Spirituality – Molecular Individualism
EBOLA OUTBREAK – THE US RESPONSIBILITY:
There is a concern about the research on Ebola Virus and it appears that some research activity is about the potential use of Virus as a tool of Bio-Terrorism. If human subjects participate in research such as developing a safe-vaccine to prevent Ebola disease, the volunteers must be fully informed about the consequences before they give their consent to take part in the study.
A Liberian scientist has suggested that the United States may have contributed to the outbreak of Ebola Virus infection in West Africa by conducting secret investigations and experimentations involving the use of healthy, human volunteers who are intentionally exposed to the Virus to study its potential use as a tool of Bio-Terrorism.
Ann Arbor, MI 48104-4162, USA
U.S. is Responsible for the Ebola Outbreak in West Africa: Liberian Scientist
Global Research, October 17, 2014
A History of Guatemala’s Syphilis Experiment: How a U.S. Led Team Performed Human Experimentations in Central America
Dr. Cyril Broderick, A Liberian scientist and a former professor of Plant Pathology at the University of Liberia’s College of Agriculture and Forestry says the West, particularly the U.S. is responsible for the Ebola outbreak in West Africa. Dr. Broderick claims the following in an exclusive article published in the Daily Observer based in Monrovia, Liberia. He wrote the following:
The US Department of Defense (DoD) is funding Ebola trials on humans, trials which started just weeks before the Ebola outbreak in Guinea and Sierra Leone. The reports continue and state that the DoD gave a contract worth $140 million dollars to Tekmira, a Canadian pharmaceutical company, to conduct Ebola research. This research work involved injecting and infusing healthy humans with the deadly Ebola virus. Hence, the DoD is listed as a collaborator in a “First in Human” Ebola clinical trial (NCT02041715, which started in January 2014 shortly before an Ebola epidemic was declared in West Africa in March.
Is it possible that the United States Department of Defense (DOD) and other Western countries are directly responsible for infecting Africans with the Ebola virus? Dr. Broderick claims that the U.S. government has a research laboratory in a town called Kenema in Sierra Leone that studies what he calls “viral fever bioterrorism”, It is also the town where he acknowledges that is the “epicentre of the Ebola outbreak in West Africa.” Is it a fact? Is Dr. Broderick a conspiracy theorist? He says that “there is urgent need for affirmative action in protecting the less affluent of poorer countries, especially African citizens, whose countries are not as scientifically and industrially endowed as the United States and most Western countries, sources of most viral or bacterial GMOs that are strategically designed as biological weapons.” He also asks an important question when he says “It is most disturbing that the U. S. Government has been operating a viral hemorrhagic fever bio-terrorism research laboratory in Sierra Leone. Are there others?”
Well, Mr. Broderick’s claims seem to be true. After all, the U.S. government has been experimenting with deadly diseases on human beings for a long time, history tells us so. One example is Guatemala. Between 1946 and 1948, the United States government under President Harry S. Truman in collaboration with Guatemalan President Juan José Arévalo and his health officials deliberately infected more than 1500 soldiers, prostitutes, prisoners and even mental patients with syphilis and other sexually transmitted diseases such as gonorrhea and chancroid (a bacterial sexual infection) out of more than 5500 Guatemalan people who participated in the experiments. The worst part of it is that none of the test subjects infected with the diseases ever gave informed consent. The Boston Globe published the discovery made by Medical historian and professor at Wellesley College, Susan M. Reverby in 2010 called ‘Wellesley professor unearths a horror: Syphilis experiments in Guatemala.’ It stated how she came across her discovery:
Picking through musty files in a Pennsylvania archive, a Wellesley College professor made a heart-stopping discovery: US government scientists in the 1940s deliberately infected hundreds of Guatemalans with syphilis and gonorrhea in experiments conducted without the subjects’ permission. Medical historian Susan M. Reverby happened upon the documents four or five years ago while researching the infamous Tuskegee syphilis study and later shared her findings with US government officials.
The unethical research was not publicly disclosed until yesterday, when President Obama and two Cabinet secretaries apologized to Guatemala’s government and people and pledged to never repeat the mistakes of the past — an era when it was not uncommon for doctors to experiment on patients without their consent.
After Reverby’s discovery, the Obama administration apparently gave an apology to then-President Alvaro Colom according to the Boston Globe:
Yesterday, Obama called President Álvaro Colom Caballeros of Guatemala to apologize, and Obama’s spokesman told reporters the experiment was “tragic, and the United States by all means apologizes to all those who were impacted by this.
Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton had called Colom Thursday night to break the news to him. In her conversation with the Guatemalan president, Clinton expressed “her personal outrage and deep regret that such reprehensible research could occur,’’ said Arturo Valenzuela, assistant secretary of state for Western Hemisphere affairs.
