittagong Hill Tracts

8. Award of Gallantry Awards – Indo-Pak War of 1971

9. The Art of Battlefield Medicine 

During Liberation War of Bangladesh,my Unit captured Kaptai. We had never planned to destroy this Dam at Kaptai.
During Liberation War of Bangladesh,my Unit captured Kaptai. We had never planned to destroy this Dam at Kaptai.

 

 

WHOLE DUDE – WHOLE PROSELYTIZING

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SALIGRAMA SHILA’-THE PHYSICAL MANIFESTATION OF THE SUPREME LORD
Propagation involves spreading of ideas from one person to another person or place. Propagation aims to convert people to another opinion. Propagation attempts to alter people to adopt another point of view.
Propagation could not be claimed as a Fundamental Right and hence Article 25, Part III of the Constitution of India should be amended.
 
Dr. R. Rudra Narasimham, B.Sc., M.B.B.S.,
Kurnool Medical College, Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh, India,
M.B.B.S.  Class  of  April,  1970.
 

WHOLE DUDE – WHOLE RIGHTS

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‘SALIGRAMA SHILA’ – THE PHYSICAL MANIFESTATION OF THE SUPREME LORD AS PERSONAL DEITY

THE TRADITION OF ‘SALIGRAMA SHILA’ WORSHIP :

The black stone known as ‘SALIGRAMA SHILA'(rocks bearing Ammonite fossils) obtained from the river bed of the Himalayan river ‘KALI-GANDAKI’ is believed to be the physical, personal manifestation of the Supreme Lord and His devotees lovingly worship His idol. This tradition is related to the story of a pious lady by the name of VRINDA and her reincarnation as a plant known as ‘TULASI’. The leaves and the flowers of ‘TULASI’ are used in the worship of the LORD and ‘TULASI’ plant is also worshiped with great devotion and hence ‘TULASI’ adorns several Indian homes.Tulasi,Ocimum tenuiflorum, Ocimum sanctum, Holy Basil is known to Indians for thousands of years and is very often used in the Indian traditional medicine of ‘AYURVEDA’.

In the Indian scripture of ‘BHAGAVAD GITA’, chapter 10, verse 10 which describes the Infinite Glories of the Ultimate Truth, Lord Krishna spoke to the Pandava prince Arjuna :

“tesam satata yuktanam bhajatam priti purvakam

dadami buddhi yogam tam yena mam upayanti te.”

tesam-priti-purvakam-bhajatam: to those devotees who worship Me with love

satata-yuktanam: and who are constantly aspiring for My association

dadami: I bestow

buddhi yogam: the intelligence, understanding, and insight

yena: by which

te: they

upayanti: can come

mam: unto Me.

To those devotees who are constantly devoted and worship Me with love, I bestow the spiritual intelligence, understanding, and insight by which they can come unto Me.

The Ultimate Reality, the Supreme Absolute Truth exists beyond man’s reasoning powers and it is not possible to understand the Supreme by speculating and by argumentation. However, through devotional service rendered with love the Lord could be pleased and as an act of special mercy He reveals Himself to His devotee.

WORSHIPING OTHER GODS :

Indian thinkers have stated that, “Truth is one, though the sages know it as many”. Indians tolerate other religious practices and do not prohibit the worship of other Gods. Ideas that originated outside the Land of India specifically prohibit the worship of other Gods and condemn other religious practices. For example, the Holy Book of Bible, the Old Testament, the Book of EXODUS(chapter 20, verses 3-5), and the Book of DEUTERONOMY(chapter 5, verses7-9) state the folowing :

“you shall have no other gods before me. You shall not make for yourself an idol in the form of anything in heaven above or on the earth beneath or in the waters below. You shall not bow down to them or worship them; for I, the LORD your God, am a jealous God.”

This Commandment specifically prohibits the Indian tradition of the worship of ‘Saligrama Shila’, the fossil rocks and stones obtained from the bottom of the Kali-Gandaki river that courses through Nepal.

