Tibet Awareness – Not Part of China
NATURAL HISTORY OF HIMALAYAN FRONTIER – TIBET IS NOT PART OF CHINA
Natural History of Himalayan Frontier establishes truth about Tibet’s Identity. Tibet is not part of China.
Red China is making invalid and baseless claims of historical ownership of Himalayan Frontier.
China warns India not to ‘push its luck’ amid border stand-off in Himalayas
Published time: 24 Jul 2017 09:06 Edited time: 24 Jul, 2017 09:09
FILE PHOTO: An Indian Army soldier stands in front of a group of People’s Liberation Army of China soldiers © Indrani Mukherjee / AFP
China has warned India not to “cling to fantasies” amid a tense border stand-off, which also involves Bhutan, involving disputed territory in the Himalayas. Earlier, China staged live-fire drills in the area while India deployed troops there.
“China’s determination and resolve to safeguard national security and sovereignty is unshakable,” Defense Ministry Spokesman Senior Colonel Wu Qian said in a statement on Monday, as cited by AP and local media. His words come ahead of the 90th anniversary of the founding of the Chinese People’s Liberation Army (PLA).
“Don’t push your luck and cling to any fantasies,” Wu said.
“The 90-year history of the PLA has proved but one thing: that our military means to secure our country’s sovereignty and territorial integrity has strengthened and our determination has never wavered. It is easier to shake a mountain than to shake the PLA.”
© Google Maps
China and Indian ally Bhutan have been disputing the narrow Doklam plateau at the tri-junction of the three countries’ borders for decades. India says the area is Bhutanese.
Tensions between Beijing and Delhi escalated this June when Chinese teams started building a road on the plateau. Bhutan requested help from India, which sent its troops across the border.
‘Avoid escalation’: China demands India withdraw troops from disputed Himalayan territory
India also warned China that the road was a “serious security concern” because it would give China access to the Siliguri Corridor, also known as the ‘Chicken’s Neck,’ a narrow stretch of land linking India’s northeastern states to the rest of the country, NDTV reported earlier in July.
Also in July, China staged 11 hours of live-fire drills in Tibet, not far from the disputed territory, Chinese media reported. The exercises involved soldiers armed with rocket launchers, machine guns, and mortars.
In June, to support its claim, China provided historical documents which it says prove the Doklam plateau belongs to Beijing.
“First, in terms of history, Doklam has always been the traditional pasture for border inhabitants living in [China’s] Yadong [county], Xizang. China has been exercising jurisdiction over this area,” Foreign Ministry Spokesperson Lu Kang said in a statement.
However, those claims are disputed by India, which accuses China of cherry-picking facts to suit its agenda.
Both India and China reportedly bolstered their troops in the area in June, with each side adding about 3,000 soldiers, the Times of India said at that time.
The standoff is the longest between the China and India since 1962, when the two sides fought a brief war over tensions surrounding Tibet and other points along the border in the Sino-Indian War, which China won.
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WORLD TIBET DAY – TIBET AWARENESS – TIBET EQUILIBRIUM
Thursday, July 06, 2017, 82nd Birthday of His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama is observed as ‘World Tibet Day’ to promote Tibet Awareness.
I coined the phrase ‘Tibet Equilibrium’ to describe Natural Condition that restores Natural Freedom, Natural Order, Natural Balance of Power, and Natural Harmony in Occupied Tibet.
SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE
THE STATESMAN: DALAI LAMA’S 82nd BIRTHDAY CELEBRATED, TIBETANS SEEK TRUMP’S INTERVENTION
Thousands of Tibetans on Thursday morning joined in the 82nd birthday celebrations of their spiritual leader, the Dalai Lama here. On this occasion, the Tibetan cabinet urged US President Donald Trump to initiate steps to restart dialogue on Tibet’s future.
Large crowds donning traditional dresses began to assemble since morning at the Shiwatsel Phodrang complex on the city’s outskirts for the birthday celebrations.
“Special prayer sessions were held for the long life of His Holiness,” a Central Tibetan Administration (CTA) spokesperson told IANS.
The Dalai Lama, revered by the Tibetans as a “living god”, attended the prayers and blessed the gathering.
Tibetan Prime Minister Lobsang Sangay also attended the celebrations, while his cabinet urged Trump to initiate steps for restarting the dialogue process on the future of Tibet.