The study in Guatemala was led by John Cutler, an US health service physician who also took part in the controversial Tuskegee Syphilis experiments which began in the 1930’s. Researchers wanted to study the effects of a group of antibiotics called penicillin on affected individuals. The prevention and treatment of syphilis and other venereal diseases were also included in the experimentation. Although they were treated with antibiotics, more than 83 people had died according to BBC news in 2011 following a statement issued by Dr Amy Gutmann, head of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues:
The Commission said some 5,500 Guatemalans were involved in all the research that took place between 1946 and 1948. Of these, some 1,300 were deliberately infected with syphilis, gonorrhoea or another sexually transmitted disease, chancroid. And of that group only about 700 received some sort of treatment. According to documents the commission had studied, at least 83 of the 5,500 subjects had died by the end of 1953.
Washington’s reaction to the report is a farce. The apology made to Guatemala’s government was for the sake of public relations. Washington knows about its human experimentations in the past with deadly diseases conducted by government-funded laboratories that are known to be harmful to the public. The U.S. government is guilty in conducting numerous medical experiments on people not only in Guatemala but in other countries and on its own territory. As the Boston Globe report mentioned, the Tuskegee Syphilis Study occurred between 1932 and 1972 by the U.S. Public Health Service to study the “natural progression” of untreated syphilis in the African-American population. The U.S. Public Health Service and the Tuskegee Institute collaborated in 1932 and enrolled 600 poor sharecroppers from Macon County, Alabama to study the syphilis infection. However, it was documented that at least 400 of those had the disease (they were never informed that they actually had syphilis) while the remaining 200 did not. They received free medical care, food and even free burial insurance for participating in the study. Documents revealed that they were told that they had “bad blood” which meant that they had various medical conditions besides syphilis. The Tuskegee scientists continued to study the participants without treating their illnesses and they also withheld much-needed information from the participants about penicillin, which proved to be effective in treating Syphilis and other venereal diseases. The test subjects were under the impression that they were receiving free health care from the U.S. government while they were deliberately being lied to by the same administrators who were conducting the tests. Washington is fully aware of its human experimentations with deadly diseases. The government of Guatemala also knew about the Syphilis experiments according to the Boston Globe:
A representative of the Guatemalan government said his nation will investigate, too — looking in part at the culpability of officials in that country. The records of the experiment suggest that Guatemalan government officials were fully aware of the tests, sanctioned them, and may have done so in exchange for stockpiles of penicillin.
However, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services published the study ‘Fact Sheet on the 1946-1948 U.S. Public Health Service Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) Inoculation Study’ and was forced to admit what happened in Guatemala during the syphilis experiments:
While conducting historical research on the Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis, Professor Susan Reverby of Wellesley College recently discovered the archived papers of the late Dr. John Cutler, a U.S. Public Health Service medical officer and a Tuskegee investigator. The papers described another unethical study supported by the U.S. government in which highly vulnerable populations in Guatemala were intentionally infected with sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The study, conducted between 1946 and 1948, was done with the knowledge of Dr. Cutler’s superiors and was funded by a grant from the U.S. National Institutes of Health to the Pan American Sanitary Bureau (which became the Pan American Health Organization) to several Guatemalan government ministries. The study had never been published.
The U.S. government admitted to its wrongdoing, 62 years too late. What Dr. Broderick wrote is not conspiratorial in any sense. The U.S. government has been involved in bio-terrorism; Guatemala is a case in point. Dr. Broderick summarized what average people can do to prevent governments, especially those from the West from creating and exposing populations from diseases they experiment with in laboratories:
The challenge is global, and we request assistance from everywhere, including China, Japan, Australia, India, Germany, Italy, and even kind-hearted people in the U.S., France, the U.K., Russia, Korea, Saudi Arabia, and anywhere else whose desire is to help. The situation is bleaker than we on the outside can imagine, and we must provide assistance however we can. To ensure a future that has less of this kind of drama, it is important that we now demand that our leaders and governments be honest, transparent, fair, and productively engaged. They must answer to the people. Please stand up to stop Ebola testing and the spread of this dastardly disease.
After Guatemala’s ordeal with the U.S. government who deliberately infected people with syphilis, West African nations should be extremely skeptical about the U.S. government’s actions combating Ebola. Professor Francis Boyle of the University of Illinois, College of Law questions the Obama administration’s actions in West Africa. RIA Novosti recently interviewed Boyle and he said the following:
US government agencies have a long history of carrying out allegedly defensive biological warfare research at labs in Liberia and Sierra Leone. This includes the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), which is now the point agency for managing the Ebola spill-over into the US,” Prof. Francis Boyle said.
