Cyclical Flow of Time


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Like all other living creatures of this planet Earth, man is a mortal being. Whosoever had arrived on this planet must also depart. As a biological species, what are man’s chances of survival in the future ?


Man is a member of the order of Primates, which is a part of the class Mammalia. Modern humans belong to the species Homo sapiens. Man is the only species in the genus HOMO of the family Hominidae that is living today. All other ancestral forms of the genus HOMO are extinct. The early Homo sapiens was possibly present in southeastern Europe 350,000 years ago. The numbers and range of humans has increased about 100,000 years ago. The rate of expansion of human population is related to technological advancements that increase the availability of food, or of major medical advances that reduce the number of deaths. Man not only fully inhabits and utilizes a wide range of environments but also alters these environments to his own ends. With a variety of sophisticated technologies interposed between man and the natural environment, the environment cannot exert pressures on the human species in the same way that it has on other species.

Essentially, the modern synthetic view of evolution could be defined as a change in gene frequency. Evolution could be described as change in the genetic composition of a population through time. For purposes of speciation or separation into new species, we need to demonstrate cumulative and important changes in the population gene pool. In the last 250,000 years there is no evidence to show any important changes in the population gene pool. Practically speaking, man’s evolution into a new species is arrested because of the intervention of culture between man and his environment.


In biology, extinction refers to the dying out or termination of a race or species of animals or plants. Extinction occurs when a species can no longer reproduce at replacement levels and all the surviving members perish at the end of their life spans which could be shortened by harsh environmental stresses. The causes of extinction include the following: 1. extra -terrestrial, 2. geological-climatical, and 3. biological. Most extinctions are thought to have resulted from environmental changes. A species could be affected in either of two ways :

1. The doomed species is not able to adapt to the changed environment and would totally perish without descendants;

2. The doomed species may adapt but, in the process, may evolve into a distinctly new species. When this transformation is completed, the doomed species would be identified as an extinct species. It should be noted that this kind of transformation of one species into a new distinct species is not actually observed by any person. The chances of man evolving into a new species is less likely because man has to some extent arrested this process due to the development of his abilities to manipulate nature.

Extinction is an ongoing feature of the Earth’s flora and fauna. The fossil record has served to demonstrate the history of most major groups of animals and plants. The record indicates the occurrence of fairly sudden extinctions of certain groups at certain times, and the fossil record also reveals the occurrence of a number of mass extinctions each involving the demise of vast number of species. A typical species becomes extinct within 10 million years of its first appearance and only one in a thousand species that have existed remain today. Some 99.9 percent of all species that have ever lived on Earth are now extinct. Mass extinctions are ecological disasters but they may also create opportunities by removing once dominant groups.


A drastic example of extinctions is provided by the dinosaurs. About 65 million years ago, at the end of the Cretaceous period all the major groups of dinosaurs and several forms of marine life became extinct more or less simultaneously. It has great significance because it ended the reign of the dinosaurs and opened the way for mammals to become the dominant land vertebrates. Some biologists conclude that humans owe our present dominance because of this K-T Event that saw the end of the dinosaurs.

Evidence points to the impact of an asteroid hitting the Earth as the cause of this extinction. An important aspect of such impacts by heavenly objects would be the creation of tremendous amounts of ionizing radiation which has played a devastating role in wiping out the marine life. It is suspected that catastrophic events such as an asteroid impact/radiation may have triggered other mass extinctions as well. In fact, mass extinctions appear to have taken place approximately every 26 million years. Some paleontologists proposed that a cyclical cosmic event cause these periodic die-offs.


The history of dinosaurs upon planet Earth clearly tells us and warns us about the vulnerability of human existence. The structural differentiation and the sophisticated functional organization of man makes him a very complex organism. Such complexity actually places man in a position of disadvantage when a cataclysmic cosmic event actually happens. Organisms that are structurally simple and functionally primitive and those that feed upon dying or decaying organic matter may survive better and ride over the chaos caused by a massive collision.

The theory of evolution would not be able to offer a sense of hope to humanity and just like the dinosaurs, man would be the next doomed species. Life forms have become extinct and yet life continued. A living thing is a composite of form, and substance. We tend to pay attention to the form and disregard the nature of the substance. The living matter or substance has endured all extinction events over period of 3.5 billion years after the first appearance of Life on planet Earth. This living substance survives and displays the quality or the characteristic of being imperishable, immutable, immovable, and eternal. There is hope that the living substance would again survive a future major extinction event. What about the life form that we recognize as man? Man could derive some comfort from the Book of Genesis, chapter 8, verse 22 which promises:

“As long as the earth endures,

seed-time and harvest,

cold and heat,

summer and winter,

day and night

will never cease.”