“We also urge President Trump to support the middle-way approach and dialogue between the envoys of His Holiness the Dalai Lama and the representatives of the Chinese government,” said the cabinet in a statement.
Expressing gratitude to US Secretary of State Rex Tillerson for his support for dialogue, it said: “We also thank Terry Branstad, the US Ambassador to China, for calling on China to provide meaningful autonomy for Tibetans.”
The cabinet reiterated its commitment to “middle-way” approach as the mutually beneficial solution to resolving the long-standing issue of Tibet.
Meanwhile, officials of the Dalai Lama’s office said the spiritual leader would stay in Shiwatsel Phodrang in Leh till July 30.
During his visit, he would participate in religious ceremonies, conduct meditational retreat and deliver teachings at Diskit Monastery in the Nubra Valley, Padum in Zanskar area and the Shiwatsel teaching ground here.
The Dalai Lama’s sermons on ethics, non-violence, peace and religious harmony have made him one of the 20th century’s most revered spiritual leaders.
Born on July 6, 1935, at Taktser hamlet in northeastern Tibet, the Dalai Lama was recognized at the age of two as the reincarnation of the 13th Dalai Lama, Thubten Gyatso.
He fled Tibet after a failed uprising against the Chinese rule in 1959 and has been based in India since then.
The Dalai Lama was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1989 for his non-violent campaign for democracy and freedom in his homeland.
However, the Chinese view him as a hostile element bent on splitting Tibet from China.
India is home to around 100,000 Tibetans. The Tibetan government-in-exile is not recognized by any country.
TIBETAN IDENTITY – MISS TIBET 2017 TENZIN PALDON
I congratulate Miss Tibet 2017 Tenzin Paldon for winning the crown in beauty pageant for women of Tibetan Identity. This event helps to project Tibetan Identity to the World. Beauty Pageants always involve National Identity.
Miss Tibet wins crown for most controversial beauty pageant
By Sugam Pokharel, CNN
Updated 5:16 AM ET, Mon June 5, 2017
Nine contestants of the Miss Tibet Pageant 2017 pose for a photo during a press conference on 30 May 2017.
- Miss Tibet draws objections from exiled community, feminists and China
Organizer Lobsang Wangyal says its intended to empower Tibetan women
(CNN)This is no ordinary beauty contest.
There are virtually no sponsors, judges are hard to find — and so are the participants. Moreover, it is embroiled in a hefty dose of controversy.
Welcome to Miss Tibet.
The 15th edition of the beauty pageant for exiled Tibetan women wrapped up on Sunday in the small town of Dharamsala in northwestern India — home to the Dalai Lama and the headquarters of Tibetan government-in-exile.
This year the contest saw a record number of nine participants. None of the contestants have ever been to Tibet and are part of India’s 100,000-strong Tibetan community that was established 1960 after the Dalai Lama fled across the border.
Tenzin Paldon, 21, claimed the crown in the grand finale attended by more than 3,000 people, according to organizers.
“With this title, I will try my best to take it to an international level — to speak up regarding my country, Tibetan causes, and culture as much as I can,” she told CNN.
Tibet: Fast facts
Miss Tibet 2017 Tenzin Paldon poses for a photo after winning the crown on June 4, 2017.
The contest though faces controversy on multiple fronts: conservative members of the Tibetan community, and feminists object to the pageant on moral grounds, and China, which regards Tibet as an integral part of its territory and objects to winners participating in any international event.
It’s been organized by Lobsang Wangyal since 2002 with the motto “Celebrating Tibetan Women.”
He used $10,000 of his own in money to stage the event plus $1,300 raised via Generosity.com.
This year, said Wangyal, two Tibetan businessmen living in Taiwan and US provided the cash prizes for the winner ($1,550) and runner-up ($775.)
Barred from China and silenced in the US, this beauty queen isn’t backing down
Wangyal told CNN many Tibetan women want to participate but are held back by Tibetan culture — which is deeply religious and conservative.
“[Tibetan women] think what will society have to say? Will people call me different names? Will they talk behind my back? They are so scared and they latch onto that fear,” Wangyal said.
