John Milton (1608-1674). Milton wrote many of ...
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John Milton (1608 – 1674), in his greatest poetic achievement of ‘PARADISE LOST’ describes Man’s First Disobedience of God, and the loss thereupon of Paradise wherein Man was placed. Adam, the first Man who was created in God’s image and likeness brought Death into the World. God declares that Adam and Eve could no longer abide in ‘Garden of Eden‘, the Paradise. God sends Angel Michael with a Band of Cherubim to dispossess them. Michael reveals to Adam the ‘Law of Temperance’ which could help him to live for many long years. Angel Michael also comforted Adam by assuring him that if he observes the ‘Law of Temperance’, Death would be like the gentle act of gathering a ripe fruit when fully mature.

PARADISE LOST, BOOK XI ( 520-540)  :     




In John Milton's epic poem of Paradise Lost, angel Michael explained 'The Law of Temperance' to Adam, the first created man to face the threat of death.


I yield it just, said Adam, and submit.

But is there yet no other way, besides

These painful passages, how we may come

To Death, and mix with our connatural dust ?

There is, said Michael, if thou well observe

The rule of not too much, by temperance taught

In what thou eatst and drinkst, seeking from thence

Due nourishment, not gluttonous delight,

Till many years over thy head return:

So maist thou live, till like ripe Fruit thou drop

Into thy Mother lap, or be with ease

Gathered, not harshly pluckt, for Death mature:


The essence of Temperance is choosing moderation and deliberately avoid excess. In Indian Culture, and Tradition, living in moderation and living in virtue are almost identical. Socrates suggests that one should “choose that which is orderly and sufficient and has a due provision for daily needs”. He compares the intemperate man “to a vessel full of holes, because it can never be satisfied”. Socrates describes the temperate man as able to satisfy his limited desires, whereas the intemperate man of boundless desire, can never pause in his search of pleasure. According to Freud, when “the ego learns that it must inevitably go without immediate satisfaction, postpone gratification, learn to endure a degree of pain, and altogether renounce certain sources of pleasure”, it “becomes ‘reasonable’, is no longer controlled by the pleasure-principle, but follows the reality-principle”, which seeks ” a delayed and diminished pleasure, one which is assured by its realization of fact, its relation to reality”.








Saint Thomas Aquinas and 'The Law of Temperance'.


Thomas Aquinas has defined Temperance as “a disposition of the soul, moderating any passions or acts, so as to keep them within bounds. Temperate refers to a man who abstains from bodily pleasures and delights in this very fact. A man not only acts temperately, but is temperate in character, when his desires are themselves habitually moderated to be in accord with reason. A temperate man is not pained at the absence of pleasure or by his abstinence from it. Temperance contributes the virtue of Fortitude which strengthens men against “the enticement of pleasure” as well as against the fear of pain. A man who is able to stand firm against the onslaught of pleasures is more able to remain firm against the dangers of death. And so “Temperance can be said to be Brave”. The endurance of pain is central to the nature of Courage. Temperance and Courage are not distinct virtues as both are based upon an ability to stand firm against pain and danger.


During my service in the Indian Army Medical Corps, I learned the values of Temperance, Fortitude, Courage, and delaying gratification of desires, and avoid seeking physical comforts and pleasures.


During the first nine years of my Indian Army Service, apart from taking part in the War of Liberation of Bangladesh, I had participated in a variety of Army Operations that keep the men ready and prepared for a battle. Military Training and Service can be best described as habituation for a temperate character. The nature of Army Operations and Tactics always demand overcoming the onslaught of sense pleasures and voluntarily delaying the gratification of personal desires. A life style based upon physical ease and comfort, and indulgence in food and alcohol is not compatible with the Army way of life. The nature of Army Operations is influenced by terrain, climatic conditions, distances and the availability of transportation. There is no scope to cater for physical comfort, relaxation, and entertainment. The supply of rations and food provisions is limited because of the problems of their bulk and weight. Army Rules and the Code of Conduct would emphasize that men should honor their commitment to serve more than anything else. Such commitment to Serve with Honor would only be possible only when the man in uniform lives in accordance with the Law of Temperance.

Dr. R. Rudra Narasimham,

Kurnool Medical College, Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh, India,

M.B.B.S.,  Class  of  April,  1970.