Dr. R. Rudra Narasimham, B.Sc., M.B.B.S.,

Kurnool Medical College, Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh, India,

M.B.B.S.  Class  of  April,  1970.



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I belong to Rajahmundry where Kandukuri Veeresalingam had written the first novel ever written in Telugu language. However, it was ‘ SARAT BABU’ who had first provoked my interest in reading Telugu literature. Sarat Babu , the famous novelist had written in Bengali language but fortunately his books are translated into Telugu language and while I grew up in Rajahmundry, his novels were extremely popular and had quickly aroused my curiosity. In 1953 the Telugu film ‘DEVADASU’ with Akkineni Nageswara Rao( A N R ) in the lead role was released and the songs from that film though not written by Sarat Babu also became very popular. It was not the popularity of this film which had drawn me towards the novels written by Sarat Babu. I had actually started reading his translated stories a few years later after joining Danavaipeta Municipal High School. I was attracted by his powerful narrative style and the portrayal of the characters in his stories. I know Telugu people who learned Bengali language just to get the pleasure of reading Sarat Babu’s original works. I also know some of my friends who acquired their names from Sarat Babu. I should acknowledge the fact that his novels gave me the impetus to develop the habit of reading books. While Telugu people could embrace and adore a Bengali novelist, I have not witnessed any love for Tamil writers. While I attended Danavaipeta Municipal High School in Rajahmundry, I learned about ‘TIRUKKURAL’ and was not introduced to any other Tamil literature.


Since Mylapore, Madras is my birth place, I grew up with a sense of fondness for that City and during 1950s I had visited Madras several times as my maternal grand parents still lived there. But, in Rajahmundry, my native place, I could not experience any sense of connectedness with Madras even though Rajahmundry was part of the then State of Madras. At Rajahmundry I got connected to the nation and much of it was inspired by the writers and thinkers of Bengal. In the beginning of 20th century, Bengal had shaped our sentiments and had exerted a great influence. I am not surprised that ‘VANDE MATARAM’ is our National Song and ‘JANA GANA MANA‘ is our National Anthem and the honour goes to Bengal. Unfortunately, Madras apart from being the State Capital could not excite Telugu peoples’ hearts in the way Bengal did. I can not recall the name of even one public figure from the Tamil speaking areas of Madras State who may have visited Rajahmundry or other Telugu speaking areas of Madras State. Actually, the relationship between Telugu and Tamils started deteriorating after India’s independence in 1947 and it led to the linguistic partition of India. I am proud of my Telugu heritage but I am not truly happy with the partition of the country on a linguistic basis.

Dr. R. Rudra Narasimham, B.Sc., M.B.B.S.,

C/O Shri. R. Suryanarayana Murthy, M.A., B.Ed.,

13-92 First Cross Road, Prakasam Nagar, Rajahmundry,

East Godavari District, Andhra Pradesh, India.

S.S.L.C.  MARCH 1961, Danavaipeta Municipal High School, Rajahmundry.   




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I am a native of Rajahmundry of East Godavari District, Andhra Pradesh, India by way of my family connections. I had lived only a small part of my life in my hometown. Within those few years, Rajahmundry very graciously connected me to the nation that we know as India. On one hand, I was introduced to the traditions of River Worship and Idol Worship, I got acquainted with the ideas of ‘AHIMSA'(non-injury), and at the same time I was also introduced to India’s history of foreign occupation, the pain imposed by the Muslim invaders, the struggle for Independence from the British Rule and equally important is the social awakening of the people. During 19th century, India saw the rise of nationalism and simultaneously there was a wish to reform the society. The natives of Rajahmundry received inspiration from a variety of sources. Ms. Annie Besant who became the President of the Theosophical Society in 1907 had visited Rajahmundry twice and established a place of worship known as ‘Divya Gjyan Samaj’ in a residential sub-division of Rajahmundry which is still known as ‘ALCOT GARDENS'( named after Theosophist Henry Steel Olcott). Bipin Chandra Pal(1858-1932), the leader of ‘VANDE MATARAM’ nationalist movement had visited Rajahmundry in April 1907. Alluri Sita Ramaraju(1898-1924) was inspired by the patriotic zeal of the revolutionaries in Bengal and waged a brief war against the British winning the hearts of the natives of Rajahmundry. 