Why has the Obama administration dispatched troops to Liberia when they have no training to provide medical treatment to dying Africans? How did Zaire/Ebola get to West Africa from about 3,500km away from where it was first identified in 1976?”
That’s a good question for Washington, but would the public get any answers? Not anytime soon, since it took more than 62 years for the Guatemala syphilis experiments to be exposed to the public, not by the US government, by a medical historian.
Copyright © 2014 Global Research
Albert Einstein’s hand-written letter in German questions whether an entity named God exists:
SPIRITUALISM – ABOUT SPIRIT AND SOUL – THE TWO SIDES OF THE SAME COIN :
I am pleased to share this letter with my readers. I am not surprised. Albert Einstein is no exception and like all others before him and after him( like Richard Dawkins ), he just chooses to examine one side of the coin and forgets that the same coin could have a second face. This is the same problem that I encounter while I read the thoughts of a variety of people. They fail to make the fundamental distinctions( for example, the distinction between the living and the non-living, or animate/inanimate ) and they tend to examine one aspect of the standard dualism( for example, Appearance – Reality, and Conditioned – Unconditioned ) . However, I have no reason to reject their views as they present a view of the coin, the face that they recognize. I would give a brief response and invite all to discuss the issue if that would be of any interest to you.
1. Human Identity and Human Individuality
2. Human Essence and Human Existence
3. Human Spirit and Human Soul
4. Human Creation and Human Evolution
5. Reality and Illusion.
There are two aspects or elements of human nature that are in perpetual tension with each other; 1. Freedom, and 2. Dependence. In ‘Spirit’ we seek Freedom, Independence, Liberation, Release, and Salvation. Freedom is associated with man’s ability called imagination, and man can find inspiration from within himself and from without to express his creativity. Man has this unique ability to set himself “FREE” in his mind. Man is endowed with an intellectual ability to seek “FREEDOM” even when that concept has no correspondence with an external Reality. Man can think that he is “FREE” while he exists in captivity. Man primarily uses his Freedom, the Free ‘Spirit’ to manipulate the dependent nature of his “conditioned” existence that is represented by the vital, animating, Life Principle called ‘SOUL’ on the flip side of the same coin. Man seeks to exist as an Individual with Individuality while being attached to the environment and the biological community in which he always exists. Man cannot escape from being an Individual with Individuality as this Individualism is the expression of the Individualistic behavior of the molecules( Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid or DNA) that are the biological basis for his existence. At the same time, man cannot find Freedom for he survives on support from an external source which demands a constant relationship with an external community of living things. I describe the second face of the coin as the ‘Soul’ which provides the attachment for man’s dependence. Man’s Spirit is expressed as his Essence and man seeks to describe his Identity in terms of this Essence and will be able to do so if and only if the Spirit is in relationship with the Soul that provides the attachment to draw energy from an external source. Man’s Dependence is associated with an emotional state or condition called ‘Devotion’ which is expressed as a behavioral attitude called Humility.
The matter that concerns us is not that of verifying the existence of God. Man is condemned to exist under the influence of an Illusion that generates Ignorance or inability to perceive the Reality. The experience of Ignorance is a fundamental requirement to support human existence. The perception of Reality puts an end to man’s existence. Man is free in his Spirit to seek Mercy, Grace, and Compassion to understand the nature of Reality while he is trapped by the powerful influence of Illusion. The Illusion that I speak about, describes the lack of sensory perception of the fact of existence on the surface of a fast-moving object. Man is free to describe the motion, but is not free to have a direct, sensory perception of that motion. Man’s Freedom is in his Free Spirit called ‘Bhavana’ and his relationship with the world and universe called ‘Jagat'( that which is constantly moving and changing ) in which he lives, is called Spirituality and Spiritualism. I like the concluding remarks made by Albert Einstein in his letter and it reads: “Therefore I think that we would understand each other quite well if we talked about concrete things.” In that spirit, I would invite my readers to talk about concrete things; this discussion is not about Albert Einstein’s personal belief, it is not about his Identity as a Jew, it is not about the stories found in Bible, and it is not about God. Let us talk about concrete things; man, his structure, his function, his behavior, his nature, and his existence in the world that we know and understand today.
Rudra N Rebbapragada
Ann Arbor, MI 48104-4162, USA
Albert Einstein’s Historic 1954 “God Letter”
by Richard Dawkins posted on September 17, 2012 02:34PM GMT
E-Bay will auction the original, handwritten, in German, letter and envelope,
sent on Princeton University letterhead, by Albert Einstein to
Eric B. Gutkind, on January 3, 1954, a year before Einstein passed away in 1955,
sent as response to Gutkind’s book “Choose Life: The Biblical Call to Revolt”.
Key Passages in Translation into English from German:
… I read a great deal in the last days of your book, and thank you very much for
sending it to me.
