WHOLE DUDE – WHOLE PUNISHMENT

Posted on Updated on

REBBAPRAGADA SUBBARAO (1893-1948), LAWYER, POET, SPORTSMAN, DISTINGUISHED CITIZEN OF RAJAHMUNDRY

This entry is dedicated to the memory of my grandfather, Shri.Rebbapragada Subbarao, who had served the British Crown as a Public Prosecutor at East Godavari District Sessions Court in Rajahmundry for two terms from 1940. He had never hesitated in seeking the capital punishment when he had prosecuted criminals for the offense of murder. I was not fortunate enough to witness his performance as a Public Prosecutor but my grandmother had shared information about his stellar qualities and his great reputation. While I grew up in Rajahmundry, during a school field trip, I had visited the Central Jail in Rajahmundry where the death sentence is carried out by hanging. My impression from that trip was that the death sentence is appropriate and is not cruel. This entry is an effort to understand my grandfather’s support for capital punishment.

THE RIGHT TO LIFE :

Human beings everywhere demand the realization of diverse values to ensure their individual and collective well-being. A fundamental value that is universally claimed by all people is that of the Right to Life. Thomas Jefferson had asserted that his countrymen were a “free people claiming their rights as derived from the laws of nature and not as the gift of their Chief Magistrate.” In the Declaration of Independence proclaimed on July 4, 1776, he had eloquently said that ” We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by the Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among them are Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness.” The basic principle of the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen(1789) was that “all men are born free and equal in rights,” which were specified as the rights of Liberty, Private Property, the INVIOLABILITY of the person, and resistance to oppression. It specifically states that Liberty consists in being able to do anything that does not harm others: thus the exercise of the natural rights of every human has no bounds other than those that ensure to the other members of society the enjoyment of these same rights.

THE REASON FOR PUNISHMENT :

A Right which is not protected is not a Right and a Law without penalty attached is not a Law. If the Constitution declares a ‘Right to Life’ and if Moses proclaims the divine law that commands that “You shall not murder“(The Book of Exodus 20:13, and The Book of Deuteronomy 5:17), if there is no penalty attached, these words would be vain words.

A penalty is imposed as a consequence to an act of wrongdoing. Punishment is generally conceived as the infliction of pain. Why men should be punished is one of the most controversial questions in the field of moral and political thought, and in psychology and theology as well. There are three major types of wrongdoing in relation to which men discuss the nature and the need of punishment, its justice or its expediency. Punishment is traditionally considered in relation to, evil or wicked actions, violations of law, and sin. Murder is an act which simultaneously violates the moral, the civil and the divine law.

THE PURPOSE OF PUNISHMENT :

The question about the purpose of punishment critically tests the meaning of anyone’s theory of Law and Justice. The purpose of punishment will affect the penalties to be imposed for wrongdoing. Some people think that punishment need only be inherently just and others think that punishment cannot be justified without reference to its utility or expediency. The purpose of punishment could be described under three different categories :

1. Punishment should be justified only by its consequences.

2. Punishment should be a combination of awarding a just penalty and securing good effects.

3. Punishment should be a just retaliation exclusively.

THE UTILITARIAN THEORY OF PUNISHMENT :

This view is based upon the idea that punishment should not be equal to revenge or an act of hostility. A punishment is an evil inflicted by public authority on those who have transgressed the law so that the will of men may be better disposed to obedience. The chief aim of punishment is securing the reformation and the deterrence of criminals and to maintain public peace. The Court does not exist for punishment only but also for the salvation of the criminal. The spirit and meaning of punishment is seen as the salvation and the reformation of the wrongdoer.

According to Socrates, “to suffer punishment is another name for being justly corrected when you do wrong,” and he “who is punished and suffers retribution, suffers justly.” He believed that justice is restored to the soul of the wrongdoer. “The proper office of punishment is two-fold; he who is rightly punished ought either to become better and profit by it or he ought to be made an example to his fellows, that they may see what he suffers, and fear and become better.”

Plato had implied that virtue could be taught. “He who desires to inflict rational punishment does not retaliate for a past wrong which cannot be undone.” He punishes for the sake of prevention. Plato thought that the death penalty should be imposed only on the incurable who cannot profit from an example to other men not to offend.

Hobbes places the reason for punishment in the future rather than in the past in its utility to procure certain effects rather than retaliation. “Men look not at the greatness of the evil past, but the greatness of the good to follow.” We are forbidden to inflict punishment with any other design than for the correction of the offender, or the direction of others.

