SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE – WHOLE LINGUISTICS – WHOLE LANGUAGE:
Language is the means by which human beings, as members of a social group and participants in its culture, communicate. Language is the peculiar possession of human beings. Human Speech(spoken and written) is the criteria by which we can easily recognize the difference that exists between man and other species. In this article I want to inform my readers that there is a requirement to develop what I name as “Whole Linguistics”, and “Whole Language” to understand the nature of Human Life and Human Existence.
I want to define “Whole Language” as the particular form or manner of selecting and combining words characteristic of a “Whole Man”, “Whole Person”, or “Whole Dude.” It is a style of expression in words to explain and account for Human Life and Human Existence which does not depend upon the ability to attach meanings to the words and languages man uses. The structure and properties of human language do not formulate the basis for man’s biological existence. Linguistics which is described as the Science of Language includes phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, and semantics. Linguistics is sometimes subdivided into Descriptive, Historical, Comparative, Theoretical, Applied, and Geographical Linguistics. Since Linguistics is concerned with Language it has to include the study of vocalized human speech, human writing, human reading, and human sensory perception of sounds and their interpretation. In proposing to use the phrase “Whole Linguistics”, I am visualizing the existence of three entities, 1. A Language User, 2. A Language Interpreter, and 3. A Language Creator. It introduces a concept about the Creative Beginning of man and his Language.
Dr. Bertrand Russell developed the system of Language Analysis called “Logical Atomism.” In his opinion, Language can be analyzed in terms of fixed, irreducible units or elements or an “Atom” of Language. Russell thinks that there can be a perfect one-to-one correspondence existing between an “Atom of Language”(an “Atomic Proposition”) and an “Atomic Fact.” An Atomic Proposition is a term that asserts that a certain thing has a certain quality. An Atomic Fact is the simplest kind of fact and consists in the possession of a certain quality by some specific individual thing. According to Russell, for Language to mirror reality it can be proposed that the world is composed of facts that are utterly simple and comprehensible. He used ‘Atomic Propositions’ as the building blocks from which logical connectives, the more complex “Molecular Propositions” are constructed. To apply Russell’s Theory of “Logical Atomism” to explain the nature of Human Life and Human Existence, I encounter several problems. What is that ‘Atomic Proposition’, or ‘Atomic Fact’ that can describe man as a specific, individual thing? How is the Identity of Human Individual is established in multicellular human organism? Who is that specific, individual thing for whose benefit all the trillions of individual, living cells exist? If man is known as a specific, individual thing, how do these trillions of individual cells recognize his Identity? Russell demands that concepts must be clarified in both everyday and scientific Language. In his view, all genuine knowledge about man and nature can be expressed in a single Language common to all the Sciences. Semantics is the branch of Linguistics concerned with the nature, the structure and the development and changes of the meanings of speech forms or with contextual meaning. I want to use the phrase “Whole Semantics” to describe the relationship between the Language User who uses words, phrases, concepts, feelings, (and etc., associated with them) and the mind of the Language Interpreter whom I identify as “Whole Person”, “Whole Man”, or “Whole Dude.” By combining words, by coining new phrases, I am able to describe an original term whose meaning or explanation could be missing if the original term is used as such. For example, by using the phrase ‘Whole Person, ‘Whole Man’, or ‘Whole Dude’ I will be able to account for all the dimensions of Human Life, and Human Existence. The term ‘man’ when used alone could be interpreted by each reader in slightly differing manners based upon their individual mental makeups. By using the phrase such as ‘Whole Man’, I am alerting the reader to interpret its meaning considering the various possibilities, the various dimensions to life such as a physical dimension( age, sex, color, race, ethnicity, and country of origin), a mental dimension described by his thoughts and feelings, a social dimension described by the language he uses, his religion, his social position, education, occupation, and his culture, his moral dimension that includes his perceptions about right and wrong, his spiritual dimension that may account for his existence as a created being, one of its own kind, and distinctive that makes him an Individual with Individuality.
WHOLE VOCABULARY – WHOLE LINGUISTICS – WHOLE LANGUAGE:
Language represents a very complex series of events. These events take place in many planes of experience; 1. Physical(the sound waves), 2. Chemical( the body Chemistry), 3. Physiological(the movements of nerve impulses and of the various muscles and structures involved in articulation or generation of sounds), 4. Psychological(the reaction to stimuli), 5. General Cultural(the situation of the speaker in respect to the cultural system of his society), 6. Linguistic( the Language being spoken), and 7. Semantic( its meaning). Vocabulary is a list of words and often phrases, abbreviations, inflectional forms, and etc., arranged in alphabetical order and defined as in a dictionary or glossary. I would use the phrase “Whole Vocabulary” to explain the concept that the human body does not use Human Language to perform its functions at the level of individual cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems that comprise the human body. Human organism interacts with its constituent cells, tissues, and organs all the time using chemical molecules to send signals.
