SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE – WHOLE COMMISSION

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VIETNAM, LAOS, AND KAMPUCHEA(CAMBODIA) FORMERLY KNOWN AS FRENCH INDOCHINA

THE GREAT EAGLE CONNECTION – THE BALD EAGLE AND OPERATION EAGLE 1971 :

THE GREAT EAGLE CONNECTION – THE BALD EAGLE AND OPERATION EAGLE CONNECTION

The Bald Eagle is the symbol of American Power. While taking part in Operation Eagle 1971 in Chittagong Hill Tracts, I got connected to the Bald Eagle in a very significant manner. The military operation in remote, roadless, forest, hilly terrain had some similarities to the Vietnam War that United States fought against the Communist rebel forces. I had participated in Operation Eagle to train and obtain practical experience to fight the Communists. The objective of Vietnam War and Operation Eagle were essentially one and the same. The objective of both these military actions was to resist and contain the growth of Communist power and influence in Southeast Asia. I had participated in Operation Eagle in the same spirit displayed by United States Army and Service personnel who were fighting in Vietnam. The Chief of Staff at the Force Headquarters of Operation Eagle had earlier served in Vietnam and we had frequently discussed about Vietnam War.

This essay is a tribute to India’s peace keeping efforts and its commendable contributions to United Nations’ Peace keeping Forces. Starting with Korean War, time and again, India has risked the lives of its soldiers in peace keeping efforts of the United Nations. In 1972, I had served under the command of Colonel Iqbal Singh who had earlier served in Vietnam and I would also like to pay a special tribute to him for his role at the International Control Commission for Vietnam. Another officer of my unit, Major Laxman Singh had earlier served in Lebanon.

INTERNATIONAL CONTROL COMMISSION :

In mid-19th century, French occupied and established colonies in the Indochinese Peninsula of Southeast Asia. In March 1945, the Japanese drove the French from Indochina. People were opposed to French and Japanese occupation. At the end of World War II, France regained control of Indochina. In 1946, the First Indochina War began. The War became a focus of struggle among the major powers of the world. The Viet Minh forces had the support of Soviet Union and China. France was supported by the United States. The Geneva Conference on Indochina had put an end to this War in July 1954. The Geneva Accords that ended the War resulted in the partition of Vietnam at the 17th parallel. The International Control Commission was established in 1954 to implement the ceasefire agreement between Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia and France. Three separate Commissions were set up, one each for Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos. Each Commission had India as Chairman and Canada and Poland as members. The Commission was supported by forces drawn from India, Canada, and Poland. India had provided one infantry battalion and supporting staff. The Geneva Accords created Laos as a neutral, buffer state between Thailand and Vietnam. If countries had adhered to the terms of the Geneva Accords, peace would have prevailed in the region and India would have gained proper recognition for its peace keeping role. An important aspect of the Geneva Accords was reunification of Vietnam after holding national elections in 1956. Under guidance from the United States, South Vietnam refused to sign the Geneva Agreement and did not conduct national elections to decide the issue of reunification. North Vietnam retaliated by its own violation of Geneva Agreement and supported Viet Cong in its war against South Vietnam. The Second Indochina War which is also popularly known as Vietnam War extracted a heavy toll in terms of money, human lives and damage to the fragile environment. The War finally ended in 1975. Unfortunately, for lack of support from the major participants of this War, the International Control Commission had to cease its activities and India’s participation had ended in 1968, 1969, and 1970 when Indian troops and staff returned to India.