Solar System Planets.
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Full Moon has always attracted human attention. The Full Moon of Friday, December 12, 2008 is special. Moon makes a trip around Earth every 29.5 days. The orbit is elliptical; the average distance is about 238, 855 miles. The closest point of Moon’s orbit or perigee is about 221, 560 miles. The Full Moon of Friday, December 12, 2008 is special because the Moon is at its closest point of its orbit and it coincided with the Full Moon phase. This Full Moon is 14 percent bigger and 30 percent brighter than other Full Moons.
Dr. R. Rudra Narasimham, B.Sc., M.B.B.S.,
Kurnool Medical College, Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh, India,
M.B.B.S.  Class  of  April,  1970.


ca. 1940, Probably India --- Vallabhbhai Patel...
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Kindly pay homage to Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, India’s first Deputy Prime Minister who had recreated the Temple of Lord Somnath and vanquished the evil forces which visited Somnath repeatedly to utterly destroy this sacred place of Hindu worship.
Dr. R. Rudra Narasimham, B.Sc., M.B.B.S.,
Kurnool Medical College, Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh, India,
M.B.B.S. Class  of  April,  1970.




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Moon orbits Earth at an average distance of about 238, 855 miles ( 384,400 Km). Moon makes a trip around Earth every 29.5 days and rotates around his axis in the same time. Moon’s orbit around Earth is elliptical and the closest point of the orbit is called perigee. Last Friday, December 12, Moon was just 221, 560 miles ( 356, 567 Km ) away from Earth and it coincided with the Full Moon Phase. As a consequence, to viewers upon Earth, Moon appeared in the sky, 14 percent bigger and 30 percent brighter than some other Full Moons during the year.


Moon is Earth’s only natural satellite. Moon has a special place in Indian traditions, astronomy, and calendar. Indian astrologers have ranked Moon( known as ‘CHANDRA’) as a planet and He belongs to the group of ‘Nine Planets’ ( Nava Graha) and He is married to Ashwini and twenty six other known stars. He is known as ‘SOMA’ and had worshiped Lord Shiva and was given a boon that resulted in the waxing and waning phases of the Moon. Lord Shiva acquired the name of ‘SOM NATH’ which means ‘The Lord of Moon’. In addition, the crescent shaped Moon always adorns the matted hair locks of Lord Shiva.In India, the ‘Moon Day’ or ‘Monday’ is known as ‘SOM VAAR'(the day of Moon). Moon was born when the legendary Ocean of Milk was churned to extract ‘AMRIT’, the Divine Nectar of Immortality. Along with Moon, Goddess LAXMI( the Goddess of Wealth and spouse of Lord VISHNU) also arose from the Ocean of Milk and hence Lord Moon and Goddess LAXMI are considered to be siblings. Hindu festivals are mostly based upon the Lunar Calendar. There are several festivals associated with the Full Moon Day or ‘PURNIMA’. The Spring festival of ‘HOLI’ is celebrated during March(Full Moon of Phalgun). The Full Moon of December is observed as ‘DATTATREYA PURNIMA’. Other festivals include ‘BUDDHA PURNIMA’, GURU PURNIMA’, ‘VAT PURNIMA’, ‘RAKSHA BANDHAN on SHRAVAN PURNIMA’,’SHARAD PURNIMA’, and ‘KARTIK PURNIMA’.


1.Dadhi Shanka Tushaa raabham, Ksheeraarnava samudhbhavam

Namaami Sasinam Somam, Shambhor makuta bhushanam.

I respectfully greet Lord Soma, who arose from the ‘Ocean of Milk’, who adorns Lord Shiva’s head like a crown jewel, who is pure white in color and the color resembles the color of yogurt, conch shell, and snow.

2.Ksheera Saagara sampanna, Laxmi priya sahodara

Hirnya makutaabhaasawa bala Chandra namostu tey.

I respectfully greet Lord Chandra, who took His birth from the ‘Ocean of Milk’,the dear brother of Goddess LAXMI, as He rises in the sky with light emanating from His golden crown.

Dr. R. Rudra Narasimham, B.Sc., M.B.B.S.,

Kurnool Medical College, Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh, India,

M.B.B.S.  Class  of  April,  1970.




Statue of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel in front of...
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This entry is dedicated to the memory of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, India’s first Deputy Prime Minister. 