Tibetan elders aren’t happy about the contest either. They see it as a cultural betrayal to Tibetan culture and not compatible with Buddhist culture. Traditionally, Tibetan women wear modest, full length robes.
The three-day event included a swimsuit round.
“Yes, this is a democratic society but the young generation should remember that we don’t have a country, we don’t have a home, we are refugees – all we have is our tradition and religion. They should focus on conserving and nurturing that,” said Dharamsala-based Tibetan shopkeeper Thinley Kalsyang, 67.
“Also remember, Buddhism focuses on inner beauty and not your skin and petite body,” he added.
Paldon says the older generation is not well-educated.
“They find it problematic for showcasing our skin. I believe that if you are good in heart, nothing else matters. If you wear a traditional attire, if inside you are a bad person, that is not good,” said Paldon.
The nine contestants of the Miss Tibet Pageant 2017 pose for a photo during the Swimsuit Round at Asia Health Resorts in Dharamshala, India, on 2 June 2017.
Tenzin Lungtok, Secretary of Culture and Religion for the exiled Tibetan government, declined to comment when asked if he supported the event.
- 2016 Miss Tibet winner Tenzing Sanganyi faced a backlash for her poor knowledge of Tibetan language. She told CNN she took that as a constructive criticism.
“I cannot blame them. They are concerned about our culture. As refugees, we have to conserve our culture and language. So, if I’m representing a modern Tibetan woman, I should have been more fluent with my language,” Sanganyi said.
China is another major objector.
Wangyal says Chinese government doesn’t directly interfere in the event but often the winners are met with heavy Chinese interference when they try to participate in international pageants.
For example, Miss Tibet 2004 Tashi Yangchen told CNN she withdrew from a Miss Tourism Pageant held in Zimbabwe after she was pressured to wear a sash labeled “Miss Tibet-China”.
“The organizers pressured by Chinese officials gave me two options: to participate as a guest or as a “Miss Tibet-China”…I chose to walk out of the event,” Yangchen said.
The Miss Tourism organizers didn’t immediately respond to a request for comment.
HOLDING UP SKINNY WOMEN WITH FAIR SKIN AND STRAIGHT NOSES?
Tibetan Feminist Collective, a New York-based group, also attacked the event’s format, saying it promoted and adhered to Western standards of beauty.
Tenzin Paldon, the winner of Miss Tibet 2017.
“Holding up skinny women with fair skin and straight noses on a pedestal holds us back as a society, although it is not limited to our particular group. We Tibetans vary immensely in terms of physical features – something to be celebrated and embraced,” the group said in a statement.
Wangyal says he is committed to creating what he describes as a more liberal Tibetan society, believing the beauty pageant empowers Tibetan women, who lack confidence. It’s something this year’s winner agrees with.
“It’s a great achievement and also a role model to all young Tibetan women — that if you believe in something, you can achieve it,” says Paldon.
“With this title, I want to help other women achieve their goals.”
CNN Intern Karma Dolma Gurung contributed to this report
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TIBET NOT PART OF CHINA – ARUNACHAL PRADESH CHIEF MINISTER
Arunachal Pradesh Chief Minister Pema Khandu reveals the truth about Tibet’s military occupation. Red China’s military occupation of Tibet cannot wipe out reality of Tibetan nation.
Indian Defence News
Thursday, April 06, 2017
INDIA SHARES BOUNDARY WITH TIBET, NOT WITH CHINA: ARUNACHAL PRADESH CHIEF MINISTER
ARUNACHAL PRADESH Chief Minister Pema Khandu today said China has no business telling India what to do regarding the Dalai Lama’s movement in the country.
“China has no business telling us what to do and what not to do (regarding the Dalai Lama’s movement). It is not our next-door neighbor. India shares boundary with Tibet, not with China,” he told reporters here.
“In reality, the McMahon Line demarcated the boundary between India and Tibet,” he said.
Khandu, who accompanied the Dalai Lama during an eight-hour-long drive from Guwahati to Bomdila yesterday, said it was a brave decision on the part of the Tibetan spiritual leader to undertake the arduous trip.
“He wanted to reach Tawang anyhow and the weather could not deter him. Let us hope that his followers here get satisfaction from his discourses,” he said.
The Nobel laureate, he said, was the country’s most respected guest since 1959 and Arunachal Pradesh deserves his visit more than any other place.