To understand the Language that human body uses to perform its myriad living functions, we need to learn about chemical molecules that act as major communicators. The Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate(cAMP) is a major communicator molecule in cells. cAMP controls many important functions in the cell including the ability of the cell to generate electrical impulses. It is often called “Second Messenger” and it activates Inactive Protein Kinase, and the Active Protein Kinase then triggers responses of target cells or structures by activating enzymes, stimulating cellular secretion, opening ion channels, and etc., Cyclic Monophosphate mononucleotide of Adenosine or cAMP is formed from Adenosine Triphosphate or ATP by the catalytic action of the enzyme Adenylyl Cyclase. cAMP is responsible for the intracellular mediation of hormonal effects on various cellular processes such as lipid metabolism, membrane transport and cell proliferation.
I am stating that I cannot issue verbal commands to my human body and direct it to perform according to my choice or desires. In the entire human Vocabulary there is no word or phrase that man can use to communicate with the cells, tissues, and organs of his own body. Language can be used to describe living functions such as ‘Metabolism’ but Life and Existence is not about the ability to attach meanings to words or the ability called Language Arts. Russell held the view that it is possible to infer something about the world from the Language in which it is correctly described. He further directed that Language must be used to state its minimum requirements and avoid the use of descriptive phrases which may postulate the existence of objects. Russell finds it very easy and convenient to formulate his opinion and conclude that a ‘Proposition’ is a picture of the facts that it asserts and must have in a sense the same structure. He stressed the importance of similarity of structure as a criterion in inferring causal relationships. He endorsed the application of rationality to all aspects of thought and Language. Humans have the distinctive ability to use Language and yet there is no similarity of structure in the Language used for human communication and the structure of chemical molecules involved in communications between cells, tissues, and organs of his own body. To account for Human Life and Human Existence, I need to overcome the linguistic barriers placed by Russell. To establish the existence of man as a ‘speaking animal’, I would use the concept of ‘Whole Devotion’, a valid method of inquiry that can be guided and controlled by ‘Love’ which acts as the Fundamental Force that operates Human Life and Human Existence and makes it a Subjective and Objective Reality that can be experienced. In times of crisis, when man finds challenges to his life and existence, man may not be able to make use of his knowledge and wisdom and effectively communicate with his body to alter or correct the problems of his structural and functional organization. However, human Language can be used for a system of communication called ‘PRAYER’ and the hope that the communication called ‘Prayer’ will be received gives man the choice to survive tough times with a sense of peace and tranquility which could provide comfort and reassurance.
SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE – THE ORIGIN OF HUMAN SPECIES:
The appearance of the Human Species about 8,000 to 10,000 years ago cannot be explained as a natural event and it cannot be accounted for by The Law of Natural Generation. There are two important principles involved; 1. The Biogenetic Law which stipulates that living organisms are generated only by living organisms, and 2. The Law of Natural Generation that states that offspring will always be of the same Species as the parent Species. In my view, the Origin of Human Species as a new form of life cannot be explained by the operation of natural causes. At the same time, I would like to respectfully avoid the term “Supernatural”, and would rather prefer to use the term “creative” to explain the Origin of Human Species and account for the Special Form of Man.
THE NATURAL HISTORY OF MAN:
During the Period of the Great Ice Age or Pleistocene, continental glaciers covered much of N. North America, and NW Europe. The Holocene Epoch or Series which started approximately 10,000 years ago began to witness a change in Earth’s surface. The continental glaciers are now restricted to Antarctica and Greenland. It was not a cataclysmic change with consequences for the survival of life. The climatic change has actually helped the development and spread of modern human culture. It is indeed very surprising to note that this improvement in Earth’s surface and climate was accompanied by the extinction of giant mammals and the disappearance of a large variety of the Hominid Species.
To trace the Origin of the Human Species, we may take a look at the different Hominid Species and the time periods during which they existed.
Comparative Anatomy is used by the evolutionary biologists as evidence to prove the origin of a new form of life from a previously existing form of life. However, the Human Species has a special form and the use of Comparative Anatomy may actually demolish the Theory of Evolution.