ABOUT WAR AND PEACE

The Super Power rivalry had imposed war upon people and India which had won its independence only in 1947 tried its best to reduce global tensions and to promote peace. The Indian military contingent deployed in Indochina was very small and its role was not that of enforcing the Geneva Accords. At best, Indian troops could monitor the activities and help as neutral observers. I commend India and the Indian military for this peacekeeping role, while the Super Powers continued their fight for domination in Southeast Asia. I also appreciate the spirit of nationalism displayed by the people of Vietnam. I understand their struggle and they had taken support from both China, and the Soviet Union in their quest for freedom. I would not blame them for getting support from Communists. Later, they had successfully stopped both China, and the Soviet Union in exercising any control on their lives. In India, the nationalists in their struggle for freedom had experienced similar problems. Indian nationalist leader, ‘NETAJI’ Subhash Chandra Bose had cultivated friendship with Japan during the Second World War and made an attempt to win freedom with help from the Japanese armed forces. In my home town of Rajahmundry and elsewhere in India, we love ‘NETAJI’ and his spirit of patriotism. The people of Vietnam fought with a great sense of determination and won victory over a superior force. The First Indochina War is a war for the liberation of Vietnam from the colonial rule. The Second Indochina War is a war for the reunification of Vietnam which was unjustly partitioned in July 1954.

OPERATION EAGLE 1971 – COLONEL IQBAL SINGH OF THE REGIMENT OF ARTILLERY :

THE EAGLE CONNECTION – OPERATION EAGLE 1971 – VIETNAM WAR – COLONEL IQBAL SINGH OF THE REGIMENT OF ARTILLERY

I speak about Colonel Iqbal Singh of the Regiment of Artillery for two reasons. He was the Chief of Staff at the Force Headquarters of Operation Eagle 1971. He had intimate knowledge of the military operation in the Chittagong Hill Tracts. After the conclusion of Operation Eagle,  I had served under the Command of Colonel Iqbal Singh in a Unit in India’s North East Frontier Agency(NEFA) which is now known as the State of Arunachal Pradesh. His remarks and recommendation given on my application for Direct Permanent Commission in Army Medical Corps( AMC Examination of 1972) had helped me in the interview conducted by the Director General of Armed Forces Medical Services, Ministry of Defence New Delhi during September 1972 to clinch my selection at that interview. Colonel Iqbal Singh had prior experience of service in Vietnam. During Operation Eagle 1971, he had introduced to me the Infantry weapons, ammunition, signal equipment, medical supplies, field rations and other documents that were routinely used by United States Army in the conduct of its Vietnam War. Colonel Iqbal Singh suggested to me that I could use an Infantry weapon used by United States Army for my personal protection during the military operation as I did not bring the weapon( 9mm Submachine Gun or SMG ) issued to me by Indian Army. However, I had politely declined his offer to use a gun supplied to the U.S. Army. But, I had willingly used the field rations, medical supplies, personal clothing/camping supplies and signal equipment used by the U.S. Army in its Vietnam War. This connection between United States and the military operation in Chittagong Hill Tracts is of great interest to me. United States fought a bitter battle against the Communist supported Viet Cong forces in Vietnam and paid a huge price both in terms of human costs, money, and political prestige. The same United States secretly contacted the Chinese Communists and had asked them to attack India in the North East Frontier Agency region to defeat our military operation to liberate Bangladesh during 1971. It had really surprised me as I had always viewed myself as a partner or ally of the United States in its global mission to combat Communism.

THE EAGLE CONNECTION TO FIGHT COMMUNISM :

COMMUNISM IS A GLOBAL THREAT TO PEACE. UNITED STATES MUST CONTINUE TO FIGHT AND RESIST COMMUNISM.

United States of America must stand firm in its commitment to defend Freedom, Democracy, and Human Rights. United States had supported me during my participation in Operation Eagle 1971 and the support was based upon a mutual interest to combat Communism to promote Democracy and Individual Freedom.

Dr. R. R. Narasimham, B.Sc., M.B.B.S.,

Ex – Number MS-8466 CAPTAIN  AMC/SSC

Medical Officer South Column Operation Eagle

Headquarters Establishment No. 22  C/O  56  APO

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WHOLE DUDE – WHOLE EVOLUTION

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WHAT COULD WE LEARN FROM THIS CRETACEOUS – TERTIARY EXTINCTION EVENT ?