This is the Dalai Lama’s sixth visit to Arunachal Pradesh as a state guest since 1983 and he has been to Tawang every time except in December 1996.
His last visit in 2009 was planned exactly 50 years after he had crossed through Arunachal Pradesh, then North East Frontier Agency, after escaping from Lhasa.
HIS HOLINESS THE DALAI LAMA LIVES IN EXILE TO DEFEND FREEDOM IN TIBET
Since March 1959, His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama, Supreme Ruler of Tibet is living in exile not to defend his own life but to defend Freedom in Occupied Tibet. After 58 years of life in exile, Tibetans hope to restore Freedom, Peace, Justice in Tibet. Tibet’s military occupation since 1950 cannot obliterate the reality of long history of Tibetan Independence.
His Holiness the Dalai Lama Arrives Safely in Tenzingang, Bomdila
April 4, 2017
By Staff Writer
His Holiness the Dalai Lama arrives in Tenzingang Tibetan settlement in Bomdila, Arunachal Pradesh, 4 April 2017. Photo/Yasmina K.
Bomdila: The most revered spiritual leader of Tibet, His Holiness the Dalai Lama arrived safely in Tenzingang Tibetan settlement, Bomdila, Arunachal Pradesh today on 4 April 2017.
His Holiness was received by Chief Minister of Arunachal Pradesh, Pema Khandu, MLA, Japu Deru and Phurpa Tsering, West Kameng District Commissioner Dr Sonal Swaroop and former minister and National Convener of Core group for Tibetan cause-India, Mr. R K Khrimey and other important dignitaries.
Members of Tibetan community in Bomdila gave a rousing welcome to His Holiness as he arrived in his motorcade this afternoon.
Tomorrow, His Holiness will give a teaching and confer a White Tara Long Life Empowerment (drolkar tsewang) in the morning at the Buddha Park, Teaching in Bomdila, Arunachal Pradesh.
On 6 April, His Holiness will give teachings in Dirang, Arunachal Pradesh. His Holiness will give teachings on Geshe Langri Thangpa’s Eight Verses of Training the Mind & Guru Yoga and confer the Avalokiteshvara Permission in the morning at Thupsung Dhargyeling Monastery.
From 8 – 10 April, His Holiness will confer teachings in Tawang, Arunachal Pradesh.
On April 8 & 9 mornings, His Holiness will give teachings on Kamalashila’s The Middling States of Meditation & Gyalsey Thokme Sangpo’s Thirty-Seven Practices of a Bodhisattva at Yiga Choezin.
On April 10 morning, His Holiness will confer the Rigzin Dongdup Initiation at Yiga Choezin.
Local Tibetans in Bomdila organize a traditional welcome for His Holiness the Dalai Lama, 4 April 2017.
Tibetans and ardent followers welcoming His Holiness the Dalai Lama at Tenzingang, Bomdila. Photo/Soulful tours
TIBET AWARENESS – SUPREME RULER OF TIBET FORCED TO LIVE IN EXILE
After Communist China’s military invasion of Tibet during 1950-51, both India and Tibet earnestly tried to resolve the crisis using peaceful negotiations. China took full military advantage of India’s inability to use military force to neutralize China’s Military Expansionism. India, and Tibet obtained limited assistance from the United States to counter China’s military conquest of Tibet. Futility of their efforts became apparent in March 1959 when China killed thousands of innocent Tibetan civilians who organized massive protest on 13th March to defend their Supreme Ruler.
His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama, Supreme Ruler of Tibet is currently visiting Assam, and Arunachal Pradesh. He had an emotional Reunion with Assam Rifles guard Naren Chandra Das on Sunday, April 02, in Guwahati.
Dalai Lama’s emotional reunion with guard who aided flight from Tibet
Buddhist leader meets Naren Chandra Das 58 years after he escorted him in India after his escape from Chinese authorities
MICHAEL SAFI in Delhi
Monday 3 April 2017
The first time they met, Indian paramilitary guard Naren Chandra Das was ordered not to talk to the bespectacled young soldier he was escorting near the Chinese border in a top-secret mission.
Nearly 60 years later, Das was reunited with the Dalai Lama in an emotional ceremony that recalled the Buddhist leader’s escape from Tibet after a failed uprising against Chinese authorities.