None of these Hominid Species could be considered as the intermediate link or intermediate species from which the Human Species has arrived. The precise physical form of man has special features and it has to be explained if there is a connection between the Origin of the Human Species and of other Hominid Species. Comparative Anatomy makes the explanation of Man’s Evolution a very controversial subject.
THE ORIGIN OF THE SPECIAL FORM OF MAN:
In my view, there is no extinct or living Species that can bridge the gap between the Human Species and its nearest Hominid allies. About, 10,000 years ago, Earth’s surface had changed. The land area covered by Ice has steadily decreased; in Upper Pleistocene about 28 percent land area was covered by Ice and in Holocene, only about 10 percent land area is covered by ice. The warming of the climate has increased the area of habitation available to the various Hominid Species. Environmental conditions are entirely favorable to the survival of all the Hominid Species. If Darwin’s Theory of Evolution is a valid theory, we must witness the simultaneous co-existence of all intermediate varieties that may have progressed through incremental changes leading to the Origin of the Human Species. There was no geological catastrophe, it is relatively easy to adapt to the changed environment, food supply is adequate and particularly the Hominid Species were not preying upon one another in their struggle for existence. Actually, Darwin’s view on blending of hereditary factors is not supported by Gregor Mendel’s classic experiments in hybridization. According to Mendel, Inheritance is particulate and his theory is fully validated. Distinct genetic factors combine to produce a certain somatic result without causing the loss of separate identities carried by specific genes. The genetic factors can therefore be assorted and enter into new genetic combinations in the next generation. There is no evidence to suggest that the new Human Species has arrived because of some abrupt mutations in a single generation of any particular Hominid Species. It may be noted that Darwin’s Theory claims that new species originate through natural processes of Heredity and Selection. The Natural Laws of Heredity, and the natural process named Natural Selection are not sufficient for the production of the new Human Species that replaced all other Hominid Species that survived until Middle and Upper Pleistocene.
SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE – MAN IS A SPIRITUAL BEING:
In my view, Soul or Spirit is the divine attribute of a material substance that Science describes as Protoplasm, Cytoplasm, or Cytosol, the Living Matter found in all living entities.The method called scientific inquiry is limited to observations or statements that can be further verified. The reality of Soul or Spirit when defined as the vital, animating, Life principle of all living things can be verified using scientific inquiry. There is a fundamental dualism between matter and matter. A distinction can be made between living and non-living, or animate and inanimate matter. In Natural Science, matter is defined as a thing that has Mass and hence it occupies Space. While Matter has physical dimensions such as weight, and volume, it has an immaterial dimension for it has attributes such as being immutable, and imperishable. In Classical Physics, certain quantities are always conserved and the Fundamental Law of Conservation claims that Mass and Energy are neither created nor destroyed. It should not be of any surprise to note that Living Matter is associated with Soul or Spirit that is neither created nor destroyed and it is unborn. The presence of Soul or Spirit is revealed in the primary biological characteristics of living matter, material, or substance and these are the power of Nutrition, Sensibility, Consciousness, and Intelligence(the ability to acquire information, process information, use information, store information, and perform tasks that involve the use of information). We can easily make a distinction between a stone and Amoeba proteus. It is easy to understand Soul and Spirit as an operating principle that is present in all living things.
THE DUALISM OF SOUL:
Indian philosopher Madhvacharya made a distinction between Soul and Soul or he described the dualism of Soul. He made the distinction between the Divine Soul and the Human Soul. The physical reality of Human Existence can be explained as the Unity between the Human Soul and the Divine Soul while both may not be identical or the same. In a complex, multicellular organism like the human being, each independent living cell has the operating principle soul, and the Individual who exists because of the functions performed by the trillions of individual cells has a Human Soul or Spirit. To establish the physical reality of man’s existence, the cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems have to work together and it demands the operation of a central, coordinating, or controlling structure. In man, such a structure exists and is found in the Reticular Formation of the Brain Stem. The term Death, departure of Soul, or Spirit is medically documented as the cessation of functions of the Brain Stem and is often called Brain Death while the rest of the body will experience death as a consequence of the Brain Death.