He was born into a poor Brahmin family at Rajahmundry in 1848. About one hundred years later when I had arrived in Innis Peta subdivision of Rajahmundry, the first time I had known this great man was during a visit to the municipal park on the Main Road, just a short walking distance from my grandparents’ house. There is a very imposing statue and people spoke about him with pride and admiration.My eldest brother, Hari was a student at the Veeresalingam Theistic High School in Innis Peta. During the academic year 1952-53, I studied in 3rd grade at ‘SHADE GIRLS HIGH SCHOOL’ located near ‘KAMBALA CHERUVU'( Lake Kambala) while my family resided in Danavai Peta subdivision of Rajahmundry. Myself and my older brother Pratap used to walk to the school and the easiest way to reach the school was a private road which traverses the Veeresalingam Gardens. The subdivisions of Danavai Peta and the Danavai Pond and Prakasam nagar are located on the southern side of the Gardens and Gandhi Nagar is located along the northern perimeter of the Gardens. The school is at a short distance from the north-west entrance to the Gardens. Apart from the tombs of Veeresalingam and his wife RajyaLakshmi, the Gardens had a venue to conduct marriage functions and there was a Home for Widows. On our way to the school, we used to enter the Widow’s Home and a classmate of ours by name Sai Baba would join us in the walk to the school. On our return trip, the three of us used to reach the Home and after leaving Sai Baba, myself and my brother would resume our walk to our residence in Danavai Peta. There were several occasions when we would wait at the Home while Sai Baba’s mother would be breast-feeding him. During that school year, it was my daily experience and I knew that my friend and his mother derived their support from this great benefactor known as Veeresalingam. 

As my family lived on the outer fringes of Veeresalingam Gardens during the most part of my later school years at Danavai Peta Municipal High School, walking across the Gardens and playing cricket in the evening in the open areas of the Garden became a part of my daily routine. The Gardens had several flowering plants and fruit bearing trees and to celebrate the festival of Ganesh we used to gather from the Gardens several flowers, leaves and fruits which are required for the worship. At the same time, I also knew about ‘HITHAKARANI SAMAJ’. Veeresalingam donated all his life time earnings and had established this trust in 1907. Addepalli Vivekananda Devi, a social worker and educationist lived in Danavaipeta and I had seen her several times and I was aware that she was continuing the relentless effort started by Veeresalingam to empower women and for the uplifting of women. In 1968, she had successfully established Srimati. Kandukuri Rajya Lakshmi College for Women near the Lake known as ‘DANAVAI GUNTA’. My sister had attended this College. 

Veeresalingam was influenced by the ideals of ‘BRAHMO SAMAJ‘ founded by the great social reformers of Bengal. Raja Ram mohan Roy, Keshub Chunder Sen and Iswar Chandra Vidya Sagar did much work for women’s emancipation and Veeresalingam was the pioneer of social reform in Andhra Pradesh apart from his remarkable contributions to Telugu literature and for the cause of education.

During the course of life, moments slip away and fortunately they are laid into account. If there are no memories, there is no life worth speaking about.

Dr. R. Rudra Narasimham, B.Sc., M.B.B.S.,

Kurnool Medical College, Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh, India,

M.B.B.S.  Class  of  April,  1970.


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Botanist Wilhelm Barthlott of the University of Bonn in Germany discovered in 1982 that the lotus leaf has a naturally self-cleaning, water-repellant surface. The secret lies in waxy microstructures and nanostructures that, by their contact angle with water, cause water to bead and roll away just like mercury. Barthlott patented his discovery, calling it the Lotus Effect.

While Barthlott takes credit for his discovery of the waxy surface of the lotus leaf, Indians have known the lotus, an aquatic plant, for a very long time. Lord Vishnu, the Protector always carries a lotus flower in his hand, He is generally depicted in images in a lying pose with a lotus springing out of His belly button, His eyes are always compared to the petals of the lotus flower and His consort Goddess Lakshmi prefers to be seated on top of a lotus flower. Indians use the lotus flower for their worship and in Indian Art and Literature, lotus finds a prominent place and the Lotus has been given the official status of the National Flower. Indians are also equally impressed about the waxy nature of the surface of the lotus leaf and they know that the surface causes the water to bead and the drops roll away with great ease. This phenomenon is very often used to describe the transient nature of human existence.