Locke derives from natural law the right to punish those who transgress that law and to restrain and prevent the like offence.

Rousseau lays great emphasis on the reformation of the criminal. “There is not a single ill-doer who could not be turned to some good. The State has no right to put to death, even for the sake of making an example, anyone whom it can leave alive without danger.”

THE RETRIBUTIVE PURPOSE OF PUNISHMENT :

Kant and Hegel viewed that retribution or retaliation is the only basis for punishment. Punishment should be purely retributive and it need not serve some end beyond itself and need not produce some desired consequence in the future. We should punish only because we have, under the moral law, a duty to do so. The purpose of punishment is to uphold the moral law.

The effect of the punishment upon the wrongdoer or upon others whose conduct may be affected by punishments meted out, must not be taken into account at all. Punishment of the transgressor may heal the feelings of those he has injured and it may even satisfy a desire for revenge, but those factors should have no motivating force. Nothing should be sought except the preservation of the balance sheet of justice. Every wrong is duly requited by a proportionate measure of punishment. It should not consider any person except the wrongdoer himself.

According to Kant, “Judicial punishment can never be administered merely as a
means of promoting another good, either with regard to the Criminal himself, or to Civil Society, but must in all cases be imposed only because the individual on whom it is inflicted has committed a Crime…….The Penal Law is a Categorical Imperative.”Punishment cannot be justified except as doing the work of Justice.

THE RIGHT OF RETALIATION( ius talionis ) ;

Kant says that ” It is just the Principle of Equality by which the pointer Scale of Justice is made to incline no more to one side than the other; It may be rendered by saying that the undeserved evil which anyone commits on another, is to be regarded as perpetrated on himself…….This is the Right of Retaliation; and properly understood it is the only principle which can definitely assign both the quality and the quantity of a just penalty. All other standards are wavering and uncertain; and on account of other considerations involved in them, they contain no principle conformable to the sentence of pure and strict Justice.” Retributive Punishment or retaliation seems to express the principle of justice or fairness in exchange.

A LIFE FOR LIFE ( lex talionis ) :

A Life for Life is the symbolic statement in the Greek as well as the Hebrew tradition. “Who so’er shall take the sword, shall perish by the sword.” Retribution is not revenge. It is the righting of wrong. It is the very act of crime itself which vindicates itself.

The gravity of the offense is the only determinant of the severity of the punishment. The punishment should fit the crime, not the nature of the criminal as someone capable of being benefitted by punishment. Kant and Hegel do not think that the justification of the death penalty depends upon the curability or incurability of the offender. The taking of the criminal’s life need not be motivated by a desire to protect society from his future depredations. It is sufficient that he has taken a life and it should be repaid by a proportionate requital.

“Whoever sheds the blood of man,

by man shall his blood be shed:

for in the image of God

has God made man. ” (The Book of Genesis, chapter 9, verse 6)

The reason murderers deserved the death penalty was the supreme value of human life. To destroy human life is to attack the image of God, and therefore God demands an accounting.

Murder could be described as a sin, as a crime and as a vice. The Criminal gives his consent for Capital Punishment by his very act.

Dr. R. Rudra Narasimham, B.Sc., M.B.B.S.,

Kurnool Medical College, Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh, India,

M.B.B.S.  Class  of  April,  1970.

Advertisements

SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE – WHOLE MEASUREMENT

Posted on Updated on

Eagle
Image by patries71 via Flickr

25th INDEPENDENCE ANNIVERSARY MEDAL – 1972 

INDIAN INDEPENDENCE – A MEASURE OF MY LIFE 

I record major events of my life in relation to India’s independence on August 15, 1947. The Father of the Nation, Mahatma Gandhi was assasinated on January 30, 1948 and my life’s journey became associated with the story of this young nation. 

25th INDEPENDENCE ANNIVERSARY MEDAL 

This medal was awarded to commemorate the twenty-fifth anniversary of Indian independence in 1972. The medal was awarded to all members of the armed forces, paramilitary forces, and police forces who were serving on 15 August 1972. This medal gives me an opportunity to remember the twenty-fifth year of my life. I was then serving in Indian Army in the rank of a Captain and was posted at a unit located in the North-East Frontier Agency which is now known as the State of Arunachal Pradesh. We all had a very good reason to rejoice on that day. India had scored a major victory in the Indo-Pak War of 1971 and we took pride in the fact that we had a role in shaping that epic event in India’s military history.