THE STAGES OF HUMAN EXISTENCE – LIFE, DEATH, AND REBIRTH:
While the Life of the Individual can be objectively recognized, the continuity of this Human Soul or Spirit that is involved in establishing the Life of the Individual is not amenable for proper scientific scrutiny. If this Human Soul or Spirit has independent existence of its own when not associated with its human body, or the fact of Human Soul’s independent existence cannot be observed by scientific method. It is known that everything that is born in this world arrives as a newly created object, and in case of man, the genome that defines him has not existed in the past, and will not again exist in the future. However, the genome defines the human physical form and the Human Soul or Spirit is not concerned about the human physical form. The genome or DNA has no ability to exist on its own and is never independent. The genome or DNA works if its functions are supported by the Life operating principle called Soul or Spirit that belongs to the living matter found inside the living cell. The issue of rebirth, reincarnation, transmigration of the Human Soul cannot be verified as we can only verify the presence of the Human Soul while the Individual maintains the reality of physical existence. For Science, a thing called real must have correspondence with an external fact. Man and Soul are real for they exist in relationship with each other and there is correspondence between the two. It may be claimed that the Human Soul can have existence apart from the man if it exists in relationship with another living entity like God. At that time, Human Soul and God can have correspondence and this correspondence that is not entirely based upon the presence of a living human body cannot be discovered by Science. The stories about reincarnation or rebirth, or transmigration of souls cannot be verified by Science as they do not meet the basic objective criteria to establish the truth or reality of a Human Soul having its own independent existence in the absence of a living human body.
Rudra N Rebbapragada
Ann Arbor, MI 48104-4162, USA
SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE – THE HUMAN SPECIES:
Carolus Linnaeus also known as Carl Linnaeus, (b. May 23, 1707, d. January 10, 1778) Swedish botanist, a doctor of medicine, and explorer was the first to frame principles for defining genera and species of organisms and to create a uniform system for naming them.
Linnaeus published his Systema Naturae in 1735 and Genera Plantarum in 1737. He presented and explained his classification system that was based mainly on flower parts which tend to remain unchanged from generation to generation.
Linnaeus in his Systema Naturae gave a very precise description of man, placing him among the Class – Mammals, in the Order of Primates which includes the apes. Further, Linnaeus described the varieties of man such as The Asian, The African, and The European. He depended only on external characteristics to place objects into a rational set of categories. Thus Linnaeus formulated a Static Taxonomy in which Species of living things appear to be immutable in type throughout the ages. The Species, the fundamental unit of Classification, consists of populations of morphologically similar individuals that share the similar collection of characteristics whose combination is unique to the Species. In other words, Species is distinguished by its ability to maintain its stability from generation to generation. Since Species is self-perpetuating, they maintain the stability of all other groupings like the genera, phyla, and families which remain fixed from generation to generation. Apart from the observed stability of all recognized Species, the chemical molecules that are essential to compose the Living Matter, Material, or Substance called Protoplasm have always maintained their stability. For example, water molecule is the most important of all the biomolecules of Life and its chemical composition and properties are held stable over billions of years.
THE NATURAL LAW OF PROPAGATION:
The French naturalist Buffon in his monumental compendium on Natural History(44 Volumes), Histoire Naturelle General et Particuliere – 1749-1804), described man as a zoological species. Buffon determined species not by their physical appearances but by their reproductive history. Two individual animals or plants are of the same Species if they can produce fertile offspring. Species are known only through the history of its natural propagation. By the law of natural propagation, offspring will always be of the same species as the parent organism. A Species always breeds true. Its members always generate organisms which can be classified as belonging to the same Species, however much they vary among themselves as individuals within the group. The sub-groups, the races or varieties of Species are able to breed with one another, but diverse Species cannot interbreed. Organisms different in Species cannot reproduce productively and if crossbred, like the horse and the ass, they produce a sterile hybrid like the mule. The Natural Law of Propagation can be described as “The Law of Creation and Individuality.” Each kind of living thing always arrives as an original, distinctive, unique, and one of its own kind of object. No living thing has an independent choice of its own and there is no choice other than that of existing as a created object that can be identified as a specific individual thing with Individuality. Even with the use of the latest reproductive technology such as cloning, man cannot use the reproductive process to cause the existence of two identical living things. The term ‘Species’ must be used for purposes of ease and convenience as they are trillions of Individual living things with Individuality. In my view, the French naturalist Buffon had defined the term ‘Species’ correctly using the Natural Law of Propagation.
THE NATURAL HISTORY OF MAN:
When man is viewed as the subject of scientific investigation, the empirical knowledge of man is provided by observations of his structure(ANATOMY), functions(PHYSIOLOGY), his behavior(PSYCHOLOGY), his culture(ANTHROPOLOGY), and his past(ARCHAEOLOGY).