International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights :

This is a United Nations Treaty based on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and India has ratified this treaty. Amongst other things the Article 18, para3 of the treaty states :”Freedom to manifest one’s religion or beliefs may be subjected only to such limitations as are prescribed by law and are necessary to protect public safety, order, health, or morals or the fundamental rights and freedoms of others.”

PROPAGATION- IS THAT A FUNDAMENTAL RIGHT OR FREEDOM ?

The word propagation means the spreading of ideas from one person or one place to another person or place. Propagation aims at converting people to another opinion. Propagation attempts to alter people to adopt another point of view. Countries like Greece and Malayasia specifically prohibit propagation of religious ideas. Freedom of Religion, Freedom of Association, and Freedom of Speech are not the same as Freedom of Propagation. Propagation involves destroying the ability of people to think for themselves and it aims at converting people to change their ideas and practices. Propagation creates tension, disrupts social harmony, contributes to a breakdown of public order, and is not conducive to maintaining public safety. Propagation is unwanted violation of the Fundamental Rights of others, and propagation is unnecessary interference of the Fundamental Freedom of Religion of others. Propagation results in the destruction of the Right to practice religion and to worship God according to one’s choice. Since, propagation is not a Fundamental Right or Freedom, and because propagation is counter productive, we need an amendment of PART III, Article 25 of the Constitution of India.

WHOLE DUDE – WHOLE JIHAD

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PICTURES OF INDIA‘S GRIEF-JIHADIST ATTACKS IN MUMBAI
Indian people have the rights to self-protection, self-preservation, and to self-defense. They are defending not only their territory, their property, and personal lives but also their right to think for themselves and to cherish ideas and values that are central to their traditional way of life. In the context of Jihadist attacks, they are also defending their right to practice their religion. Kindly review the history of Jihad in India; the history of Islamic conquests, loot, plunder,destruction of temples, and the millions of innocent people who had perished because of Jihad imposed on the lives of Indians.
 
Dr. R. Rudra Narasimham, B.Sc., M.B.B.S.,
Kurnool Medical College, Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh, India,
M.B.B.S.  Class  of  April,  1970.
 

WHOLE DUDE – WHOLE PRESERVATION

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A PICTURE OF INDIA’S GRIEF OVER JIHADIST ATTACKS IN MUMBAI

TERROR ATTACKS ON INDIA  : 

Recent news reports are stating that the terror attacks on India have not seen its end and they are predicting the possibilities of more attacks similar to the Mumbai carnage on November 26, 2008. “India will continue to face a serious jihadist threat from Pakistan-based terrorist groups, and neither Indian nor U.S. policy is likely to reduce that threat in the near future”, said Angel Rabasa, lead author of the study and a senior Political Scientist with RAND, a non-profit think tank based in Santa Monica, California. According to RAND, the other extremist groups in Pakistan will find inspiration in the Mumbai attacks and there can be more attacks from groups with high body counts and symbolic targets.THE CONCEPT OF JIHAD  :  The term Jihad in Arabic means struggle and is often viewed as a religious duty. A person engaged in Jihad is called a ‘mujahid’, the plural is ‘mujahideen’. The Mumbai attackers identified themselves with the name of ‘Deccan Mujahideen’. The aim of Jihad includes the expansion and defense of the Islamic State and warfare against non-believers. Jihad ideology has historically inspired the conquest of non-Muslim population and the transformation of civil society which is viewed as corrupt, arrogant, and disobedient. The Holy Book of Quran, Surah 25, verse 52 states : “Therefore, do not obey the disbelievers, and strive against them with this, a great striving”. The objectives of armed warfare include uprooting unbelief and establishing supremacy of God, through Islam, in the world.”And fight them on until there is no tumult or oppression, and there prevail justice and faith in Allah altogether and everywhere.”