OPERATION EAGLE 1971 – CHITTAGONG HILL TRACTS – LIBERATION WAR OF BANGLADESH :

OPERATION EAGLE 1971-1972. THE MILITARY VICTORY IN CHITTAGONG HILL TRACTS-THE CELEBRATION OF 25th INDEPENDENCE ANNIVERSARY

  

Operation Eagle 1971,the Indo-Pak War of 1971 and the Birth of Bangladesh are very significant achievements of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. As I was then serving in an Establishment under the Cabinet Secretariat, I had direct and personal understanding of her Foreign Policy Initiatives. She had personally approved our military Operation in Chittagong Hill Tracts. In the conduct of this War, we had faced a very critical moment and it needed her personal intervention and a decision that she alone could make. I rendered my services and had overcome the challenge posed by that critical situation. The importance of this situation could be understood as it needed an intervention from the Prime Minister. I am now asking the Government of India to recognize my GALLANT response in enemy's territory without any concern for my personal safety.

 

Lieutenant Governor of Andaman & Nicobar Islands(December 1985 to December 1989) - Lieutenant General(Retd) TS Oberoi, PVSM, VrC., former General Officer Commanding-in-Chief, Headquarters Southern Command, Pune, former Inspector General, Special Frontier Force, former Commandant, Headquarters Establishment No. 22. He is the tall person in this photo wearing dark brown turban. I knew him since 1971. Under his able leadership, the Liberation of Bangladesh had commenced in the year 1971 during the Indo-Pak War.Apart from his military wisdom, he took a good care of all men under his Command. While I was proceeding to Chittagong Hill Tracts, he had individually greeted all the members of my team and had delayed the departure of aircraft to make sure that a hot breakfast was served to all the men boarding the aircraft. He paid personal attention to all the aspects of the military mission to secure the well-being of men apart from achieving success in accomplishing the military task. The sense of warmth he radiated is easily felt when we meet him in person. His grandson provided me the link to this photo. Photo Credit - Trishna-Ajay-Picasa Web Album.
The remarks made by Lieutenant Colonel B K Narayan of Special Frontier Force on May 13, 1972 in my Annual Confidential Report for 1971-72 are as follows:"A very conscientious and Tough MO who worked hard during the Bangladesh OPs. He did very well and showed Maturity which was beyond the call of duty. I have recommended this Officer for a gallantry award for which he deserves eminently. He is physically Tough and cheerful. Is a fresh entrant with less than 2 years of Service and yet he displayed capability and confidence.
OPERATION EAGLE 1971-72-Remarks of Former Inspector General of Special Frontier Force, Lieutenant General T S Oberoi, PVSM, VrC, General Officer Commanding-in-Chief,Headquarters Southern Command Pune 411001.He had remarked about my participation in the Indo-Pak War of 1971.

Dr. R. R. Narasimham, B.Sc., M.B.B.S.,

Ex Number – MR-03277K Major AMC/DPC

MS-8466 Captain AMC/SSC

Medical Officer South Column Operation Eagle

Headquarters Establishment No. 22  C/O  56  APO

WHOLE DUDE – WHOLE DEPENDENCE

Posted on Updated on

Cut and edited from Image:MiddleEast.png, in t...
Image via Wikipedia

UNITED STATES IMPORTS 45 PERCENT OF ITS OIL FROM THE MIDDLE EAST AND AFRICA

As the gas prices across the United States hit record high levels, I am not concerned about the United States’ dependence upon oil from the Middle East. If the United States is not willing to buy its oil from the Middle East, China is in a position to gobble it up. The position of the United States as a global superpower is dependent upon its level of oil consumption. If and when China steps in to dominate the oil market, it would proportionately increase its military supremacy and we would witness the Chinese war ships patrolling the Persian Gulf.

United States may forego its need for Middle East oil, but could it step back from its role to provide peace and stability in that region ???

Dr. R. Rudra Narasimham, B.Sc., M.B.B.S.,

Ex – Number XSCO – 324 CAPTAIN/NAQEEB FORCE MEDICAL SERVICES

Headquarters Sultanate of Oman’s Land Forces,

Muaskar Al Murtafaa, MAM, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman.

WHOLE DUDE – WHOLE CONQUEST

Posted on Updated on

Godavari Arch Bridge. Image taken using my Ace...
Image via Wikipedia

GENERAL SIR ARTHUR THOMAS COTTON(b. MAY 15, 1803, WOOD COTE, OXFORD SHIRE, ENGLAND. _ d. JULY 14, 1899, DORKING, SURREY, ENGLAND.)