The study of the Natural History of Man was stimulated by the encounters with the great anthropoid Apes of Africa and Asia at the beginning of the 16th century. The discovery of the Chimpanzee and the Orangutan(meaning “Man of the Woods” in Malay language) raised questions about the status of Apes and their relation to Man. Dr. Edward Tyson, M.D., conducted studies(1699) sponsored by the Royal Society of London to analyze in great detail the similarities and the dissimilarities between a Chimpanzee and a man. For Tyson, the Chimpanzee was the missing link between animal and Man. But, Tyson and Darwin have no evidence to show that Chimpanzee or any other intermediate Species can actually transform its genome by gradual modification and appear in the physical world as a brand new Human Species.
Johann Friedrich Blumenbach is recognized as the Father of Physical Anthropology for his work De Generis Humani Varietate Nativa(1775-76). His research in the measurement of human skulls led him to divide mankind into five great families; Caucasian, Mongolian, Malayan, Ethiopian, and American. Human Species may include varieties that can be grouped into Races by using some common morphological traits.
At the same time the present Identification Technology such as the Fingerprints, Iris Scans, Facial Recognition Technology, Skin Surface Texture Recognition Technology allows the recognition of each member of the Human Species as a specific Individual with Individuality.
THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES – THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION:
Charles Darwin had no particular problem with the term ‘Species’ and in his view, Species is the term used to signify “a set of individuals closely resembling each other” – a class of plants or animals having certain characteristics. However, he wanted to seek a genealogical relationship among the various forms of life. His ideas demanded a dynamic or genealogical classification of living things. While holding that new Species originate in the course of time, Darwin formulated a view about the Origin of Species and their differentiation, and the factors or circumstances under which some life forms cease to have the status of species or become extinct. But, Darwin had not fully accounted for the reality called existence. There is no Natural Law or Principle that can fully account for the existence of Life on planet Earth.
Evolutionary Biology describes Man as a direct descendant of nonhuman Primates. From the interpretation of fossils have arisen concepts of mutation(the process by which the genetic material of a cell is altered), transformism(the theory that one Species is changed into another) and Evolution through mechanistic, unguided, purposeless and random events. At a fundamental level, The Great Chain of Living Beings has to be explained as a Continuity while the individual Species of Living Beings arrive as a sequence of discrete, creative steps. The precise physical form of Man as a special form or as a Human Species has to be explained by describing the role of natural factors and natural conditions of climate or environment that may determine the actual characteristics of a given Species. The morphological variations among the various members of the Homo Genus have to be related to the variations in diet, physical activity, and physical climatic conditions and the observed variations must explain the reproductive success or failure of the Species. In my view, the substance or material called the Living Matter has always existed with the same chemical composition resisting any influence of changing Time. The forms assumed by the Living Matter have always varied to demonstrate the operation of a creative mechanism that maintains the stability of each Species while generating variations among members of the same Species and between different Species. I would further seek to explain the arrival of the Human Species as a Creative Event as other member Species of the Genus Homo disappeared simultaneously without any specific contribution made by the Nature or the natural living conditions that prevail on planet Earth.
SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE – THE STATUS OF MAN IN NATURE:
The term ‘man’ has been loosely applied to describe a variety of animal species that belong to Family Hominidae. To understand the status of man in nature, it would be helpful to make the distinctions between the Paleolithic, Archaic, or Ancient Man and Modern Man. Since the term ‘Man’ may cause confusion, a distinction between ‘Man’ and ‘Human’ is all the more important. The Hominids belong to Class-Mammals, Order-Primates, Suborder – Anthropoidea, Superfamily – Hominoidea, Family – Hominidae, Subfamily – Homininae which includes the Genus-Homo and species such as sapiens, erectus, habilis, and etc., The members of Hominidae Family show a unique specialization of the lower limb, the pelvis and leg to provide support bipedal propulsion of the body in the erect position or vertical gait. In Primates such as the apes and monkeys, the feet and toes have the characteristic called prehensility and the Hominids have lost that characteristic. The Hominids have a large and complicated brain, the visual sense is better developed with a corresponding reduction of the sense of smell. The hand with flattened nails and the true opposability of the thumb can perform two types of grasping function called, 1. The Power Grip and 2. The Precision Grip. The Hominid Family members have intensified mother-offspring relationship due to prolonged infant dependency. While the Hominid brain shows both qualitative and quantitative development, there are significant differences in the areas of the brain concerned with vision, muscular coordination, memory, learning, and communication. Hominids such as the Rhodesian Man and the Cro-Magnon Man had large skulls and their brains were larger as compared to that of Modern Man. The Hominid Family members share important skeletal features and similarities and yet the same time, the size and shape of the skull can be used to make distinctions between the various species. Similarly, while the skeletal features that contribute to the ability called ‘Precision Grip’ are common, in the use of this Grip each member demonstrates an originality with which the member can be identified as a specific Individual with Individuality.