MAN’S FUTURE – EVOLUTION OR EXTINCTION ?

Like all other living creatures of this planet Earth, man is a mortal being. Whosoever had arrived on this planet must also depart. As a biological species, what are man’s chances of survival in the future ?

COULD MAN EVOLVE INTO A NEW SPECIES ?

Man is a member of the order of Primates, which is a part of the class Mammalia. Modern humans belong to the species Homo sapiens. Man is the only species in the genus HOMO of the family Hominidae that is living today. All other ancestral forms of the genus HOMO are extinct. The early Homo sapiens was possibly present in southeastern Europe 350,000 years ago. The numbers and range of humans has increased about 100,000 years ago. The rate of expansion of human population is related to technological advancements that increase the availability of food, or of major medical advances that reduce the number of deaths. Man not only fully inhabits and utilizes a wide range of environments but also alters these environments to his own ends. With a variety of sophisticated technologies interposed between man and the natural environment, the environment cannot exert pressures on the human species in the same way that it has on other species.

Essentially, the modern synthetic view of evolution could be defined as a change in gene frequency. Evolution could be described as change in the genetic composition of a population through time. For purposes of speciation or separation into new species, we need to demonstrate cumulative and important changes in the population gene pool. In the last 250,000 years there is no evidence to show any important changes in the population gene pool. Practically speaking, man’s evolution into a new species is arrested because of the intervention of culture between man and his environment.

THE BIOLOGICAL PHENOMENON OF EXTINCTION

In biology, extinction refers to the dying out or termination of a race or species of animals or plants. Extinction occurs when a species can no longer reproduce at replacement levels and all the surviving members perish at the end of their life spans which could be shortened by harsh environmental stresses. The causes of extinction include the following: 1. extra -terrestrial, 2. geological-climatical, and 3. biological. Most extinctions are thought to have resulted from environmental changes. A species could be affected in either of two ways :

1. The doomed species is not able to adapt to the changed environment and would totally perish without descendants;

2. The doomed species may adapt but, in the process, may evolve into a distinctly new species. When this transformation is completed, the doomed species would be identified as an extinct species. It should be noted that this kind of transformation of one species into a new distinct species is not actually observed by any person. The chances of man evolving into a new species is less likely because man has to some extent arrested this process due to the development of his abilities to manipulate nature.

Extinction is an ongoing feature of the Earth’s flora and fauna. The fossil record has served to demonstrate the history of most major groups of animals and plants. The record indicates the occurrence of fairly sudden extinctions of certain groups at certain times, and the fossil record also reveals the occurrence of a number of mass extinctions each involving the demise of vast number of species. A typical species becomes extinct within 10 million years of its first appearance and only one in a thousand species that have existed remain today. Some 99.9 percent of all species that have ever lived on Earth are now extinct. Mass extinctions are ecological disasters but they may also create opportunities by removing once dominant groups.

CRETACEOUS-TERTIARY EXTINCTION EVENT( K-T EVENT)

A drastic example of extinctions is provided by the dinosaurs. About 65 million years ago, at the end of the Cretaceous period all the major groups of dinosaurs and several forms of marine life became extinct more or less simultaneously. It has great significance because it ended the reign of the dinosaurs and opened the way for mammals to become the dominant land vertebrates. Some biologists conclude that humans owe our present dominance because of this K-T Event that saw the end of the dinosaurs.

Evidence points to the impact of an asteroid hitting the Earth as the cause of this extinction. An important aspect of such impacts by heavenly objects would be the creation of tremendous amounts of ionizing radiation which has played a devastating role in wiping out the marine life. It is suspected that catastrophic events such as an asteroid impact/radiation may have triggered other mass extinctions as well. In fact, mass extinctions appear to have taken place approximately every 26 million years. Some paleontologists proposed that a cyclical cosmic event cause these periodic die-offs.