Somnath Temple is in the ‘Prabhas Kshetra’, near the seaport city of Veraval in Junagadh District, Kathiawar Peninsula of Saurashtra , on the shores of Arabian Sea,the western coast of Gujarat, India. This holy place of pilgrimage is a place of great antiquity and recent excavations there have revealed a settlement dating from about 1500 B.C. As per Indian traditions, the place is of significance as it is considered as the place from where Lord Krishna departed from this world. The presiding deity of this temple is Lord Shiva and He is known by the name of SOMNATHA or the Lord of the Moon. The present temple as it exists today is known as ‘Kailash Mahameru Prasada and is built-in CHALUKYA style of temple architecture. The site lied in a state of ruin for centuries and the decision to rebuild it was made by Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel during his visit on 13 November, 1947. The temple was inaugurated on December 1, 1951 by Dr. Rajendra Prasad, the first President of the Republic of India. He had remarked that, “The Somnath temple signifies that the power of creation is always greater than the power of destruction”. The temple symbolizes the enduring fame of Sardar Patel who during the first three years of Indian independence after 1947, had served as Deputy Prime Minister, Minister of Home Affairs, Minister of Information, and Minister of States. He was considered as practical and decisive. He was the architect of the Indian Union and his greatest contribution was the achievement of the peaceful integration of over 535 princely states into the Indian Union. The principality of Junagadh, and the princely State of Hyderabad had initially resisted the offer to join the Indian Union. Having failed in his attempts to join Pakistan, the Nawab of Junagadh fled away from the country. Mr. Bhutto,( the father of Mr. Z.A. Bhutto, who served as Pakistan’s Prime minister) acting in his capacity of the ‘DEWAN’ of the court of Junagadh, had invited Lord Mountbatten to accept the accession of Junagadh to India. In the State of Hyderabad, a militant movement called the Razakars was launched seeking independence but Sardar Patel restored peace in September 1948 and the ruler Nizam had accepted the terms of accession to the Indian Union. This part of Indian history and the integration of princely states into Indian Union has again become relevant after the enemy’s brutal attack in Mumbai which I had mentioned in my previous entry. The enemy had described himself as ‘Deccan Mujahedeen’, and the media reports indicate that the enemy had specific designs to gobble Junagadh, and Hyderabad apart from encouraging insurgency in the border State of Kashmir. The enemy’s intentions will force us to defend SOMNATH in Junagadh District which is resurrected after repeated attacks over centuries. 


Jyotirlinga Temple at Somnath is mentioned in Hindu prayers in praise and worship of Lord Shiva:"Sauraashtra dese visadeti ramye, Jyotirmayam Chandra Kalaa vatamsam, Bhakti pradaanaaya Krupaa vateernam, Tam Somanaatham Saranam prapadye."



Somnath, the confluence of three rivers, River Sarasvati, River Hiranya, River Ilanki and Kapila is mentioned in ancient Hindu Scriptures known as Rig Veda.



 Somnath finds its mention in the ancient text of RIG VEDA. It is associated with the holy names of GANGA, YAMUNA, and SARASWATI, popularly known as ‘TIRTH DHAM’ where Indians traditionally offer worship by a practice described as ‘River Worship’. The ancient river of Saraswati may have merged into the Sea at Somnath apart from smaller rivulets known by the names of Hiranya, Kapila and Ilanki. The place is extensively described as a place of pilgrimage and its importance is narrated in the ancient texts of ‘SKANDA PURANA’, ‘BHAGAVATA PURANA’, and ‘SHIVA PURANA’. Lord Shiva in His radiant form known as ‘Jyotir Linga’ resides at Twelve different places in India and Somnath is listed as the first place of residence of ‘DWADASA JYOTIR LINGA’.Tradition claims that the original Temple of Somnath was built by Lord Moon, and was later built by King Ravana of Lanka who is a central figure in the story of Indian epic poem of RAMAYANA. The SINDH area of the Indian subcontinent came under Arab conquest in 7th century A.D. The Somnath Temple built by the YADAVA kings of Vallabhi of Saurashtra around 649 A.D. was destroyed in 725 A.D. by the Arab governor of Sindh. The Pratihara King Nagabhata II rebuilt it in red stone. Between 1001 A.D. and 1027 A.D. , the road to conquest of India was prepared by Sultan Mahmud of Ghazna( modern GHAZNI in Afghanistan) who conducted more than twenty raids into North India. His raids were mainly for plunder. They revealed the wealth of India and demonstrated the vulnerability of India to military attacks. During one of his raids, in 1024 A.D. , marching across India’s Thar Desert, Mahmud of Ghazna had plundered and destroyed the Somnath Temple. The amount looted was estimated at 20 thousand, thousand ‘Dinars’. The enormous treasures found at Somnath have been a theme of wonder for all who have written on that conquest. The Paramara King of Bhoj of Malwa, Solanki King Bhima of Anhilwara/Patan between 1026 A.D. and 1042 A.D. rebuilt the Temple. By 1297/98 A.D. , Gujarat was conquered by Ala-ud-Din Khalij, Sultan of Delhi and the Temple was razed.Solanki King Kumarapala built a Temple of stone and this was destroyed again in 1394 A.D. For the last time, the Temple was destroyed in 1706 A.D by the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb and the site remained in ruins till India’s independence in 1947. The rebirth of the Temple on December 1, 1951 demonstrates the vitality of the Indian spirit. 