THE CRO-MAGNON MAN AND THE MODERN MAN:
The Cro-Magnon Man is often described as Prehistoric Man or Early Man who lived 40,000 to 35,000 years ago. The Cro-Magnon is not a species or subspecies and as such is included in the Homo sapiens sapiens species. However, there are some important differences between the two. The Cro-Magnon Man lived during European Upper Paleolithic Period and the fossil remains were discovered in 1868 in the big cave in Occitan, Southwestern France. During the Upper Paleolithic Period, there is evidence of communal hunting, man-made shelters, rock carvings and paintings and primitive belief systems like Magic and the Supernatural. The Cro-Magnon Man was about 6 feet(180 centimetres) tall, had a high forehead, short, wide face, prominent chin and a brain capacity of 1600 cubic centimetres, larger than the average for Modern Man which is about 1,350 cubic centimetres. He had used flint and bone tools and designed shell and ivory jewelery.
THE EVIDENCE OF PRECISION GRIP: MAN vs HUMAN
The Cro-Magnon Man had perished and fortunately we have evidence in the form of Prehistoric Art which includes sophisticated polychrome paintings of exquisite design. Magnificent cave paintings were discovered in Southwestern France and Northern Spain.
The painting of pictures on the walls of caves or on the rocks is a definitive evidence of the use of the Precision Grip and yet it does not constitute the evidence for the specific human ability and characteristic called Writing. The purpose of Writing is not simply about communication using written shapes or signs. It requires the development of specific areas of the brain that are associated with human speech. For example, Broca’s area produces verbs, builds sentences, and predicts what people are going to say. The brain area called Wernicke’s Area attaches meanings, images and feelings to sounds and to individual words. Human Speech and Writing has a spiritual attribute with which it can transcend the limitations set by natural boundaries and it extends across the barriers of Time when the thoughts of the dead and the living reach those as yet unborn. A Human Artist has the potential ability to draw and depict objects for which there could be no physical basis in the environment directly experienced by that Artist.
It is important to make the distinction between the Prehistoric Man and the Modern Man to determine the Status of Man in Nature. The evidence for the Modern Man’s arrival on planet Earth begins in the Mesolithic Period or the Middle Stone Age at the end of the last glacial era, about 10,000 years ago. The Neolithic Period or the New Stone Age is the Old World Cultural Period(c. 8000-c. 3500 B.C.) which is characterized by polished stone tools, pottery, weaving, stock rearing, agriculture, megaliths like the Stonehenge and the first known human writing dates from 6000 B.C.
Among animal species, only ‘Humans’ have the spiritual ability to communicate or describe things that may not exist in their immediate, physical environment. A Human Artist has the potential ability to write or depict objects for which there is no direct sensory experience. To make the distinction between the Prehistoric Man and the Modern Man, to discern the difference between Paleolithic Art and Human Art, I want to suggest that only a Human Artist has the potential, spiritual ability to draw and depict objects for which there could be no basis in the physical environment directly experienced by the Artist. To make the equation between Man and Human and to determine the Status of Man in Nature, the use of the Precision Grip provides decisive evidence.
SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE – THE ART OF MEDICINE:
The Art of Medicine in its essence is a spiritual practice. It aims to restore the experience of Peace, Harmony, and Tranquility in the living condition of the Man. The fundamental concepts of Medical Theory reflect the Philosophy of Nature and of Man. The term Physician describes the person who practices ‘The Art of Medicine’. This term is derived from the medieval English word ‘PHYSIC'(Latin. physica; Greek. physike which means nature) which is used to describe Natural Science, Medicine, and Nature. This archaic usage of the English word “Physic” as the name for the art, science, practice and profession of Healing suggests what the word’s Greek root signifies, namely that the physician is a student of Nature.