THE HISTORY OF JIHAD IN INDIA  :

Sir Jadunath Sarkar, a historian, and former Vice-Chancellor of Calcutta University had contended that several Muslim invaders waged a systematic Jihad against Indians. Sultan Mahamud of Ghazna(present day Ghazni city,Afghanistan) conducted more than twenty Jihadist attacks on North India between 1001 and 1027. In particular the records kept by al-Utbi, Sultan Ghazni’s secretary in the ‘Tarikh-i-Yamini’ document several episodes of bloody campaigns. Persian historian Ferishta records that Sultan Ghazni wants to “root out the worship of idols from the face of all Hindustan(India)”. He looked upon the destruction of temples as an act of Jihad. Mahamud Ghazni specifically directed his campaigns to temple towns of Nagarkot, Thanesar(1011), Mathura(1018), Kannauj(1019), Kalinjar(1023), and Somnath(1024). He had also destroyed temples at Varanasi, Ujjain, Maheshwar, Jwalamukhi, and Dwaraka. Mahmud Ghazni was of Turkic origin but had patronized the use of New Persian language and gave employment to writers such as al-Biruni, and Ferdowsi who gave detailed descriptions of the enormous booty and idols brought back to Ghazni city. Asaru-L-Bilad, a 13 th century geographer also described in great detail the destruction of Somnath. Apart from his regular troops, Mahmud Ghazni had assistance from 30,000 volunteer horsemen who had participated in the Jihad. To resist the attack on Somnath, Ghogha Rana at the age of 90 sacrificed himself and his clan. There are no census documents but after an analysis of all historical documents, historian K.S.Lal had estimated that about 2 million people died during Sultan Ghazni’s attacks on Indian temple towns.Similarly, Sikandar Lodhi of Delhi earned the epithet of ‘But Shikan’- the destroyer of idols. Babur the founder of Mughal empire in India in 1527 ordered a JIHAD against Rajputs at the battle of KHANUA. He had encouraged his men to fight the infidels and asked them to become either a Ghazi(soldier of Islam) or a Shaheed(Martyr of Islam). The Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb waged Jihad against Hindus as well as Shia Muslims whom he identified as heterodox. In South India, the Hindu kingdom of Vijaynagar came under repeated attacks of annual Jihad which had started in 1501 and each attack included destruction of temples. In the historical Third Battle of Panipat(January 1761), Ahmad Shah Abdali declared a Jihad against the Marathas. Estimates from historical documents indicate that about 60 to 80 million people in India died between 1000 and 1525 CE.INDIA’S RIGHT TO SELF-DEFENSE  : Indian traditions have clearly established the rules of warfare. A ‘JUST WAR’ or ‘DHARMA YUDDHA’ is a duty and is an obligation of the Ruler. We believe in the principles of protecting all non-combatants. They should not be touched or harmed in any manner. We recognize the right of self-protection, self-defense, and self-preservation. When an enemy attacks you, it would be an act of cowardice if the enemy is not engaged in a battle. In the context of defending people against Jihadist attacks, we are not only defending our territory, our property, our personal lives but also we are defending our right to think for ourselves and cherish the ideas and values that are important to our existence. We have a fundamental right to worship as we please and safeguard the traditional way of life. Since Jihadist attack is actually a war against our fundamental right to practice religion, the propagation of ideas of Jihadist warfare should be prohibited and violators should be punished. The term Self-Defense means defense of one’s rights, beliefs, and existence. The Right to defend oneself with whatever force is reasonably necessary against actual or threatened violence is universally recognized by Law. Self-Defense is a natural, inborn instinct. A National Entity has a Right and also a Duty to defend itself from attacks sponsored by an enemy or an Enemy State. The act of Self-Defense could be expressed in several different forms; a retaliation involving the use of military force, economic and trade sanctions, diplomatic sanctions, imposing travel restrictions, and other punitive or defensive actions as needed.   

Dr. R. Rudra Narasimham,  

Kurnool Medical College, Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh, India,  

M.B.B.S.,  Class  of  April,  1970.