THE LESSONS FROM DINOSAUR EXTINCTION

The history of dinosaurs upon planet Earth clearly tells us and warns us about the vulnerability of human existence. The structural differentiation and the sophisticated functional organization of man makes him a very complex organism. Such complexity actually places man in a position of disadvantage when a cataclysmic cosmic event actually happens. Organisms that are structurally simple and functionally primitive and those that feed upon dying or decaying organic matter may survive better and ride over the chaos caused by a massive collision.

The theory of evolution would not be able to offer a sense of hope to humanity and just like the dinosaurs, man would be the next doomed species. Life forms have become extinct and yet life continued. A living thing is a composite of form, and substance. We tend to pay attention to the form and disregard the nature of the substance. The living matter or substance has endured all extinction events over period of 3.5 billion years after the first appearance of Life on planet Earth. This living substance survives and displays the quality or the characteristic of being imperishable, immutable, immovable, and eternal. There is hope that the living substance would again survive a future major extinction event. What about the life form that we recognize as man? Man could derive some comfort from the Book of Genesis, chapter 8, verse 22 which promises:

“As long as the earth endures,

seed-time and harvest,

cold and heat,

summer and winter,

day and night

will never cease.”

Dr. R. Rudra Narasimham, B.Sc., M.B.B.S.,

Kurnool Medical College, Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh, India,

M.B.B.S.  Class  of  April,  1970.

WHOLE DUDE – WHOLE PUNISHMENT

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REBBAPRAGADA SUBBARAO (1893-1948), LAWYER, POET, SPORTSMAN, DISTINGUISHED CITIZEN OF RAJAHMUNDRY

This entry is dedicated to the memory of my grandfather, Shri.Rebbapragada Subbarao, who had served the British Crown as a Public Prosecutor at East Godavari District Sessions Court in Rajahmundry for two terms from 1940. He had never hesitated in seeking the capital punishment when he had prosecuted criminals for the offense of murder. I was not fortunate enough to witness his performance as a Public Prosecutor but my grandmother had shared information about his stellar qualities and his great reputation. While I grew up in Rajahmundry, during a school field trip, I had visited the Central Jail in Rajahmundry where the death sentence is carried out by hanging. My impression from that trip was that the death sentence is appropriate and is not cruel. This entry is an effort to understand my grandfather’s support for capital punishment.

THE RIGHT TO LIFE :

Human beings everywhere demand the realization of diverse values to ensure their individual and collective well-being. A fundamental value that is universally claimed by all people is that of the Right to Life. Thomas Jefferson had asserted that his countrymen were a “free people claiming their rights as derived from the laws of nature and not as the gift of their Chief Magistrate.” In the Declaration of Independence proclaimed on July 4, 1776, he had eloquently said that ” We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by the Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among them are Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness.” The basic principle of the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen(1789) was that “all men are born free and equal in rights,” which were specified as the rights of Liberty, Private Property, the INVIOLABILITY of the person, and resistance to oppression. It specifically states that Liberty consists in being able to do anything that does not harm others: thus the exercise of the natural rights of every human has no bounds other than those that ensure to the other members of society the enjoyment of these same rights.

THE REASON FOR PUNISHMENT :

A Right which is not protected is not a Right and a Law without penalty attached is not a Law. If the Constitution declares a ‘Right to Life’ and if Moses proclaims the divine law that commands that “You shall not murder“(The Book of Exodus 20:13, and The Book of Deuteronomy 5:17), if there is no penalty attached, these words would be vain words.

A penalty is imposed as a consequence to an act of wrongdoing. Punishment is generally conceived as the infliction of pain. Why men should be punished is one of the most controversial questions in the field of moral and political thought, and in psychology and theology as well. There are three major types of wrongdoing in relation to which men discuss the nature and the need of punishment, its justice or its expediency. Punishment is traditionally considered in relation to, evil or wicked actions, violations of law, and sin. Murder is an act which simultaneously violates the moral, the civil and the divine law.