What especially struck me about it was this. With regard to the factual attitude to life
and to the human community we have a great deal in common.
… The word God is for me nothing more than the expression and product of human weaknesses, the Bible a collection of honorable, but still primitive legends which are nevertheless pretty childish. No interpretation no matter how subtle can (for me) change this. These subtilised interpretations are highly manifold according to their nature and
have almost nothing to do with the original text. For me the Jewish religion like all other religions is an incarnation of the most childish superstitions. And the Jewish people to
whom I gladly belong and with whose mentality I have a deep affinity have no different quality for me than all other people. As far as my experience goes, they are also no better
than other human groups, although they are protected from the worst cancers by a lack of power. Otherwise I cannot see anything ‘chosen’ about them.
In general I find it painful that you claim a privileged position and try to defend it by two walls of pride, an external one as a man and an internal one as a Jew. As a man you claim,
so to speak, a dispensation from causality otherwise accepted, as a Jew the privilege of monotheism. But a limited causality is no longer a causality at all, as our wonderful
Spinoza recognized with all incision, probably as the first one. And the animistic interpretations of the religions of nature are in principle not annulled by monopolization.
With such walls we can only attain a certain self-deception, but our moral efforts are not furthered by them. On the contrary.
Now that I have quite openly stated our differences in intellectual convictions it is
still clear to me that we are quite close to each other in essential things, i.e; in our
evaluations of human behavior. What separates us are only intellectual ‘props’ and ‘rationalization’ in Freud’s language. Therefore I think that we would understand each
other quite well if we talked about concrete things.
With friendly thanks and best wishes,
Yours, A. Einstein
The translation above is an abridgment of the letter from Albert Einstein to Eric Gutkind from Princeton in January 1954,
translated from German by Joan Stambaugh.
Spiritualism – The Discovery of Bhavanajagat.org :
Bhavanajagat.org is a private organization devoted to the study of discovering man’s purpose in this vast universe of unknown dimensions. Please note that the word ‘man’ is being used in this conversation to refer to the human organism which is constituted by trillions of individual, independent, living cells that have formulated an association, a partnership, a relationship and bonding that is beneficial to the existence of the ‘subject’ called ‘man’. If man has a purpose in this universe; it will not be possible to discover that purpose by physically exploring the limits or boundaries of the universe. Man’s physical abilities and capacity to directly explore universe are extremely limited. Man needs the safety and comfort of his terrestrial home to perform his life’s journey. The word “JAGAT” refers to planet Earth, this entire known and unknown limits of physical universe. The word “JAGAT” also refers to things that are constantly moving and hence changing. Man exists on planet Earth which is never at the same position as it partakes in the motion of Sun in the Milky Way. It is observed that the galaxies in our universe are not stationary objects and are moving all the time. Man may never know his precise location in this universe at any given instant and his existence is conditioned by an unknown factor called change. Since man’s existence is conditioned by constant change, it faces several challenges from known and unknown directions. The purpose of my study and investigation is that of promoting the well-being of all people without any distinction based upon race, ethnicity, country or nationality, culture, religion, language, age, gender, sexual orientation, educational qualification, occupational status, social ranking and participation in social or political organizations. There is a fundamental need to defend, and to preserve human existence as such ideas are always inspired by true or real human nature.
Man is a Rational Being :
Man has no choice other than that of dependence upon his reasoning abilities to arrive at a rational understanding of his purpose in life and its existence in this universe. A tool that man can use to know and understand the world and the universe is called “BHAVANA.” The Indian language term “BHAVANA” refers to a mental function or activity called thought or imagination. Man has the ability to use sensory information and combine it with his reasoning skills to make inferences about things that he may not be able to directly experience. Man uses a verification process to validate his mental concepts and ideas to find some correspondence between the mental concept and an external reality. The word “BHAVANA” could be used in several contexts such as 1.Originating Principle, 2. Prime Cause, 3. Devotion, 4. Meditation, 5. Mental Reflection or Contemplation, acts of thinking or imagination, 6. an act of Remembrance, 7. a proof or evidence, 8. recognition of things using the olfactory sense perception, 9. the mental preparation prior to performance of acts such as procreation and others,and 10. the use of a fluid medium like honey or fruit juice to dissolve medicinal agents. Using the principles of valid reasoning, it can be suggested that the universe had a beginning and it appears as a creative beginning as the products or things that came into existence appear like original, distinctive, and one of their own kind of objects. As of today, planet Earth appears like one of its own kind of object that is known to be supporting human existence. If planet Earth and the universe are created entities, the beginning implies a creative thought, imagination, or “BHAVANA.” I will be using ‘Bhavanajagat.org’ to share those ideas and mental concepts that may have practical application to provide therapeutic relief to the problems of human existence in this world and in this universe. I would also use ‘Bhavanajagat.org’ to communicate several aspects of the term “BHAVANA” as it relates to a “JAGAT’, planet Earth and universe that are subject to constant change.