Saurashtra dese visadeti ramye 

Jyotirmayam, Chandra kala vatamsam 

Bhakti prada naya Krupa vatirnam 

Tam Somanatham saranam prapadye. 

Lord Somanatha is dwelling in His great splendor in the Province of Saurashtra. May this Lord Somanatha who is full of radiance, and the crescent-shaped Moon shines in His matted hair, with His extreme compassion grant me a great sense of devotion with which I would seek my protection and let Him be my refuge. 

Dr. R. Rudra Narasimham, B,Sc, M.B.B.S., 

Kurnool Medical College, Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh, India, 

M.B.B.S.,  Class  of  April,  1970.


The Gateway of India
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November 27, 2008 ( A HAPPY THANKS GIVING DAY IN THE UNITED STATES) is indeed a sad day in the lives of many people who love India and cherish its rich Culture and take pride in its noble values. It is painful to watch the beautiful landmark of Bombay engulfed in smoke and fire. We as a nation share this grief and mourn the loss of our people from an unprovoked and sudden attack. The repeated attacks on Mumbai reminds of the repeated assaults on SOMNATH Temple and the Temple was rebuilt seventeen times and we may need that kind of patience and endurance and demonstrate our resilience and frustrate our enemy.

India achieved much progress and Bombay (Mumbai) is the proud symbol of that progress and it is the natural home to people of all faiths. The presence of Parsis, Jews and other religious minority groups in Mumbai speaks about the spirit of tolerance of the city’s inhabitants. They are countless number of Muslims who are part of that rich heritage and they are part of a well-integrated society. India , a land of peace and non-violence has come under the attack of an enemy who knows no mercy and has no sense of human values. We should be united and stay determined to fight this threat. We need to be prepared for the next confrontation. Our willingness to defend ourselves is the only force that will deter our enemies.


I am particularly happy to know that the Mumbai Police had captured a terrorist alive and the terrorist was taken to the court. The details of this heinous crime have already emerged and very soon the international community would recognize that Pakistan has sponsored and has premeditated this crime against the people of India. The Mumbai Police Department took the brunt of this attack, displayed great bravery and they should be fully equipped to fight back any such future assault on innocent civilians.


Jamestji Nasarwanji Tata, the legendary founder of India’s largest industrial house built this 565-room hotel with its architecture blending Moorish, Oriental, and Florentine styles. It was built-in 1903, much before the Gateway of India was completed in 1928 to commemorate the visit of Britain’s King George V and Queen Victoria. It offers a panoramic view of the Arabian Sea and is considered to be a heritage structure. The restoration of the century-old Taj Mahal Palace could take as much as 12 months and may cost about $ 100 million.


We need to cope up with the realities of Urban Warfare. Urban centers of life have come under repeated attacks. We could easily see the sense of shock, the unspeakable amount of pain, and the heavy burden of anxiety on the faces of people, the innocent victims of this ruthless warfare. Because of the vulnerability of our borders, the enemy could sneak in and launch a surprise attack at any time. A small contingent of enemy force with assault rifles and hand grenades can inflict a large number of casualties amongst unarmed and unprepared civilians in a very short time. It needs a considerable amount of effort to flush out the enemy when the enemy is holed up in big buildings with a large civilian population. We need to immediately alert people to leave the streets and take cover in their homes and places of business should be shut down and large establishments such as hotels should have emergency plans to keep their guests until help arrives. During World War II civilians were regularly alerted by air raid warnings. We could also send the emergency warning over the radio, television and the mobile phones and the paging devices. People at Taj Mahal, Oberoi Hotel, and Nariman Place were not alerted when the enemy started his first attack at the Victoria Terminus. A city-wide alert could have helped people to barricade themselves. The streets were not safe even for police personnel if they use unprotected vehicles. It was reported that five police personnel were shot and killed when their vehicle got ambushed. People in buildings should also be warned to stay away from glass windows. Like in air raids, people would be safer if the lights are turned off. We can not negotiate with our enemies over hostages and the only option we have is to retake our land and property that comes under the enemy occupation. We need to prepare for these urban military operations and we should have personnel with proper equipment for fighting a battle in crowded cities and concrete buildings.