THE PURPOSE OF PUNISHMENT :

The question about the purpose of punishment critically tests the meaning of anyone’s theory of Law and Justice. The purpose of punishment will affect the penalties to be imposed for wrongdoing. Some people think that punishment need only be inherently just and others think that punishment cannot be justified without reference to its utility or expediency. The purpose of punishment could be described under three different categories :

1. Punishment should be justified only by its consequences.

2. Punishment should be a combination of awarding a just penalty and securing good effects.

3. Punishment should be a just retaliation exclusively.

THE UTILITARIAN THEORY OF PUNISHMENT :

This view is based upon the idea that punishment should not be equal to revenge or an act of hostility. A punishment is an evil inflicted by public authority on those who have transgressed the law so that the will of men may be better disposed to obedience. The chief aim of punishment is securing the reformation and the deterrence of criminals and to maintain public peace. The Court does not exist for punishment only but also for the salvation of the criminal. The spirit and meaning of punishment is seen as the salvation and the reformation of the wrongdoer.

According to Socrates, “to suffer punishment is another name for being justly corrected when you do wrong,” and he “who is punished and suffers retribution, suffers justly.” He believed that justice is restored to the soul of the wrongdoer. “The proper office of punishment is two-fold; he who is rightly punished ought either to become better and profit by it or he ought to be made an example to his fellows, that they may see what he suffers, and fear and become better.”

Plato had implied that virtue could be taught. “He who desires to inflict rational punishment does not retaliate for a past wrong which cannot be undone.” He punishes for the sake of prevention. Plato thought that the death penalty should be imposed only on the incurable who cannot profit from an example to other men not to offend.

Hobbes places the reason for punishment in the future rather than in the past in its utility to procure certain effects rather than retaliation. “Men look not at the greatness of the evil past, but the greatness of the good to follow.” We are forbidden to inflict punishment with any other design than for the correction of the offender, or the direction of others.

Locke derives from natural law the right to punish those who transgress that law and to restrain and prevent the like offence.

Rousseau lays great emphasis on the reformation of the criminal. “There is not a single ill-doer who could not be turned to some good. The State has no right to put to death, even for the sake of making an example, anyone whom it can leave alive without danger.”

THE RETRIBUTIVE PURPOSE OF PUNISHMENT :

Kant and Hegel viewed that retribution or retaliation is the only basis for punishment. Punishment should be purely retributive and it need not serve some end beyond itself and need not produce some desired consequence in the future. We should punish only because we have, under the moral law, a duty to do so. The purpose of punishment is to uphold the moral law.

The effect of the punishment upon the wrongdoer or upon others whose conduct may be affected by punishments meted out, must not be taken into account at all. Punishment of the transgressor may heal the feelings of those he has injured and it may even satisfy a desire for revenge, but those factors should have no motivating force. Nothing should be sought except the preservation of the balance sheet of justice. Every wrong is duly requited by a proportionate measure of punishment. It should not consider any person except the wrongdoer himself.

According to Kant, “Judicial punishment can never be administered merely as a
means of promoting another good, either with regard to the Criminal himself, or to Civil Society, but must in all cases be imposed only because the individual on whom it is inflicted has committed a Crime…….The Penal Law is a Categorical Imperative.”Punishment cannot be justified except as doing the work of Justice.

THE RIGHT OF RETALIATION( ius talionis ) ;

Kant says that ” It is just the Principle of Equality by which the pointer Scale of Justice is made to incline no more to one side than the other; It may be rendered by saying that the undeserved evil which anyone commits on another, is to be regarded as perpetrated on himself…….This is the Right of Retaliation; and properly understood it is the only principle which can definitely assign both the quality and the quantity of a just penalty. All other standards are wavering and uncertain; and on account of other considerations involved in them, they contain no principle conformable to the sentence of pure and strict Justice.” Retributive Punishment or retaliation seems to express the principle of justice or fairness in exchange.