“OH, EAST IS EAST, AND WEST IS WEST,

AND NEVER THE TWAIN SHALL MEET.”

A BARRIER THAT CONQUERED THE EAST-WEST BARRIER

There could be social and cultural barriers between humans but those man-made barriers could be conquered by people who are dedicated to serving the humanity. Sometimes, a man-made barrier can bridge that cultural divide and could bring people together. A barrage is described as a man-made barrier in a stream or a river. By constructing barrages, Sir Arthur Thomas Cotton had shown that public service could help people to love one another.

Sir Arthur Cotton is popularly known as “Irrigation Cotton” or “Cotton Dora”(Cotton the Noble). In 1821, at the very young age of 18, he had arrived in India and was appointed to service with the Madras Engineers. He had served in the First Burmese War(1824-26). The military Corps of Engineers also undertake civilian construction projects. Cotton became responsible for greatest civil engineering projects of his time. He had worked in the face of stiff opposition, discouragement and criticism from the Madras government. In 1828, by constructing barrages across river Cauvery, he had transformed the drought-stricken Tanjore district into the richest part of the State of Madras.In 1838, he had designed and built sea defenses for Visakhapatnam.In 1847-52, he had masterminded the Godavari delta project. He had constructed Asia’s largest barrage across river Godavari a few miles south of Rajahmundry, my native place. This masonry dam is 2.25 mile (3,500 metres)long and is 12 feet high. It helped to irrigate 720,000 acres of land and created 500 mile long navigable channels connecting Godavari delta with the port of Kakinada. He was responsible for bringing prosperity to the farmers of the Godavari delta region. He was elevated to the post of Chief Engineer of the Madras Presidency. He had retired from government service in 1862 and in 1876 he was knighted. His name is much honored to this day and the spirit of public service he had displayed is still remembered with love and admiration.

Dr. R. Rudra Narasimham, B.Sc., M.B.B.S.,

Kurnool Medical College, Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh, India,

M.B.B.S.  Class  of  April,  1970.

WHOLE DUDE – WHOLE LITERATURE

Posted on Updated on

Rabindranath Tagore won the Nobel prize for li...
Image via Wikipedia
 
 
SARAT CHANDRA CHATTERJEE( CHATTOPADHYAY), SEPT 15, 1876 – JAN 16, 1938

I belong to Rajahmundry where Kandukuri Veeresalingam had written the first novel ever written in Telugu language. However, it was ‘ SARAT BABU’ who had first provoked my interest in reading Telugu literature. Sarat Babu , the famous novelist had written in Bengali language but fortunately his books are translated into Telugu language and while I grew up in Rajahmundry, his novels were extremely popular and had quickly aroused my curiosity. In 1953 the Telugu film ‘DEVADASU’ with Akkineni Nageswara Rao( A N R ) in the lead role was released and the songs from that film though not written by Sarat Babu also became very popular. It was not the popularity of this film which had drawn me towards the novels written by Sarat Babu. I had actually started reading his translated stories a few years later after joining Danavaipeta Municipal High School. I was attracted by his powerful narrative style and the portrayal of the characters in his stories. I know Telugu people who learned Bengali language just to get the pleasure of reading Sarat Babu’s original works. I also know some of my friends who acquired their names from Sarat Babu. I should acknowledge the fact that his novels gave me the impetus to develop the habit of reading books. While Telugu people could embrace and adore a Bengali novelist, I have not witnessed any love for Tamil writers. While I attended Danavaipeta Municipal High School in Rajahmundry, I learned about ‘TIRUKKURAL’ and was not introduced to any other Tamil literature.

THE TELUGU-TAMIL DIVIDE :

Since Mylapore, Madras is my birth place, I grew up with a sense of fondness for that City and during 1950s I had visited Madras several times as my maternal grand parents still lived there. But, in Rajahmundry, my native place, I could not experience any sense of connectedness with Madras even though Rajahmundry was part of the then State of Madras. At Rajahmundry I got connected to the nation and much of it was inspired by the writers and thinkers of Bengal. In the beginning of 20th century, Bengal had shaped our sentiments and had exerted a great influence. I am not surprised that ‘VANDE MATARAM’ is our National Song and ‘JANA GANA MANA‘ is our National Anthem and the honour goes to Bengal. Unfortunately, Madras apart from being the State Capital could not excite Telugu peoples’ hearts in the way Bengal did. I can not recall the name of even one public figure from the Tamil speaking areas of Madras State who may have visited Rajahmundry or other Telugu speaking areas of Madras State. Actually, the relationship between Telugu and Tamils started deteriorating after India’s independence in 1947 and it led to the linguistic partition of India. I am proud of my Telugu heritage but I am not truly happy with the partition of the country on a linguistic basis.