This time the Dalai Lama had the first word. “Looking at your face, I now realize I must be very old too,” he told Das, 79, at a ceremony on Sunday in the north-eastern city of Guwahati.
The ceremony is likely to fuel anger in Beijing over the Dalai Lama’s tour of north-east India, including Arunachal Pradesh, a border state with areas that China regards as its own territory.
The Dalai Lama said: ‘Looking at your face, I now realize I must be very old too,’ on meeting Naren Chandra Das again. Photograph: Biju Boro/AFP/Getty Images
It has warned India that the tour by the Dalai Lama, whom Beijing calls an “anti-China separatist”, will do serious damage to ties between the two Asian powers.
In Guwahati on Sunday the Dalai Lama – who denies seeking Tibetan independence – remembered the “warm-hearted” welcome he received in India after a 13-day trek through the Himalayas to escape the Chinese army.
“The days prior to my arrival in India were filled with tension and the only concern was safety, but I experienced freedom when I was received warm-heartedly by the people and officials and a new chapter began in my life,” he said.
The Dalai Lama fled his Lhasa palace in March 1959 when he was 23 after years of tension between Tibetans and the Chinese government erupted into popular rebellion.
Disguised as a Chinese soldier, he and members of his cabinet slipped out of the palace and trekked by night through mountains and across the 500-metre (1,640feet) Brahmaputra river to reach the Indian border.
The Dalai Lama and his escape party cross the Zsagola pass, in southern Tibet on 21 March 1959, while being pursued by Chinese military forces. The 23-year-old Dalai Lama is aboard the white horse. Photograph: HG/Associated Press
Until he appeared in India, some observers feared the Dalai Lama had been among the estimated 2,000 people killed when the Chinese crushed the uprising.
India offered him asylum and a home base in the hill town of Dharamsala, where he was permitted to set up a government-in-exile. About 80,000 Tibetan refugees soon joined him in the Himalayan town.
China argues the 1959 rebellion was the work of wealthy landowners bent on maintaining feudal rule, and that its “peaceful liberation” of the mountainous region has brought development and prosperity.
The Chinese foreign ministry on Monday reiterated its objection to the Dalai Lama’s tour of the border states, saying it was “resolutely opposed to any country’s support and facilitation for the 14th Dalai group’s anti-China separatist activities”.
Chinese anger over India’s role in sheltering the Dalai Lama was one of the factors that led to a brief war between the two countries in 1962. Cross-border incursions by Chinese troops are regularly reported and border areas of the state are highly militarized.
From the archive, 1 April 1959: Paratroops join hunt for Dalai Lama
Manchester Guardian, 1 April 1959: The Chinese were yesterday using planes and some fifty thousand troops to search the Tibetan mountain passes for the Dalai Lama
Like past Indian leaders, the prime minister, Narendra Modi, has maintained an official policy of treating the Dalai Lama as an “honored guest” in the country, inviting him to meet the Indian president in December – another event that drew Chinese condemnation.
India and Tibet share close cultural and religious ties and the Dalai Lama has regularly affirmed India’s sovereignty over the entirety of Arunachal Pradesh, including areas the Chinese government labels “south Tibet”.
Tibet remains under the tight control of the Chinese government and possessing pictures of the Dalai Lama or his writings is illegal.
On Sunday, the Dalai Lama appeared to whisper something to Das as the pair embraced during ceremony. Asked afterwards what the Buddhist leader had told him, Das said: “He was happy to see me.”
DOOMED HUMAN RIGHTS IN OCCUPIED TIBET – NO SAFE PLACE TO LIVE
During its long history, Tibet came under foreign conquest by Mongol Empire and Manchu or Qing Empire which ruled over China. But, Tibetans never lost their traditional independent lifestyle.
Tibet declared full independence on February 13, 1913 and existed as fully independent national entity until founding of Evil Red Empire on October 01, 1949 by China’s Communist Party Chairman Mao Zedong. Red China’s brutal occupation transformed Tibet into Military Camp leaving no safe place for Tibetans to live.
For all practical purposes, Communist Dictator Mao Zedong is alive as his brutal, military occupation of Tibet survived his death in December 1976 which may have marked the end of Red China’s Cultural Revolution.
Ann Arbor, MI, USA 48104-4162.