Man is a Created Being : The Subjective Reality of Man :
Bhavanajagat recognizes man as a created being. Man comes into his state of existence as an original, unique, distinctive, one of its own kind of object or thing that has not existed in the past, and will not exist again in the future. This uniqueness is related to the nature of the human genome that always establishes man as an Individual with Individuality. Man has no choice other than that of existing as an Individual with Individuality. This fact of being an Individual is explained by the individualistic behavior of the DNA molecules which determine the morphological appearance, the structure, and functions of the human organism the DNA and other organic molecules create. The human person who describes himself as “I” comes into being and declares the fact of his existence by using the two words; “I AM.” The person called “I” has no independent existence at any stage of his existence. The condition called human existence always demands a connection with an external source of energy. In good health, or ill-health, at any given age, under any given circumstances, at any given place and environment, and membership in a social community, man needs to use energy and replenish the used energy. Man can maintain the Subjective Reality of his existence if he is connected to an external source of energy that derives its energy from Cosmic or extraterrestrial source of energy. Man does not establish this connection or partnership because of his physical, or mental efforts and work.
Man is a Spiritual Being : The Objective Reality of Man :
Man is a Spiritual Being as his existence demands the presence of a vital, animating, Life Principle. While most people agree that there is a fundamental distinction between living, and non-living matter, there is no consensus about the meaning of the term ‘soul’, or ‘spirit’. Bhavanajagat. org would use the term ‘Soul’, or ‘Spirit’ to describe it as a living principle and the term will not be used to describe any kind of immaterial principle which may have an independent existence while it is not attached to a living human being.
Man’s Essence and Man’s Existence :
Man’s Essence has two aspects; 1. An External Reality that can be known to others and is recognized by others, and 2. An Internal Reality, known to the man or an entity that can be called “The Knowing-Self.” Man’s physical identity, actions, and behavior are variable and are influenced by variable, external, environmental factors. Man defines his Essence in his thoughts, in his speech, in his actions, and behavior. But, to display this Essence, man needs the help of an unchanging nature of his living substance or living matter. Soul, or spirit is that unchanging principle that is unaffected by the influence of time or the variable, external, environmental factors. Man’s thoughts, speech, actions, and behavior will reflect this true, or real unchanging spiritual nature when he understands, and knows that his Existence demands the experience of an Illusion. Man exists on the surface of a fast-moving object and man is blissfully ignorant of the reality of Earth’s motions.Man recognizes Sunrise, Sunset, the alternating periods of Light and Darkness, and the changing Seasons. But, man has no direct, sensory experience of the fact of a moving object that causes the changes that he experiences as Day and Night. In other words, man lives because of his ignorance of the changing world. The speed of planet Earth if experienced, is not compatible with human existence. Man exists as he has no direct experience of the Reality of this World and the Universe. Man can recognize the operation of a Fundamental Force called the Force of Gravitation. But, if man’s Essence, and Existence have to come together, we need a Power/Force/Energy that can be called Mercy/Grace/Compassion. To know the existence of this Power/Force/Energy called Mercy/Grace/Compassion, man is endowed with an intellectual ability called ‘Devotion’. Bhavanajagat.org intends to explore the purpose of man in this universe using a reasoning process directed by ‘Devotion’.
Kindly join me in this effort and visit my Facebook page Bhavanajagat.org. I would really appreciate if you click on the “LIKE” icon on my Facebook page.
Rudra N Rebbapragada,
Ann Arbor, Michigan, U.S.A.
- Spiritualism and Exploring Anti-matter in the Universe (bhavanajagat.com)
- Spiritualism and Entropy (bhavanajagat.com)
- Spiritualism – the Victory Over Death (bhavanajagat.com)
SPIRITUALISM – THE NEW SYNTHESIS :
Dr. Edward Osborne Wilson is recognized as the world’s leading authority on ants. He is the foremost proponent of Sociobiology, the study of the genetic basis of the social behavior of all animals including humans. In his book, Sociobiology : The New Synthesis(1975) he had presented his theories about the biological basis of social behavior. It involves the application of the Theory of Evolution to the study of animal and human social behavior. It holds that the Theory of Evolution by ‘natural selection’ applies to behavior in the same way that it applies to structure and physiological functions. He holds that behavior patterns are genetically determined and are governed by the process of ‘natural selection’. Accordingly, he explains that social behavior relies upon the principle that genes are able to influence behavior and will be selected if the behaviors they encourage contribute ultimately to the reproductive success of the individual carrying those genes. The ‘Darwinian Fitness’ of an organism or a gene is a measure of the ability of that organism or gene to project copies of itself into future generations. Because, ‘natural selection’ would influence genetically controlled behavior, he believes that individuals will tend to behave in ways that maximize their ‘Darwinian Fitness’. However, he had attributed 10 percent of human behavior as genetically induced, the rest being attributable to environment. It could be indeed true that some behavioral abilities depend upon underlying genetic mechanisms which support the neural and hormonal mechanisms that are required in the performance of actions by organisms. Dr. Wilson has recognized the essentially biological principles on which animal societies are based and could apply those principles to human social behavior. One of Dr. Wilson’s most notable theories is that a characteristic such as ‘altruism’ could be genetically based and may have evolved through the process of ‘natural selection’. Dr. Wilson maintains that altruistic behavior is consistent with ‘natural selection’ in that the sacrifice is made to save closely related individuals who share many of the sacrificed organism’s genes.