Natural Science provides systematized knowledge of the physical world and its branches include Zoology, Botany, Chemistry, Physics, and Geology. The Faculty of Medicine represents Biological Sciences that are concerned with knowledge bearing on the relation of man to nature. Medical Science as a Natural Science must be concerned with the following two questions:
1. What is the Status of Man in Nature?
2. What is the true or real Nature of Man?
The first question deals with man’s relationship with the physical world in which man exists. The physical world represents the total of all things in Time and Space or the entire physical universe. The term Nature includes the Power, Force, and Laws that regulate or operate in the physical world. In Biology, the Theory of Evolution proposes a view about the origin of species and it describes that things in Nature change under the influence of Time. It opposes various cultural, and religious beliefs about the origin of man and his Status as a Created Being. The second question is about the essential characteristics or qualities that makes or describes man’s essence as a Human Being. The Nature of Man deals with the inborn character, innate disposition, and inherent tendencies of the Whole Person and it includes the instincts, desires, appetites, drives etc., of the Person apart from the vital functions of specialized organs. Man’s Nature could be detected from the activities of the human organism and from the forces that operate and influence these activities.
THE MEDICAL THEORY – ATOMISM, MECHANISM vs SPIRITUALISM:
There is tremendous increase in our knowledge of the specific diseases and man developed a vast store of well-tested remedies and still the problems of medical practice essentially remain the same. According to Galen, the Art of Healing consists in imitating the health-giving and healing powers of nature itself. Galen thinks of human body as an organic unity and not as a simple aggregation of atoms or a system of interlocking parts. Galen had opposed the views of Atomism, or Mechanism that views the human body as a mechanical assembly of tiny, individual parts. In Galen’s view, Nature works not by the external impact of part upon part, but by its faculties or powers for the performance of natural functions and the production of natural effects. “Nature is not posterior to the corpuscles( small, constituent parts), but a long way prior to them…” writes Galen. “Therefore it is nature which puts together the bodies of both plants and animals; and this she does by virtue of certain faculties which she possesses – these being on the one hand, attractive and assimilative of what is appropriate, and on the other, expulsive of what is foreign. Further, she skillfully moulds everything during the stage of genesis; and she also provides for the creatures after birth employing her other faculties again.” Galen calls Nature the Artist for it produces effects according to its powers and in conformity to its needs. Nature seems to work with intelligence and for an end, not blindly and by chance. Galen stated it as a maxim, “Nothing is done by Nature in Vain.” An Art like Medicine seems to imitate Nature by cooperating with natural process. The Art of Medicine involves following the course of nature, and thereby it enables the natural result to emerge by overcoming the chances of adverse outcome. The interior nature is the Principal cause of Healing with the physician providing exterior or external help. The physician strengthens nature and employs food and medicine to assist the natural mechanism( such as the “Repair and Inflammation” described in the Science called Human Pathology) to achieve the intended end. The subordination of The Art of Medicine to Nature appears to be the keystone of the whole structure of Medical Practice. The patient is guided to regulate and control the various aspects of diet, exercise, and the lifestyle and medicines or drugs perform an auxiliary function. Surgery is used in the treatment of injuries and to resolve problems where medication by itself will not yield good results. However, it is important to remember that surgical procedures and interventions work by cooperating with nature and natural healing process called Repair and Inflammation. In other words, the physician is a servant , not a master of Nature. Medicine as an Art can be compared to Agriculture which helps a natural result to come about but this effect would never occur without the work of the Artist. Plants may grow and reproduce without the help of farmers. A person may regain some health without the care of physicians. But, in reality, it is impossible to raise a crop or to grow an orchard by simply depending upon nature and natural mechanisms.
SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE – THE SPIRITUAL BASIS FOR HEALTH:
If the term Soul or Spirit describes the vital, animating principle that governs and operates the existence of the human organism, its nature and functions can be derived from studying the structure and functions of the Red Blood Cell or Erythrocyte which simply exists to integrate and to harmonize the functions of trillions of individual cells, tissues, and the organ systems that constitute the Whole Person who exists as an Individual with Individuality. Health is that condition of the body in which the physiological elements are in balance and in which the various parts function harmoniously with one another. Health represents harmony or good order, or equilibrium in the body. I describe Spirituality as the operating Principle that generates this functional unity, good order, and equilibrium among the cells, tissues, organs, and the organ systems that comprise the human organism and the human Individual who exists because of these functions experiences Peace, Harmony, and Tranquility in his living condition.