A LIFE FOR LIFE ( lex talionis ) :

A Life for Life is the symbolic statement in the Greek as well as the Hebrew tradition. “Who so’er shall take the sword, shall perish by the sword.” Retribution is not revenge. It is the righting of wrong. It is the very act of crime itself which vindicates itself.

The gravity of the offense is the only determinant of the severity of the punishment. The punishment should fit the crime, not the nature of the criminal as someone capable of being benefitted by punishment. Kant and Hegel do not think that the justification of the death penalty depends upon the curability or incurability of the offender. The taking of the criminal’s life need not be motivated by a desire to protect society from his future depredations. It is sufficient that he has taken a life and it should be repaid by a proportionate requital.

“Whoever sheds the blood of man,

by man shall his blood be shed:

for in the image of God

has God made man. ” (The Book of Genesis, chapter 9, verse 6)

The reason murderers deserved the death penalty was the supreme value of human life. To destroy human life is to attack the image of God, and therefore God demands an accounting.

Murder could be described as a sin, as a crime and as a vice. The Criminal gives his consent for Capital Punishment by his very act.

Dr. R. Rudra Narasimham, B.Sc., M.B.B.S.,

Kurnool Medical College, Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh, India,

M.B.B.S.  Class  of  April,  1970.

SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE – WHOLE MEASUREMENT

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Eagle
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25th INDEPENDENCE ANNIVERSARY MEDAL – 1972 

INDIAN INDEPENDENCE – A MEASURE OF MY LIFE 

I record major events of my life in relation to India’s independence on August 15, 1947. The Father of the Nation, Mahatma Gandhi was assasinated on January 30, 1948 and my life’s journey became associated with the story of this young nation. 

25th INDEPENDENCE ANNIVERSARY MEDAL 

This medal was awarded to commemorate the twenty-fifth anniversary of Indian independence in 1972. The medal was awarded to all members of the armed forces, paramilitary forces, and police forces who were serving on 15 August 1972. This medal gives me an opportunity to remember the twenty-fifth year of my life. I was then serving in Indian Army in the rank of a Captain and was posted at a unit located in the North-East Frontier Agency which is now known as the State of Arunachal Pradesh. We all had a very good reason to rejoice on that day. India had scored a major victory in the Indo-Pak War of 1971 and we took pride in the fact that we had a role in shaping that epic event in India’s military history.

OPERATION EAGLE 1971 – CHITTAGONG HILL TRACTS – LIBERATION WAR OF BANGLADESH :

OPERATION EAGLE 1971-1972. THE MILITARY VICTORY IN CHITTAGONG HILL TRACTS-THE CELEBRATION OF 25th INDEPENDENCE ANNIVERSARY

  

Operation Eagle 1971,the Indo-Pak War of 1971 and the Birth of Bangladesh are very significant achievements of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. As I was then serving in an Establishment under the Cabinet Secretariat, I had direct and personal understanding of her Foreign Policy Initiatives. She had personally approved our military Operation in Chittagong Hill Tracts. In the conduct of this War, we had faced a very critical moment and it needed her personal intervention and a decision that she alone could make. I rendered my services and had overcome the challenge posed by that critical situation. The importance of this situation could be understood as it needed an intervention from the Prime Minister. I am now asking the Government of India to recognize my GALLANT response in enemy's territory without any concern for my personal safety.