ALTRUISM AND SOCIOBIOLOGY :
The term ‘altruism’ ( French – altruisme ) was coined by Auguste Comte, the founder of Positivism and Sociology. It is considered as antithesis to Egoism. Altruism is behavior that benefits others at some cost to the individual displaying altruistic behavior. Social scientists refer to altruism as the behavior of an individual who consciously comes to the aid of another, without expecting anything in return. Such behavior is influenced by empathy, an emotional response that results from being aware of another person’s emotions. In Ethics, altruism is described as a theory of conduct that regards the good of others as the end of moral action. It describes unselfish concern for the welfare of others. However, biologists view altruism as any behavior that reduces the ‘Darwinian Fitness'( reproductive success ) of the altruist while increasing the fitness of another. It is common for animals to share food, help provide for another’s young, defend others against predators, and give alarm calls when a predator appears. Such animal altruism is common and it does not require psychological abilities and functions like sharing of emotions, feelings, and thoughts. Altruism as a behavior is not always a psychological function or ability. It is displayed as pure altruism in the social behavior of worker bees, ants, and wasps.
SPIRITUALISM – THE NEW SYNTHESIS :
It must be understood that behavior is a fundamental characteristic of life and of all living entities. All species, whether single-celled protozoans or the largest of mammals possess the capacity to respond to stimuli in their environment. This ability called responsiveness is the fundamental attribute of all kinds and types of behavior. Psychologists like B.F. Skinner tend to focus on the learned components of behavior and stress the importance of environment and its influence on behavior. Biologists like Konrad Lorenz tend to focus primarily on the analysis of the innate components of behavior. Sociobiologists tend to recognize the role of genes and the influence of environment and describe that behavioral abilities depend on underlying genetic mechanisms that develop the structures and physiological mechanisms that are important to display a given behavior. It may be noted that both Psychologists and Biologists are describing behavior in the context of social relations and interactions between individual and groups of living organisms. Living things behave in ways to maximize their chances of survival. In the entire animal kingdom, most living organisms display parental or social instincts. All animals display social behavior. There is no animal that is ever completely isolated from some kind of environment that includes members of the same species or other species. Animals form parental societies to care for their offspring. Bacteria come together to live as colonies. Hence, it will be important to recognize social behavior that is displayed by individual living cells. I define Spiritualism as the capacity or the biological ability of an individual living cell to form harmonious relations with others and to participate in or contribute constructively to changes in the social environment. The potency called Spiritualism is reflected in the biological functions of Consciousness and Intelligence. At cellular level, the social aspect of Consciousness is reflected by the biological abilities of the cell such as association, cooperation, communication, recognition of other living cells in its immediate environment, and performing actions which have characteristics of functional subservience to provide benefits like survival and reproductive success to other cells. A very good example of Spiritualism is that of altruism displayed by the mature Red Blood Cells of humans. The mature Red Blood Cells have no nuclei and hence cannot divide or reproduce. Each Red Blood Cell has a very limited life span of its own. They sustain their meagre energy needs by a form of anaerobic respiration as they do not have mitochondria like the trillions of other cells of the human body. The Red Blood Cells are passive in nature and they simply exist to provide Oxygen to other cells and tissues, collect Carbon Dioxide while being swept along by the blood stream. Since the mature Red Blood Cells have no nuclei, their behavior is not operated by genes or genetic mechanisms which could be important in their formation, development, and maturation. The social aspects of the Red Blood Cell behavior is related to the spiritual nature of its living substance. I would ask Biologists to give attention to the nature, functional abilities of the living substance apart from the consideration of genes and genetic mechanisms. It may be very clearly understood that the nucleus, the chromosomes, and the genes have no independent existence of their own and they perform their cellular functions while they derive energy and nutritional support from the living substance or Protoplasm that has the biological abilities of Consciousness, and Intelligence which is reflected in its properties like responsiveness, the power of nutrition, and reproduction. Spiritualism is the Science of New Synthesis; the New Synthesis that formulates the relationships between Substance, Structure, Function, Heredity of a Living Organism and its Environment, Behavior, and Social Community.