Our intelligence capabilities appear to be limited and we can not actually depend upon the government of Pakistan to provide us with information about groups which are training and preparing for these attacks on their soil. Amongst Muslim nations, I could expect some help from Iran which is the home of Shia faith. Iran is interested in selling its natural gas and has also taken the initiative to restore the historical monuments at Golconda, Hyderabad. Iran has the ability to penetrate the Shia groups operating from Pakistan. The recent attackers called themselves as ‘DECCAN MUJAHIDEEN’ and it may indicate that they are a Shia group. The Shia faith arrived in the Deccan region of India from Persia( the present day Iran) and the terror group is taking its orders from Pakistan and Iran is not involved in their command and control. The Parsi community which also arrived in India from Persia gave us peace and prosperity. Iran the home of Shia faith should shoulder the burden of controlling the Shia groups operating out of Pakistan.

Dr. R. Rudra Narasimham, B.Sc., M.B.B.S.,

Kurnool Medical College, Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh, India,

M.B.B.S.  Class  of  April,  1970.


The terrestrial planets: Mercury, Venus, Earth...
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The Four Fundamental Forces are working together to make possible our Earthly existence. The evidence for the united effort of the Four Fundamental Forces is the original product that has come into existence because of the interaction of physical, chemical, and biotic factors. These Fundamental Interactions generate Earth’s fragrance. The originality of this fragrance could be deemed as the evidence to describe planet Earth as a product of Creation.

Dr. R. Rudra Narasimham, B.Sc., M.B.B.S.,

Kurnool Medical College, Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh, India,

M.B.B.S.  Class  of  April,  1970.





Nature supports and sustains life through various material energies, and wind or air in motion is considered to be a vital force. The Sanskrit word ‘PRANA‘ is described as the ‘Breath of Life’ and death is generally viewed as the departure of ‘PRANA’. Wind is described in Sanskrit as ‘VAYU’, ‘PAVAN’, and ‘MARUT’. Wind is very important and it protects planet Earth from Sun’s radiation. Sun heats up the planet in an uneven manner, and the winds redistribute the heat. The importance of wind in controlling climate, rainfall, and ocean currents is well understood. Air is the source of carbon and nitrogen and hence is an important source for food synthesis. Most living organisms also depend upon oxygen to sustain their metabolic activities. The carbon based fossil fuels are derived from atmospheric carbon dioxide. Wind energy is being directly harnessed as an alternate source of energy and will play a greater role in future energy supplies.  

Several cultures across this globe recognize the importance of natural elements such as wind or air. Soul, the life principle of human beings is associated with the act of breathing. If a man is seriously wounded, is bleeding profusely, and is not breathing, the physician would first give attention to the problem of breathing and restore it before he may give attention to the bleeding wounds. If a physician had to attend upon two patients, one fully conscious, howling in terrible pain and is profusely bleeding, and the second patient who is quiet but not able to breathe on his own, the physician would give the top priority to the quiet patient who may have an obstruction in his airways and is not able to breathe on his own. Air and the act of respiration deliver the vital element oxygen to the body and then blood circulates this vital element to rest of the body and the most important organ in the body which is critically dependent upon oxygen being the brain. Compared to heart and circulation, the function of lungs and respiration are more important to human survival.  


While Wind, ‘VAYU’, ‘PAVAN’, or ‘MARUT’ are well-recognized as a life-giving force all over the world, Indians have a unique way of celebrating and showing their reverence to this natural energy. Indians all across their Land worship Lord Hanuman who is the legendary son of the Wind God Vayu. Hanuman is invariably described as the son of Wind God and in recognition of that fact He is bestowed with several names such as ‘PAVAN PUTRA’, ‘PAVAN TANAYA’, ‘PAVAN SUTA’, ‘VAYU PUTRA’, and ‘MARUT NANDAN’. When Indians think of wind or vayu, their thoughts automatically lead to Lord Hanuman whom they value for His devotional service to Lord Rama. The worship of Lord Hanuman became popular in India after the Muslim invasion and conquest of India and beginning in the 12th century A.D. several temples were constructed to worship Him. Lord Hanuman symbolizes the ‘BHAKTI MOVEMENT‘ ( DEVOTION TO THE LORD) in India and is generally viewed as the PROTECTOR and to dispel fears about enemy.    

The worship of Lord Rama could be accomplished through worship of Lord Hanuman who had rendered an excellent and devoted service to Lord Rama.

 The following verse in praise of Lord Hanuman describes His characteristics and His personality :  





Lord Hanuman is described as Lord Rama’s messenger and He is worshipped by respectfully bending the neck and touching the ground with forehead, He is praised for his ability to act with speed like the speed of ‘MIND’, for His ability to move with speed like the speed of ‘WIND’, He is self-less for He has conquered/ has full control on His organs of sense through which gratification of desires is achieved, He is Great in His ‘WISDOM’, He is the son of God ‘VAYU’ and He is an important ‘COMMANDER’ in the army of Monkeys which defeated the evil forces represented by King Ravana.  