The coins that we use are minted with two different faces and we need to flip the coin to see the face on the opposite side. So also, human existence has its two sides, an eternal entity and at the same time a transient being. I would refer to the following two verses to illustrate this view-point.


“As the embodied soul continually passes, in this body, from boyhood to youth, and then to old age, similarly, the soul also passes into another body at death. The self-realized soul is not bewildered by such a change”.

Since every living entity is an individual soul, each is changing his body at every moment, manifesting sometimes as a child, sometimes as a youth, and sometimes as an old man, the spirit soul however remains the same and does not undergo any change. The individual soul eventually changes the body itself, the soul transmigrates from one body to another body and hence death is viewed as the soul changing bodies from old to new one. According to one’s work in the present life, the living entity experiences enjoyment or suffering with the changing of bodies. This view helps the individual not to lament about death.


The ‘ADVAITA’ school of Indian philosophy was founded by the great teacher Shankara who is popularly referred to as ‘SHANKARACHARYA’. He had composed verses known by the name ‘ BHAJA GOVINDAM ‘( PRAISE THE LORD VISHNU) in which he described the transient, ephemeral, and fleeting nature of human life and existence. He compared human life to that of the bead of water drop on the surface of the Lotus leaf. He reminded us to understand that the body’s existence is very temporary and he had observed that the entire humanity is suffering due to sickness caused by ignorance which makes people to crave with a sense of attachment and desire to keep their impermanent existence.

The individual entity is an embodied soul. The soul is eternal but the physical body is temporary and just like the water drop on the surface of the Lotus leaf, the drop could roll away any moment, and the soul would change bodies sooner than we wish or desire. There is no point in cultivating a sense of attachment to the body as the soul is not willing to cling to the physical body. Man is a created being, exists as an individual with individuality, and has substance that is immortal, imperishable, or eternal. However, Man, the physical being with a shape and form is transient as he is born with a plan for the dissolution of its form.

Dr. R. Rudra Narasimham, B.Sc., M.B.B.S.,


S.S.L.C.  CLASS  OF  MARCH,  1961. 


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“Where are you searching for me, my friend ? I am with you. Not in temple, nor in mosque, not in Kaaba, nor in Kailash, but here right with you am I “.

KABIR DAS(Kabir-Arabic for “GREAT”, Das-Sanskrit for “SERVANT”) 1398A.D. to 1448A.D.(or 1440A.D. to 1518 A.D.)

Saint Kabir lived in Benaras(Kasi, Varanasi), India during 15th century. His contributions to the BHAKTI and the SUFI movements in India are well known. Some of his poetry was incorporated into the ‘Guru Granth Sahib'(Adi Granth), the sacred book of Sikhs. In this holy book, Kabir’s hymns appear at the head of ‘BHAGAT BANI’. Kabir pointed to the inward life of the mind as the source of contact with the Divine. Kabir grew up as a Muslim and his family was poor and he belonged to a community whose traditional occupation was that of weavers.


Kabir’s life, his birth and death, is shrouded in mystery and legend. One popular legend about Kabir’s death claims that after his death, his Muslim and Hindu disciples were fighting about the type of funeral rites as the Muslims believe in burial and the Hindus believe in cremation of dead bodies. When they had finally opened Kabir’s coffin and pushed the cloth that was used to cover the dead body, they were astonished to find that the body was missing. In lieu of the body, they found flower petals and an empty book. His disciples entered Kabir’s sayings in that book.

Humans, who had arrived on this planet earth, are certain to depart as well. The King would be gone after having climbed the throne. The Slave would be gone after having lived in shackles. The Fakir who had no worldly possessions or attachments also would be gone when his time to depart arrives. Kabir may have departed and as per the legend, his dead body had mysteriously disappeared but we still have his ideas and thoughts to inspire us.


It is very interesting to note that Indian thinkers could be certain about man’s departure. It would be much more interesting to reflect upon as to how man had arrived here in the first place. If we understand as to when and how man had arrived on planet Earth, we could be more certain about man’s status in nature. Each human being arrives as a new object, one of its own kind, original, unique, and distinctive. The genome of each man who has arrived here has not existed before, and would not exist again after the departure of that man. If arrived, man has no choice other than that of existing as an Individual with Individuality. If there is no escape from death; there is also no escape from the fact of existing as an Individual while living. Man has to define the term life, and death and explain the basis for his existence as an Individual with Individuality while he cannot rule or govern even a single individual living cell in his body which comprises of over 100 trillion cells.