 

Lieutenant Governor of Andaman & Nicobar Islands(December 1985 to December 1989) - Lieutenant General(Retd) TS Oberoi, PVSM, VrC., former General Officer Commanding-in-Chief, Headquarters Southern Command, Pune, former Inspector General, Special Frontier Force, former Commandant, Headquarters Establishment No. 22. He is the tall person in this photo wearing dark brown turban. I knew him since 1971. Under his able leadership, the Liberation of Bangladesh had commenced in the year 1971 during the Indo-Pak War.Apart from his military wisdom, he took a good care of all men under his Command. While I was proceeding to Chittagong Hill Tracts, he had individually greeted all the members of my team and had delayed the departure of aircraft to make sure that a hot breakfast was served to all the men boarding the aircraft. He paid personal attention to all the aspects of the military mission to secure the well-being of men apart from achieving success in accomplishing the military task. The sense of warmth he radiated is easily felt when we meet him in person. His grandson provided me the link to this photo. Photo Credit - Trishna-Ajay-Picasa Web Album.
The remarks made by Lieutenant Colonel B K Narayan of Special Frontier Force on May 13, 1972 in my Annual Confidential Report for 1971-72 are as follows:"A very conscientious and Tough MO who worked hard during the Bangladesh OPs. He did very well and showed Maturity which was beyond the call of duty. I have recommended this Officer for a gallantry award for which he deserves eminently. He is physically Tough and cheerful. Is a fresh entrant with less than 2 years of Service and yet he displayed capability and confidence.
OPERATION EAGLE 1971-72-Remarks of Former Inspector General of Special Frontier Force, Lieutenant General T S Oberoi, PVSM, VrC, General Officer Commanding-in-Chief,Headquarters Southern Command Pune 411001.He had remarked about my participation in the Indo-Pak War of 1971.

Dr. R. R. Narasimham, B.Sc., M.B.B.S.,

Ex Number – MR-03277K Major AMC/DPC

MS-8466 Captain AMC/SSC

Medical Officer South Column Operation Eagle

Headquarters Establishment No. 22  C/O  56  APO

WHOLE DUDE – WHOLE DEPENDENCE

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UNITED STATES IMPORTS 45 PERCENT OF ITS OIL FROM THE MIDDLE EAST AND AFRICA

As the gas prices across the United States hit record high levels, I am not concerned about the United States’ dependence upon oil from the Middle East. If the United States is not willing to buy its oil from the Middle East, China is in a position to gobble it up. The position of the United States as a global superpower is dependent upon its level of oil consumption. If and when China steps in to dominate the oil market, it would proportionately increase its military supremacy and we would witness the Chinese war ships patrolling the Persian Gulf.

United States may forego its need for Middle East oil, but could it step back from its role to provide peace and stability in that region ???

Dr. R. Rudra Narasimham, B.Sc., M.B.B.S.,

Ex – Number XSCO – 324 CAPTAIN/NAQEEB FORCE MEDICAL SERVICES

Headquarters Sultanate of Oman’s Land Forces,

Muaskar Al Murtafaa, MAM, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman.

WHOLE DUDE – WHOLE CONQUEST

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GENERAL SIR ARTHUR THOMAS COTTON(b. MAY 15, 1803, WOOD COTE, OXFORD SHIRE, ENGLAND. _ d. JULY 14, 1899, DORKING, SURREY, ENGLAND.)

“OH, EAST IS EAST, AND WEST IS WEST,

AND NEVER THE TWAIN SHALL MEET.”

A BARRIER THAT CONQUERED THE EAST-WEST BARRIER

There could be social and cultural barriers between humans but those man-made barriers could be conquered by people who are dedicated to serving the humanity. Sometimes, a man-made barrier can bridge that cultural divide and could bring people together. A barrage is described as a man-made barrier in a stream or a river. By constructing barrages, Sir Arthur Thomas Cotton had shown that public service could help people to love one another.