Dr. R. Rudra Narasimham, B.Sc., M.B.B.S.,  

Kurnool Medical College, Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh, India,  

M.B.B.S.,  Class  of  April,  1970. 


John Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh, Senior Wrangl...
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Nature(Prakriti) supports and sustains life on this planet. Nature operates through five life giving forces or energies known as Sky, Earth, Wind, Water, and Fire. These five forces existed from the very beginning prior to the arrival of life forms on this planet. 


Planet Earth is a very unique and special place in the universe that we know today. Man is privileged to live under the blue sky. In popular opinion, sky is the expanse of heavens that forms an apparent arch over the Earth. The sky provides the background for the clouds, Sun, Moon, and the stars and as such they are generally viewed as a part of the sky. In spirituality, sky symbolizes the infinite universe. The story of creation in the Book of Genesis, chapter 1, verses 6, 7, and 8 describe as to how God had created an expanse above the waters of the Earth and called the expanse “sky”. Sky is viewed poetically as a solid arch or vault and is known as firmament or a strengthening support. 

In reality, this apparent enclosing dome known as the sky is caused by the Earth’s atmosphere. The sky is generated by the interaction of light and the gas molecules in the atmosphere. The dome like contour is attributable to Earth’s shape and curvature. Atmosphere( Greek -atmos means vapor) is the gaseous envelope surrounding the Earth. It is 21 % oxygen, 78 % nitrogen, and 1 % other gases. Because of Earth’s gravitational force, the gaseous atmosphere rotates with the earth. The atmosphere exerts a moderating influence upon temperature. In the absence of atmosphere, Earth would experience the extremes of temperature variations and practically life becomes impossible.The air in the atmosphere is in constant motion, with both horizontal and vertical air currents. The natural movement of air, the wind flow is very important for control of climatic conditions. The earth’s atmosphere is the environment for most of its biological activity and it also exerts a considerable influence on the ocean and lake environment. The atmosphere protects Earth’s life forms from harmful radiation and cosmic debris. The ozone layer in the upper atmosphere protects Earth from the Sun’s harmful ultraviolet rays. The moment we exit from Earth’s atmosphere and enter the outer space, we would miss seeing the beautiful blue sky. Moon has very thin atmosphere and a person standing on Moon would not be able to see the blue sky. The atmospheric conditions on Venus, Mars, and Mercury are very different from Earth and hence they can not offer the blue sky. The atmospheric conditions on other celestial bodies is not yet fully studied and very little is known and the right conditions to witness a blue sky may not exist at all in rest of the universe that we know. 


The blue color of the clear day time sky results from the selective scattering of light rays by the gas molecules, minute particles of dust and water vapor in the atmosphere. Physicist Lord Rayleigh provided the explanation for the sky color and the phenomenon is called “Rayleigh’s Scattering”. Sun’s light when it enters Earth’s atmosphere, the light rays with longer wavelengths such as the reds and yellow pass through most readily, whereas the shorter wavelengths such as the blues are scattered and are seen by the observer on the ground causing the apparent blue sky. Humans are also capable of color vision and animals that lack this ability of color vision can not appreciate sky’s blue color. The sky appears dark at night time as the level of illumination from Moon and the stars is not adequate to scatter enough blue light. Blue sky is a natural gift to people who inhabit planet Earth. 

Astronaut Alan Shepard is pictured on Moon. The Moon surface is seen illuminated. The Sky is Dark. The Sky is also Dark in the rest of the Universe. Earth is one of its own kind original celestial object with its Blue Sky.
Astronaut Edwin Buzz Aldrin, Apollo 11 Mission to Moon confirms the uniqueness of Planet Earth.
View of "Blue Planet"- Earth viewed from Lunar surface - Apollo 8 Mission, December 25, 1968- A Christmas Day Gift.


Blue is the color of the sky and blue is also associated with sea and water. Blue is the color that symbolizes the spiritual. The Egyptian God of heaven, Amon Ra and the Greek God Zeus are associated with blue color. The Nordic God Odin’s cape is blue. Virgin Mary’s cloak is blue and she has been called the Blue Lily. In the Bible, blue signifies celestial love of truth, because blue is the color of the sky and is thought to signify truth from a celestial origin, which is truth from God. Across different cultures on this planet, blue color is related to Heaven and to God. But all of those cultural beliefs outside of India are of only of academic interest as blue color is not currently used by those people to project their present religious/spiritual beliefs. 