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’50 Glorious Years of Popular Bhajans’, music cassette volume 1 to 5( SPHD 853212 to 853216) released by HMV( The Gramophone Company of India Ltd) in 1997 includes some of Kabir’s great lyrics and it would be a pleasure to listen to them.

Dr. R. Rudra Narasimham, B.Sc., M.B.B.S.,

Danavaipeta Municipal/Corporation High School, Rajahmundry, East Godavari District, A.P,, India,

S.S.L.C.,  CLASS OF  APRIL, 1961.


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The Holy Bible, The Book of Revelations, Chapter 19, verse 16 reads : ” He has on his garment and on his thigh a name written, ” KING OF KINGS, AND LORD OF LORDS .”

For the Son of Man is going to come in his Father’s glory with his angels, and then he will reward each person according to what he has done.(Matthew 16:27)


“No one knows about that day or hour, not even the angels in heaven, nor the Son, but only the Father.”(Matthew24:36)

“Therefore keep watch, because you do not know on what day your Lord will come”.(Matthew24:42)

“So you also must be ready, because the Son of Man will come at an hour when you do not expect him.”(Matthew24:44)


1. Imitate Christ’s Humility :

“If you have any encouragement from being united with Christ, if any comfort from his love, if any fellowship with the Spirit, if any tenderness and compassion, then make my joy complete by being like-minded, having the same love, being one in spirit and purpose. Do nothing out of selfish ambition or vain conceit, but in humility consider others better than yourselves. Each of you should look not only to your own interests, but also to the interests of others. Your attitude should be the same as that of Christ Jesus.(PHILIPPIANS 2:1-5)

2.Working with God :

“Therefore, my dear friends, as you have always obeyed-not only in my presence, but now much more in my absence-continue to work out your salvation with FEAR and TREMBLING, for it is God who works in you to will and to act according to his good purpose.”(PHILIPPIANS 2:12)

“Because of the increase of wickedness, the love of most will grow cold, but he who stands firm to the end will be saved”.(MATTHEW 24:12-13)

Christmas should not be viewed as an opportunity to please ourselves in the pursuit of joy for our selfish happiness. During this Season it is important to be prepared with a sense of FEAR and TREMBLING rather than to rejoice without Christ like spirit. Your attitude should be the same as that of JESUS.



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 Ullanghya Sindho salilam saleelam
Ya soka vahnim Janakaatmajaayaa
 Aadaaya te nieva dadaaha Lankaam
 Namaami tam praamjali Anjaneyam.
 In one great leap of faith,Hanuman jumps over the sea with utmost ease,whereas crossing the sea evokes only a sense of fear in my heart.I derive some hope from the legend about the land bridge built by the army of monkeys.The Sea God had promised that the rocks and boulders used for the construction of the bridge will be held in place and stay afloat.He did that to please Lord Rama.During my journey across the ocean of ‘ SAMSARA ‘,I could use the name “RAMA” and remain afloat.



In the fearful journey described as 'SAMSARA', I would use Lord Rama's name as a 'Life Jacket' and also the name serves like a Beacon of Hope and provides a sense of direction while journeying across an uncharted sea.


 The fear of the Lord is the beginning of Wisdom” says the Holy Bible,in The Book of Proverbs,Chapter1,verse7.For the religious traditions that originated outside of India such as Judaism,Christianity and Islam,the fear of the Lord could be a primary motivating factor to seek worship of the Lord.On the contrary,the religious traditions that originated in the land of India,do not encourage their adherents to entertain any such fear of the Lord.In the Indian traditions,the Lord or deity that Indians choose to worship would receive them with a sign that proclaims ” BE FEARLESS “.The Lord reassures them with a sign that is popularly described as ” ABHAYA HASTA “or ” ABHAYA MUDRA “.In Indian literature,countless number of images,idols,paintings and drawings,there are invariable references to a consistent message of ” ABHAYA “and naturally Indians are less concerned with ” The fear of the Lord “.  