The Theory of Medicine will determine the nature of The Art of Medicine that is practiced to establish the Physician – Patient Relationship. If The Art of Medicine is based upon Spirituality Science, the Physician – Patient Relationship will have a Spiritual basis. I would ask my readers to give attention to the problems of modern medical practice and we need a Medical Theory that would have a bearing on the following three aspects of The Art of Medicine:
1. Is Health is better served by the General Practitioner treating the Whole Man or by a Specialist treating a functionally differentiated Special Organ or Organ System?
2. What should be the nature of the Physician-Patient relationship? Is there a therapeutic factor in the relationship that underlines the effectiveness of the Physician’s skills in all other respects?
3. What is the interaction between mind and body in the origin and in the cure of disease?
SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE – WHOLE MEDICINE:
Medicine is among the most ancient of human occupations. Evidences of the practice of ritual healing, combining religion, and primitive science, are found in the earliest traces of human society and communal living. The Healing Art of ancient Greece was associated with the worship of Apollo who taught Medicine to Chiron and it was passed on to Aesculapius who could be a real person that lived in Greece around 1,200 B.C. The term ‘Asclepiad’ describes a physician and it was used to designate physicians belonging to a family that had produced well-known physicians for generations.
In ancient Greece, the knowledge of Medicine was imparted at Medical Schools and such institutions of Learning were known as ‘Askleipion’.
HIPPOCRATES – THE FATHER OF MEDICINE:
Hippocrates, c. 460 – 377 B.C. was undoubtedly a historical figure in spite of the fact that most accounts about his life could be imaginative. Little is known about him, but a great tradition surrounds his name. Apart from practising his art, he presumably taught at the Medical School at Kos.
Greek philosopher Plato called Hippocrates, “The Asclepiad of Kos.” Greek philosopher Aristotle said that, Hippocrates was called “The Great Physician.” Hippocrates had a philosophical approach to Medicine. He regarded the body as a “WHOLE” – that is, as an Organism. His medical practice resulted from his collection of information regarding parts of the body into an embracing concept and thereafter, the division of the “WHOLE” into its parts. He had promoted Medicine based on objective observation and deductive reasoning.
Hippocrates stated that it is more important to know what sort of person has a disease than to know what sort of disease a person has. In a quote attributed to Hippocrates, he claimed that wherever the art of Medicine is loved, there is also a love of humanity. Hippocrates may not have authored the so-called “Hippocratic Oath”, but he could have stressed the ethical code for the medical profession. He had also stressed the importance of diet and hygiene.
The principles taught by Hippocrates are, 1. a physician should work not for personal gain but for love of humanity, 2. disease should be studied by meticulous observation, and cases should be carefully recorded and studied to establish a prognosis, 3. disease is often the result of environmental forces, diet, climate, and occupation, and 4. a physician should emphasize simple treatment supplemented with careful diet and surgical intervention when necessary. In spite of the breathtaking rapidity of developments in modern Medicine, the basic concepts are still the same.
THE PHILOSOPHY OF MEDICINE – THE CONCEPT OF WHOLE MEDICINE:
Medicine is the Science and Art of Diagnosing, Curing, and Preventing Disease and it includes the relief of pain, minimizing of disabilities, improving, preserving and maintaining health. The term ‘Medicine’ is also used to describe any drug or other substance used in treating disease, healing, or relieving pain. In several native traditions across the globe, Medicine may include any object, spell, rite, etc., supposed to have natural or supernatural powers as a remedy, curative, preventive, or protective. The idea of ‘Take One’s Medicine describes the requirement to endure just punishment or accepting the results of one’s action. In my view, Medicine must be concerned with the status of man in the universe, in his natural environment, in his social community while the man exists as an individual with individuality. In other words, Medicine as a Science must primarily be concerned with the biological basis for the reality of man’s physical existence in the world. A systematic study of the biological basis of human existence would demand the study of Soul and Spirit as the vital, animating principle found in all living things. I seek the existence of Soul and Spirit in a substance that is basic to life activities. Spirit or Soul must be found in a living material substance that is responsible for all living processes. The term Soul and Spirit belong to the materialistic realm where the physical reality of man’s biological existence is established. Further, I do not intend to use the term Soul or Spirit as a metaphysical or transcendental reality independent of the living organism. I would define the phrase “Whole Medicine” as a systematic study of the Physical, Mental, Moral, Social, and Spiritual aspects of Man’s Well-Being in relation to health and disease while the man exists as a Created Being.