Dr. R. Rudra Narasimham, B.Sc., M.B.B.S.,
Kurnool Medical College, Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh, India,
M.B.B.S. Class of April, 1970.
- Spiritualism – the Key to Human Nature (bhavanajagat.com)
- Spiritualism and Materialism (bhavanajagat.com)
- Spiritualism – the Medical Doctrine of Dialectical Spiritualism (bhavanajagat.com)
IRATE MOTHER SQUIRREL ATTACKED A VISITING TEACHER ON UNIVERSITY CAMPUS :
The Ann Arbor News has reported this story about a mother squirrel’s angry attack. A 52-year-old Detroit Public School teacher was with a group of students touring the University of Michigan campus in Ann Arbor on Thursday, April 23. She had spotted some baby squirrels that were outside of their nest. The teacher had tried to alert the mother squirrel that was at a distance about a baby squirrel that was left behind. The mother squirrel could instantly recognize that the teacher was giving unwanted attention to her baby. The mother squirrel was instinctively aroused, turned on the teacher. The teacher tried to run away from the angry mother squirrel. She slipped and fell on the ground and injured her ankle. Seizing the opportunity, the mother squirrel bit the teacher on her leg. The teacher managed to escape and went to the Hospital Emergency for treatment.
PARENTAL CARE IS AN INSTINCTIVE BEHAVIOR :
Parental care is an aspect of social behavior exhibited by all animals. This is a complex unlearned or innate behavior that is influenced by heredity(genetic basis) as well as by experience. The study of behavior provides valuable information about relationships among animals. No animal is ever completely isolated from some kind of environment. Animals exhibit social behaviors and form parental societies to care for their offspring. This parental care/maternal instinctive behavior is highly organized amongst mammals. The young are part of the mother while growing inside the mother and are nourished before birth by the ‘placenta’ of the mother. After birth, the young still seek nourishment from the mother and suck or lap milk produced by the mammary glands of the mother. This ensures that there is a strong family association between mother and the offspring.
BEHAVIOR AND CONSCIOUSNESS :
The mother squirrel while displaying its maternal instinctive behavior has demonstrated that it is a ‘CONSCIOUS’ entity. Consciousness is defined as the state of being ‘conscious’ which has two components. 1. Being ‘conscious’ means being aware or recognizing the fact of one’s own existence. 2. Being ‘conscious’ also means being aware of our natural environment and it represents the state of knowing what goes on around one. Being conscious gives us the ability to interact with our environment and display an appropriate behavior. In higher animals this consciousness or awareness is also characterized by the presence of mental activity which includes an awareness of our own thoughts and emotions. A living entity is always conscious of its own existence. A living entity always exists in a state of consciousness. We identify a person as ‘UNCONSCIOUS‘ if the person is not spontaneously interacting with his environment. There are several medical conditions that alter and affect our state of consciousness. Several drugs and intoxicants such as alcohol and poisonous agents like carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide cause drowsiness, stupor, and various levels of semiconscious to deep unconsciousness. Consciousness is very important in evaluating people with head injuries and neurovascular accidents such as ‘stroke’. While a person is unconscious of his environment, he is still aware of his existence. This fact could be easily demonstrated by conducting tests. A living organism or a living cell responds when exposed to a stimulus. For example, an unconscious individual is evaluated by testing to see the response of the pupil of the eye which reacts by constriction of its size on exposure to a light beam.
CONSCIOUSNESS AND SURVIVAL :
An organism uses its awareness to survive in the environment. I could illustrate this by narrating my personal experience. While I was camping in the Himalayas, We were using the quarters left by the British while they ruled India. On a cold winter night, I was sleeping in a small room that was not heated, and the room had no fire-place or a chimney. However, I had used a coal burner to heat the room. The coal burns very slowly giving heat and it lasts for several hours and needs no attention. On that particular night, I did not recognize, the coal was of poor quality and it was not burning as expected and was giving away smoke. The door and the windows were shut, and the smoke started filling up the room. The smoke is lighter than the room air, and it slowly went up filling the room from top. While I was fully asleep in a dark room, unaware as to what was going on around me, I was suddenly alerted when I experienced ‘palpitation’, a consciousness of my heart’s rapid beating. I awoke, but still could not see the smoke in the dark room. I had evaluated my condition to understand my rapid heart rate. I was in good health and there was no reason to experience an increased heart rate. I had decided to investigate my problem and walked up to the door to turn the light switch on. The moment I had turned the light on, I could immediately see the smoke-filled room and the fresh, clear layer of room air was below my bed level. I immediately left the room to get fresh air from outside and saved my life. Many people are not that fortunate, and we read about entire families losing their lives while sleeping in rooms that are heated by improper burners. I was not conscious of what was going on around me while I was sleeping. However, my body was aware and conscious all the time. The chemical sensors in my body worked alright, they sent signals to my brain centers, which in turn sent signals to increase my heart rate to improve the oxygen delivery. It fortunately worked like an alarm for me. Very often, people become more drowsy, become fully unconscious, and lose life while asleep in smoke-filled rooms.