Indian Blue Peacock and the Blue Sky


Pavo cristatus - The Indian Blue Peacock is also known as "NILA KANTHA".
Lord Shiva's transformation. As per the popularly known Story from Bhagavata Purana, Lord Shiva had swallowed an extremely dangerous poison and held it in His throat which then turned Blue. He was given the name of Neela Kantha to signify the altered color of His throat.

Indians are fascinated by the blue color of the sky to a far greater extent than anyother people upon this Earth. This fondness of blue color has become a visible feature of Hindu belief. Hindu God Vishnu, the Preserver and His popular reincarnations of Lord Rama and Lord Krishna are represented in Indian visual arts as persons with blue colored skin. Traditionally, in Indian Literature and the scriptures, these Gods are described as black in color and the blackness is described in words such as “GHANA SHYAMA”(of great black color) or “MEGHA VARNA”(the color of very dark rain bearing clouds). Bammera Potana( 1450-1510), a very famous Telugu poet had described these Gods as of black skin color. Visual artists generally tend to depict persons as described in popular literature but they made an exception and had selected the sky blue color as the color of these very popularly worshipped Gods. Blue color became the chosen medium to represent the infinite nature of the Supreme God. Today, most Indians visually identify Lord Vishnu, Lord Rama, and Lord Krishna by their sky blue skin color. 


This transformation of skin color from very black to sky blue may have happened because of the artists desire to produce a more visually appealing picture. It may have started with drawing pictures of Lord Shiva(The Changer of the Hindu Trinity) who is also popularly known as “NILA KANTHA” in Sanskrit and it specifically refers to the color of His throat which changed in its appearance when He swallowed an extremely poisonous substance and held it in His throat and protected mankind. The word “NILA” actually means black but the word also refers to a plant known as ‘NILA’ which provides a blue pigment. As plants are a common source of pigments and dyes, in common usage the word “NILA” is also described the blue color. Lord Shiva is believed to be grey in color for He would always fully cover His body by smearing it with ashes. Lord Shiva is an ascetic who has no materialistic desires. He had literally burnt down all of His desires and had reduced them to ashes and had used the ashes to cover His body to declare His victory over materialisic desires. An artist trying to draw a portrait of Lord Shiva would face a challenge as a black colored throat would not offer a visually pleasing contrast with rest of Shiva’s grey colored body. Hence, I would think that the artists had exercised their freedom to interpret the word “NILA” as blue color rather than as black color. Lord Shiva’s images showing Him with a blue colored throat had become extremely popular with Indian people. This might have given an opportunity to the artists to use the blue color for drawing images of Lord Vishnu, Lord Rama, and Lord Krishna whose skin color is often described in Sanskrit as that of ‘NILA MEGHA’ which means a very dark, black rain bearing cloud. Since the word ‘NILA’ has dual meanings, the artists interpreted it as blue color eventhough there are no blue colored clouds. It did not raise any controversy as in the popular opinion clouds are seen as part of the blue sky. The blue colored images and drawings of Lord Vishnu, Lord Rama and Lord Krishna became immensely popular all across India. However, some artists also portray Lord Krishna as a very dark black colored person. Blue and Black are the natural colors of the Sky and the same word could be used interchangeably to describe the color of the Sky. Black horses and Black Lotus flowers are also described as ‘Nila’ or ‘Neela’. 

Lord Krishna - The Sky is Blue - An Infinite God.

The blue sky on one hand represents nature’s life supporting energies and on the other hand it defines the Indian Identity and symbolizes their belief in an infinite God. 

Lord Rama - The Blue color symbolizes an Infinite God. I like the Blue color. There are many human beings with natural black or dark skin color. Blue skin color of Rama makes it easy to visualize His Divinity.

The Sky is Blue and this visual sensation is the direct evidence that man exists in a world that is created for him.

Dr. R. Rudra Narasimham, B.Sc., M.B.B.S.,

Kurnool Medical College, Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh, India,

M.B.B.S.  Class  of  April,  1970.


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The term creation refers to the beginning of things and it helps man to specify his place in the universe and serves as a basis for the orientation of man in the world. The ideas about creation impact our culture in a very significant manner and shape man’s identity.


Krishna is known from the descriptions given in the Indian epic poems of BHAGAVATA PURANA, MAHABHARATHA, and BHAGAVAD GITA(The Lord’s Song). Jayadeva( late 12th century), the author of celebrated Sanskrit poem ‘GITA GOVINDA‘( “Song of Cowherd”), described Lord Krishna‘s delightful and enchanting pastimes, His playful activities are popularly known as “RAAS LEELA”.Jayadeva used the Sanskrit word “ADBHUTA”( an amazing feat) to narrate the mystical ability of Krishna to present Himself in several different forms at one and the same time. Jayadeva’s Gita Govinda gives the readers a sense of joy and the devotional service to Lord Krishna gives a chance to experience a sense of sweetness which is called MADHURYA in the Sanskrit language.

Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu( 16 th century) established the sublime doctrine of Krishna:’simultaneously one and different’. He promoted devotion to Krishna and I would claim that ‘KRISHNA CONSCIOUSNESS’ defines my Indian Identity.


Lord Krishna is the primary cause of all material manifestations.The Sanskrit word ‘MAYA’ describes the creative energy or potency of Lord Krishna(Verse 7:25). Maya is the governing principle of the material manifestation of the universe and all that it contains. Krishna described Himself as the Supreme Lord, as the governing principle of material manifestation(Verse7:30). The creative energy works in three different levels. 1.Material creation leads to creation of the total material energy known by the Sanskrit word ‘MAHA TATVA’. 2. The creative principle enters into all the universes to create diversities in each of them. The fundamental particles that constitute matter have varying characteristics and properties.The individual variations are an attribute of a creative process. 3. The creative force is diffused as the all-pervading Supersoul in all the universes, and is known by the Sanskrit word ‘PARAMATMA’. It is present even in atoms.

The material universe is a manifestation of the energy of the Lord. All the activities of the material world are directed by the above mentioned three forms of creative energy. However, a distinction could be made between non-living matter and the living entities. It may be said that the living entities are the manifestation of superior energy as they exist by exploiting the products of the gross and subtle inferior energy that manifests as matter(Verse7:5). Krishna consciousness is active in every sphere. Earth, water, fire, air, and every active principle, all chemicals and all material elements are due to Krishna(Verse7:4). He is the origin and dissolution of all that is material and all that is spiritual in this world(Verse7:6). He is the original fragrance of this earth, He is the light in the fire, and He is the life of all that lives(Verse7:9). He is the taste of water, the light of the sun and the moon, and He is the syllable’AUM’, He is the sound in ether, and He is the ability in man(Verse7:8). He is the original seed of all existences(Verse7:10). Most interestingly, a similar claim is made in the Gospel according to John. The Book of John, chapter 1, verse 3 states, “All things were made through Him, and without Him nothing was made that was made.” The Bhagavad Gita describes Lord Krishna as the Controller, and all living entities are controlled by Him.


All states or modes of existence such as goodness, passion, and ignorance are manifestations of His energy(Verse7:12). The material nature known by the Sanskrit word ‘PRAKRITI’, and all living entities are viewed as the multienergies of Krishna. The difference lies in the quantity of energy that they contain. Energies are always controlled by the ‘Energetic’, the true source of energy. As such living entities are always controlled and they have no independent existence. While Krishna is everything, but He is independent. He is not controlled by the modes of this material nature(Verse7:12). Humans exist by drawing energy from material nature and Krishna has no such dependence. Human life is a manifestation of the creative power and energy and the existence is dependent upon the five life-giving forces contained in the material nature. Sun and moon are seen as components of sky. They control the biological rhythms of all living creatures. The energy from Sun is trapped by the plants and is converted into complex compounds by a process known as photosynthesis. Photosynthesis is also the source of stored energies such as coal, fossil fuels, and natural gas.The Earth provides all the nutrients(directly or indirectly via the mechanism of the food chains), the minerals, and the elements that are important for the structure and functioning of living entities. Water is the chief ingredient of living organisms. The act of breathing, the mechanism of respiration is an important physiological mechanism for living cells. The ability to use wind/air to a great extent defines the living process.Respiration is the process by which the cells generate energy for their activities. Fire provides the heat and energy for all metabolic activities and we exist by burning sugars and other energy providing sources. Nature( FIVE LIFE GIVING ENERGIES) supports life and it helps to bring forth new members from preexisting forms of life but can not generate new beings on its own. Life can not begin spontaneously without the intervention of a creative force/energy.


Creative power is the power that is able to bring forth new beings. Creativity is the ability to make or otherwise bring into existence something new. The single most important element in the creative process, is believed to be originality or uniqueness. Nature(FIVE LIFE GIVING ENERGIES) helps in the process of replication/reproduction and sustains life. As per the biogenetic law, a species breeds to produce its own kind. Creativity imparts that label of distinctiveness by causing individual variations. Krishna is the personification of that creative energy and the beautiful painting of ‘RAAS LEELA’ is an example of His ability to be one and different at the same time.

Dr. R. Rudra Narasimham, B.Sc., M.B.B.S.,

Kurnool Medical College, Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh, India,

M.B.B.S.  Class  of  April,  1970.