Where is human rights in Tibet?
December 8, 2016, 11:07 pm IST YOUDON AUKATSANG in Echoes from the Himalayas TOI
We celebrate December 10 as the Human Rights Day to commemorate adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) by the UN General Assembly in 1948. This was a ground-breaking achievement because it was the first time in history that all Member States of the United Nations pledged to work together to promote the thirty Articles of human rights that was enshrined in the document.
This year’s Human Rights Day slogan Stand up for Someone’s Rights Today reaffirms common humanity and universality of humane values. It convinces us that whoever, whatever, whenever and wherever we are, we can make a difference. Each of us has the potential to make a difference in our own unique ways using a medium that comes easiest to us.
The Declaration reminds each one of us to stand up against human rights violations wherever it occurs, in a remote country, in our region, country or even at home.
This day has an added significance for Tibetans. We fondly remember the day as the Nobel Peace Prize Day as it was on this day in 1989 that HH the Dalai Lama was conferred with the Nobel Peace Prize. With this award, the international community not only recognized the commitment of His Holiness the Dalai Lama to non-violence and peace but also applauded his middle way approach and his efforts at resolving the issue of Tibet through dialogue with China.
United Nations did recognize the right to self-determination of the Tibetans and called for respect of basic human rights of Tibetans in the aftermath of Tibetan National Uprising and the coming into exile in India of HH the Dalai Lama in 1959. In fact, there were two other UN General Assembly resolutions in 1961 and 1965 condemning continued human rights violations of Tibetans. Since then, the corridors of UN General Assembly have been silent on Tibet except for rare references made during the Human Rights Council Sessions.
The international community has made out the issue of Tibet to be an issue of human rights. But for Tibetans, it is more critical than human rights violations. The issue of Tibet is about ethnic cleansing and cultural genocide. In fact, the report of ICJ which formed the basis for the UN resolutions on Tibet affirms it as early as 1959 and mentions that “acts of genocide had been committed”, and that “Tibet was at the very least a de facto independent State” before its annexation by the Chinese government in 1951.
The Tibet crisis has continued unabated since the Chinese occupation of Tibet. The Chinese state machinery clamps down on Tibetan religion, culture and language which forms the bedrock of Tibetan identity. Tibetans are arrested and imprisoned for celebrating religious festivals such as Saka Dawa or HH the Dalai Lama’s birthday.
Of the many ongoing campaigns enforced in Tibet by the Chinese regime, the most pervasive is “Patriotic education” aimed at strengthening ties between the public and the Communist Party and denouncing the Dalai Lama and “splittist forces”. According to Tibetan Centre for Human Rights and Democracy (TCHRD), Work Teams are formed under this campaign to cover every section of society including farmers, schools, monastic institutions and general populace.
Under the guise of this campaign, Chinese authorities interfere in the daily lives and religious practices of Tibetans. Influential Tibetans in various strata of the society particularly those with following are targeted and arrested under false allegations. Ceilings are imposed on number of monks and nuns in the monasteries and nunneries.
Recent news of demolition of Larung Gar Institute, one of the largest centers of Buddhist learning in Serthar County in Kardze Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan Province is the most current evidence of religious repression in Tibet. Demolitions are being carried out in line with the order given by the Chinese authorities to cut the number of residents by half to 5000. Central Tibetan Administration has urged UNHCR and the international community to save Larung Gar.
With no freedom to express your identity and the shrinking space for dissent under the Chinese rule, Tibetans have resorted to self-immolation the most extreme form of protesting Chinese repression. The most recent case of self-immolation of an unidentified person was reported on December 8 at 5 pm local time in Machu county, Kanlho Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Gansu Province. This has taken the reported cases of self-immolations to 145.
The world can no longer afford to remain a silent spectator, it needs to stand up for the rights of Tibetans in Tibet and urge China to have a dialogue with the representatives of HH the Dalai Lama to resolve the issue of Tibet.
DISCLAIMER : Views expressed above are the author’s own.
Youdon Aukatsang is currently serving her third term as an elected member of the Tibetan Parliament in Exile (TPIE). She is also the Director of Empowering . . .
Youdon Aukatsang is currently serving her third term as an elected member of the Tibetan Parliament in Exile (TPIE). She is also the Director of Empowering . . .
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