The cultural traditions that originated in India motivate people to seek refuge or shelter at the Feet of the Lord by evoking a sense of fear and this fear is described as the fear of ” SAMSARA “.Samsara or Bhava describes the viewpoint about the human condition and deals with the problems of human existence.It contributes to a sense of apprehension and anxiety and the attitude it generates is one of intense fear and helplessness.Samsara portrays the picture of life’s journey as a tedious,difficult and challenging swim across an unknown,uncharted and treacherous ocean.Samsara is also depicted as a serious disease entity afflicting a person’s health and is referred to as ” BHAVA ROGA “.Others view Samsara as existence in a bottomless deep pit(“AGHADHA”)or that of being trapped in a deep well from where an escape would not be easy.The fear of Samsara/Bhava,the human condition,has nothing to do with physical courage.The powerful idea of Samsara inspires a sense of fear in the hearts of even the most courageous of all people.Cultural traditions that have their roots in the other parts of this planet may not be aware of this kind of fear and hence the fear of Samsara could be viewed as a feature that defines and molds the Indian Identity.Indians chant the Lord’s name as a medicine to cure this terrible disease and they seek Lord’s protection to reach the shore and complete the journey across the ocean.There are numerous references in Indian literature and some verses could be quoted to illustrate the point.  



Human existence faces challenges from several directions. The concept of Samsara is an additional and significant challenge experienced by the people of Land of India. Lord Rama during His life's journey had faced several challenges and His name gives the comfort and protection that I seek while my journey is rough and tough.


 Samsara sagara bhayaapaha viswa mantram  

Sakshaanmu mukshu jana sevita siddhi mantram  

Saranga hasta mukha hasta nivasa mantram  

Kaivalya mantra manesam bhaja Rama mantram.  

This verse would banish the fear generated by the ocean like Samsara.  



"VANDE VISHNUM, BHAVA BHAYA HARAM" - Salutations to Lord Vishnu, the Destroyer of the Fear of Samsara.


Shantaakaaram,bhujaga sayanam,padma naabham,Suresam,  

Vishwaakaaram,gagana sadrusam,megha varnam,subhangam  

Lakshmi kaantam,kamala nayanam,yogi hrudyaana gamyam  

Vande Vishnum bhava bhaya haram,sarva lokaika natham.  

The prayer would destroy the fear of bhava/Samsara.  





Samsara koopa mati ghoramaghadha mulam,  

Samprapya dukha sata sarpa samaa kulasya  

Deenasya Deva krupayaa saranaagatasya  

Laksmi Nrusimha mama deeht karaavalambam.  

The verse pleads the Lord to extend His hand and physically lift the worshiper from the horrible bottomless well of Samsara.  





Praatarnamaami girisam girijaardha deham  

Sarga sthiti pralaya kaarana maadi Devam  

Visweswaram vijita viswa manobhiraamam  

Samsaara roga haranoushadha madviteeyam.  

The verse describes Lord Shiva as the root cause of creation,sustenance and eventual destruction and the Lord’s name is the matchless medicine to wipe out the disease of Samsara.  



Guru Adi Shankaracharya describes the fear of Samsara and its resolution by seeking protection from chanting the name of GOVINDA.


Punarapi jananam punarapi maranam  

Punarapi jananee jatare sayanam  

Eha samsaare bahu dustaare  

Krupayaa paare paahi Murare.  

This verse seeks the compassion of Vishnu to reach the shore and to get over the problem of this difficult existence which involves repeated cycles of birth,death and rebirth.  



SHODASA NAAMA MANTRAM. The Sound Energy of these 16 names would destroy all the polluting effects of our present times.


Hare Rama Hare Rama-Rama Rama Hare Hare  

Hare Krishna Hare Krishna-Krishna Krishna Hare Hare.  

This Mantra is composed with sixteen words and hence is also known as Shodasa Naama
Mahaa Mantram.Amongst all Vedas,there is no better device than this Mantra to seek


deliverance from the trappings of Samsara.The following verse from Kali Samtaranopanishad  

proves the efficacy of this Mantra.  

Eti Shodasam Naamnam,Kali kalmasha naasanam;  

 NaaTha parataropayaH, Sarva Vedeshu drusyatey.  

Human existence is beset with countless uncertainties and difficulties which may arrive without any prior warning from different directions in an unpredictable manner.It is rational to approach life with a sense of apprehension and seek the help of the Lord who graciously held His right hand in a show of compassion and receives with a greeting of “ABHAYA” and is willing to banish the fear of Samsara.  

Please also view a related blog post titled ‘Defining Indian Identity – The Land of Karma’  

Dr. R. Rudra Narasimham,  

Kurnool Medical College, Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh, India,  

M.B.B.S.,  Class of  April,  1970.