Dr. R. Rudra Narasimham, B.Sc., M.B.B.S.,

C/O Shri. R. Suryanarayana Murthy, M.A., B.Ed.,

13-92 First Cross Road, Prakasam Nagar, Rajahmundry,

East Godavari District, Andhra Pradesh, India.

S.S.L.C.  MARCH 1961, Danavaipeta Municipal High School, Rajahmundry.   

  

 

WHOLE DUDE – WHOLE EMPTINESS

Posted on Updated on

Emblem of Tibet, used by the Tibetan Governmen...
Image via Wikipedia

 

>

 

 

THE SPIRITS OF SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE WELCOME HIS HOLINESS THE DALAI LAMA TO ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN.
THE SPIRITS OF SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE WELCOME HIS HOLINESS THE DALAI LAMA TO ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN.

His Holiness, The 14th Dalai Lama spoke on “Engaging Wisdom and Compassion” on April 19-20, 2008 at Crisler Arena, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.

 

The concept of ‘Sunyata‘(Emptiness or Nothingness) :

 

The emptying of the mind and the attainment of an undifferentiated unity is a theme of the ‘Sunyata’ doctrine developed by Acharya Nagarjuna. ‘Sunyata’ can be stated as a state of “pure consciousness” in which the mind has been emptied of all particular objects and images. The emptied mind reflects or manifests the undifferentiated reality in which the world appears without distinction and multiplicity.

 

H.H. Dalai Lama‘s presentation :

 

“At the root of all our suffering lies a form of ignorance, a form of unknowing”. The origin of suffering is attachment. “Self-grasping( or self-focus) gives rise to suffering. It is the root of all afflictions”. “Self-grasping” leads to attachment to impermanent things or thoughts which gives rise to suffering. Emptiness is created by casting aside the attachment to everyday things and worries.

 

H.H. Dalai Lama advised practicing loving kindness to eliminate the afflictions caused by attachment. The goal, he said is,”Cultivating the Wisdom of no self”, a sense of grand emptiness that leaves behind everyday pollutants that can take both physical or emotional form.

 

THE SPIRITS OF SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE:

 

Special Frontier Force is a multinational defense plan to defend freedom and democracy in the occupied Land of Tibet. I had emptied my mind of all desires. The Spirits that inhabit my Consciousness seek Freedom in their Land of origin.

 

 

http://www.facebook.com/pages/The-Spirits-of-Special-Frontier-Force/362056613878227

 

Rudra N Rebbapragada

Ann Arbor, Michigan, U.S.A.

 

 

Service Number: MS-8466/MR-03277K; Rank: Lieutenant/Captain/Major

 

Branch: Army Medical Corps/Short Service Regular Commission/Direct Permanent Commission(1969-1984)

 

Medical Officer, South Column, Operation Eagle(1971-1972)

 

Headquarters Establishment No. 22  C/O  56  APO.

 

Organization: Special Frontier Force

 

English: 14th Dalai Lama, Dharasmala, India
14th Dalai Lama, Dharamsala  India (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

 

 

WHOLE DUDE – WHOLE SATISFACTION

Posted on Updated on

"Shri Surya Bhagvan," bazaar art, c....
Image via Wikipedia

Prince Dharmaraj, the eldest of the Pandavas receiving the divine gift from the Sun god, Surya Bhagwan

The word Akshya Paatra in Sanskrit language means a pot or vessel which can supply in an endless manner, a inexhaustible vessel. As per the legend that appears in the Indian Epic of Mahabharata, Akshya Paatra was a divine gift. It could feed and gratify the physical senses of people in an endless manner.

I am speaking of this story about Akshya Paatra to understand the concept about emptying the mind to discover pure consciousness which is associated with the experience called Joy, Bliss, or Happiness. In the story, Lord Krishna did not choose to provide happiness through gratification of the physical needs of the body. Akshaya Paatra was totally empty and there was nothing left in the pot to feed the guests after Lord Krishna had consumed the last leftover grain at the bottom of the pot. He demonstrated that He could provide gratification and joy while the Pot was empty and had nothing to cater for the physical needs of people.

Dr. R. Rudra Narasimham, B.Sc., M.B.B.S.,

Kurnool Medical College, Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh, India,

M.B.B.S.  Class  of  April, 1970.