Sir Arthur Cotton is popularly known as “Irrigation Cotton” or “Cotton Dora”(Cotton the Noble). In 1821, at the very young age of 18, he had arrived in India and was appointed to service with the Madras Engineers. He had served in the First Burmese War(1824-26). The military Corps of Engineers also undertake civilian construction projects. Cotton became responsible for greatest civil engineering projects of his time. He had worked in the face of stiff opposition, discouragement and criticism from the Madras government. In 1828, by constructing barrages across river Cauvery, he had transformed the drought-stricken Tanjore district into the richest part of the State of Madras.In 1838, he had designed and built sea defenses for Visakhapatnam.In 1847-52, he had masterminded the Godavari delta project. He had constructed Asia’s largest barrage across river Godavari a few miles south of Rajahmundry, my native place. This masonry dam is 2.25 mile (3,500 metres)long and is 12 feet high. It helped to irrigate 720,000 acres of land and created 500 mile long navigable channels connecting Godavari delta with the port of Kakinada. He was responsible for bringing prosperity to the farmers of the Godavari delta region. He was elevated to the post of Chief Engineer of the Madras Presidency. He had retired from government service in 1862 and in 1876 he was knighted. His name is much honored to this day and the spirit of public service he had displayed is still remembered with love and admiration.

Dr. R. Rudra Narasimham, B.Sc., M.B.B.S.,

Kurnool Medical College, Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh, India,

M.B.B.S.  Class  of  April,  1970.

WHOLE DUDE – WHOLE LITERATURE

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SARAT CHANDRA CHATTERJEE( CHATTOPADHYAY), SEPT 15, 1876 – JAN 16, 1938

I belong to Rajahmundry where Kandukuri Veeresalingam had written the first novel ever written in Telugu language. However, it was ‘ SARAT BABU’ who had first provoked my interest in reading Telugu literature. Sarat Babu , the famous novelist had written in Bengali language but fortunately his books are translated into Telugu language and while I grew up in Rajahmundry, his novels were extremely popular and had quickly aroused my curiosity. In 1953 the Telugu film ‘DEVADASU’ with Akkineni Nageswara Rao( A N R ) in the lead role was released and the songs from that film though not written by Sarat Babu also became very popular. It was not the popularity of this film which had drawn me towards the novels written by Sarat Babu. I had actually started reading his translated stories a few years later after joining Danavaipeta Municipal High School. I was attracted by his powerful narrative style and the portrayal of the characters in his stories. I know Telugu people who learned Bengali language just to get the pleasure of reading Sarat Babu’s original works. I also know some of my friends who acquired their names from Sarat Babu. I should acknowledge the fact that his novels gave me the impetus to develop the habit of reading books. While Telugu people could embrace and adore a Bengali novelist, I have not witnessed any love for Tamil writers. While I attended Danavaipeta Municipal High School in Rajahmundry, I learned about ‘TIRUKKURAL’ and was not introduced to any other Tamil literature.

THE TELUGU-TAMIL DIVIDE :

Since Mylapore, Madras is my birth place, I grew up with a sense of fondness for that City and during 1950s I had visited Madras several times as my maternal grand parents still lived there. But, in Rajahmundry, my native place, I could not experience any sense of connectedness with Madras even though Rajahmundry was part of the then State of Madras. At Rajahmundry I got connected to the nation and much of it was inspired by the writers and thinkers of Bengal. In the beginning of 20th century, Bengal had shaped our sentiments and had exerted a great influence. I am not surprised that ‘VANDE MATARAM’ is our National Song and ‘JANA GANA MANA‘ is our National Anthem and the honour goes to Bengal. Unfortunately, Madras apart from being the State Capital could not excite Telugu peoples’ hearts in the way Bengal did. I can not recall the name of even one public figure from the Tamil speaking areas of Madras State who may have visited Rajahmundry or other Telugu speaking areas of Madras State. Actually, the relationship between Telugu and Tamils started deteriorating after India’s independence in 1947 and it led to the linguistic partition of India. I am proud of my Telugu heritage but I am not truly happy with the partition of the country on a linguistic basis.

Dr. R. Rudra Narasimham, B.Sc., M.B.B.S.,

C/O Shri. R. Suryanarayana Murthy, M.A., B.Ed.,

13-92 First Cross Road, Prakasam Nagar, Rajahmundry,

East Godavari District, Andhra Pradesh, India.

S.S.L.C.  MARCH 1961, Danavaipeta Municipal High School, Rajahmundry.