THE SQUIRREL IN THE STORY OF RAMAYANA :
Just like the mother squirrel in Ann Arbor which demonstrated its consciousness, in the epic poem of ‘RAMAYANA’, the awareness and the behavioral response of a squirrel is described. The story narrates the construction of what is popularly known as “SETHU” or a bridge across the sea from the southern shores of Indian peninsula to the island of LANKA. The squirrel was apparently conscious of its environment. It had observed the activities of thousands of monkeys throwing stones to build the ‘ADAM’S BRIDGE’, and recognized the presence of LORD Rama who had initiated the effort to build the bridge. The squirrel had volunteered to help and in its behavior it showed attributes of devoted service. The abilities of the squirrel are very small and yet it won the favor of the LORD and is blessed. The LORD is pleased with the squirrel’s conscious efforts to offer devoted service.
CONSCIOUSNESS AND ENERGY :
The living human entity or man is known as “NARA” in the Sanskrit language, and the superior energy is personified and is known by the name “NARAYANA”. The poem of ‘BHAGAVAD GITA'( The Divine Song) narrates the dialogue between ‘Nara’ known as prince ARJUNA and ‘Narayana’ known as LORD KRISHNA. The LORD describes the relationship between the human soul( ATMA) and the divine soul( PARAMATMA). In Chapter 7 which is called ‘PARAMAHAMSA VIJNANA YOGA'( The Knowledge of the Ultimate Truth), verse 5 describes the ‘energy’ relationships. The material nature which is composed of sky, earth, air , water, and fire are constituted of ‘inferior energy’ of the LORD. The superior energy of the LORD is manifested as the embodied soul of all living entities. This superior energy of the LORD which is in the living entities gives the ability to the living entities to exist in the world by exploiting the inferior material energy from nature.
THE ENERGY PROVIDER AND THE ENERGY SEEKER :
Humans like other living entities supports his existence by deriving energy from the environment. Living cells obtain nutrients such as sugars and use oxygen in their metabolism to generate energy to carry out their vital biological functions. The primary source of energy of all living entities on planet Earth is derived from Sun. The Sun provides energy by burning its hydrogen fuel. It is reasonable to assume that Sun has derived its energy from a higher source of energy or “Higher Power”. This is evidenced by the observation of stars in various stages of their natural cycles of birth , and death. We can observe the birth of stars, the stars that are existing for a long time, the dying stars, the spectacular supernovas, and the dead stars like the white dwarfs, and the brown dwarfs. Human consciousness brings us the awareness and sustains the connection between the energy provider and the energy seeker. We manifest our existence with this unique ability to gain energy from the environment. Just like the squirrel in the story of Ramayana, if we use our awareness, we will become ‘CONSCIOUS’ of LORD’s presence whose superior energy we manifest.
Please also view related blog post titled ‘I am consciousness, therefore I am’.
Dr. R. Rudra Narasimham, B.Sc., M.B.B.S.,
Kurnool Medical College, Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh, India,
M.B.B.S., Class of April, 1970.
A colony of genetically identical E. coli bacteria is actually a mob of individuals.
Understanding Individuality :
Dr. Michael Elowitz, Physicist at California Institute of Technology has conducted experiments on colonies of genetically identical (clones) E. coli bacteria under identical conditions and discovered that they behave in different ways. The bacteria have fingerprints of their own and even when they share the same genome, they could still be identified as individuals.
THE LAW OF INDIVIDUALITY :
Just like the Law of Conservation of Energy, I propose the Law of Individuality which governs all the living entities. Either with the same and identical genome or with different genomes, all living organisms have no choice other than that of living as ‘Individuals’. The genes and the genetic codes function in accordance with the Law of Individuality. I would describe Individuality as a Trade Mark. It is the characteristic of a biological entity. Genes and the genetic codes are the tools that an organism uses to express its Individuality. Each organism assembles its own kind of protein molecules to define its identity and to defend its existence in the natural world.
Dr. R. Rudra Narasimham, B.Sc., M.B.B.S.,
Kurnool Medical College, Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh, India,
M.B.B.S. Class of April, 1970..
- Life and Death – a Changing World and Unchanging Reality (bhavanajagat.wordpress.com)