SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE – CYCLICAL FLOW OF TIME – HUMAN NATURE – HUMAN BEHAVIOR:
In Indian tradition, time flows in a cyclical manner and time is divided into four periods called “YUG” and the Four YUGAS are named as 1. Satya Yuga or Krita Yuga, 2. Treta Yuga, 3. Dwapara Yuga, and 4. Kali Yuga. The present times of man belong to the period Kali Yuga and hence is of a great interest. Saint Ved Vyasa, the author of Hindu epic poems of Mahabharata and Bhgavata Purana made some predictions about human behavior under the influence of the time period of Kali Yuga. The word ‘Kali’ refers to contamination, or pollution and an important consequence of the polluting effect of Kali Yuga is thought to be “STRESS.” Man’s behavior is influenced by the stressful environmental stimuli and these stimuli are aroused by man’s perception of time. Since man cannot avoid interacting with the environment in which he exists, man is instructed to take the help of chanting the Divine Name of KRISHNA and RAMA as a ‘MANTRA’ to overcome the polluting effects of Kali Yuga.
KALI KALMASHA NASANA MAHA MANTRAM – HARE KRISHNA MAHA MANTRAM:
“Hare Krishna Hare Krishna, Krishna, Krishna Hare Hare,
Hare Rama Hare Rama, Rama, Rama Hare Hare.”
“Iti shodashakam naamnaam, Kalikalmasha naasanam;
NaataH parataropaayaH Sarva Vedeshu drusyate.”
Lord Rama’s name may not appear in the Vedas but it appears in Kali Santarana Upanishad, Krishna Yajur Veda, 103 Upanishad. “These sixteen words are destructive of the evil effects of Kali. No better means than this is to be seen in all the Vedas.” During 16th century A.D. Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu spread this Mantra among people with a great zeal. Basically, mantras are about the efficacy of Sound Energy. Shri. Ashok Coomar has kindly shared the 15 amazing predictions for the Kali Yuga made by Saint-Poet Ved Vyas in the Bhagavata Purana. While this prophesy pertains to human behavior, human nature remains essentially unchanged as human nature is operated by an unchanging, eternal, and immortal, vital principle called Soul or Spirit. While man’s identity constantly undergoes changes under the influence of time, the unchanging principle called Soul or Spirit maintains man’s individuality. Man is constituted as a Spiritual Being with a Divine attribute called Spiritual Nature that describes the true or real man. Whereas human behavior is variable and the variability is generated by the external environmental stimuli. I am asking my readers to give their attention to the distinction between Human Nature and Human behavior.
Ann Arbor, MI 48104-4162, USA
In the last canto of the Bhagavata Purana there is a list of predictions and prophecies, about the dark times for the present age of Kali Yuga.
The following 15 predictions, written 5,000 years ago by Sage VedavyAsA,
are amazing because they appear so accurate.
Despite the negative tone of these prophecies, there is still one bright spot for all of us, which is mentioned at the end.15 Most Amazing Predictions for Kali Yuga from the Bhagavata Purana
Religion, truthfulness, cleanliness, tolerance, mercy, duration of life, physical strength and memory will all diminish day by day because of the powerful influence of the age of Kali.
Source: Srimad Bhagavatam 12.2.1
tatas canu-dinam dharmah
satyam saucam ksama daya
kalena balina rajan
nanksyaty ayur balam smrtih
In Kali Yuga, wealth alone will be considered the sign of a man’s good birth, proper behaviour and fine qualities. And law and justice will be applied only on the basis of one’s power.
Source: Srimad Bhagavatam 12.2.2
vittam eva kalau nṝṇāḿ
kāraṇaḿ balam eva hi
Men and women will live together merely because of superficial attraction, and success in business will depend on deceit. Womanliness and manliness will be judged according to one’s expertise in sex, and a man will be known as a brahmana just by his wearing a thread.
Source: Srimad Bhagavatam 12.2.3
dāmpatye ‘bhirucir hetur
strītve puḿstve ca hi ratir
vipratve sūtram eva hi
A person’s spiritual position will be ascertained merely according to external symbols, and on that same basis people will change from one spiritual order to the next. A person’s propriety will be seriously questioned if he does not earn a good living. And one who is very clever at juggling words will be considered a learned scholar.
Source: Srimad Bhagavatam 12.2.4
pāṇḍitye cāpalaḿ vacaḥ
A person will be judged unholy if he does not have money, and hypocrisy will be accepted as virtue. Marriage will be arranged simply by verbal agreement, and a person will think he is fit to appear in public if he has merely taken a bath.
Source: Srimad Bhagavatam 12.2.5
sādhutve dambha eva tu
svīkāra eva codvāhe
snānam eva prasādhanam
A sacred place will be taken to consist of no more than a reservoir of water located at a distance, and beauty will be thought to depend on one’s hairstyle. Filling the belly will become the goal of life, and one who is audacious will be accepted as truthful. He who can maintain a family will be regarded as an expert man, and the principles of religion will be observed only for the sake of reputation.
Source: Srimad Bhagavatam 12.2.6
dūre vāry-ayanaḿ tīrthaḿ
satyatve dhārṣṭyam eva hi
yaśo ‘rthe dharma-sevanam
As the earth thus becomes crowded with a corrupt population, whoever among any of ther social classes shows himself to be the strongest will gain political power.
Source: Srimad Bhagavatam 12.2.7
evaḿ prajābhir duṣṭābhir
yo balī bhavitā nṛpaḥ
Harassed by famine and excessive taxes, people will resort to eating leaves, roots, flesh, wild honey, fruits, flowers and seeds. Struck by drought, they will become completely ruined.
Source: Srimad Bhagavatam 12.2.9
The citizens will suffer greatly from cold, wind, heat, rain and snow. They will be further tormented by quarrels, hunger, thirst, disease and severe anxiety.
Source: Srimad Bhagavatam 12.2.10
himair anyonyataḥ prajāḥ
kṣut-tṛḍbhyāḿ vyādhibhiś caiva
santapsyante ca cintayā
The maximum duration of life for human beings in Kali Yuga will become 50 years.
Source: Srimad Bhagavatam 12.2.11
triḿśad viḿśati varṣāṇi
paramāyuḥ kalau nṛṇām
Men will no longer protect their elderly parents.
Source: Srimad Bhagavatam 12.3.42
na rakshishyanti manujah
sthavirau pitarav api
In Kali-yuga men will develop hatred for each other even over a few coins. Giving up all friendly relations, they will be ready to lose their own lives and kill even their own relatives.
Source: Srimad Bhagavatam 12.3.41
kalau kakinike ‘py arthe
tyakshyanti ca priyan pranan
hanishyanti svakan api
Uncultured men will accept charity on behalf of the Lord and will earn their livelihood by making a show of austerity and wearing a mendicant’s dress. Those who know nothing about religion will mount a high seat and presume to speak on religious principles.
Source: Srimad Bhagavatam 12.3.38
dharmam vakshyanty adharma-jna
Servants will abandon a master who has lost his wealth, even if that master is a saintly person of exemplary character.
Masters will abandon an incapacitated servant, even if that servant has been in the family for generations.
Cows will be abandoned or killed when they stop giving milk.
Source: Srimad Bhagavatam 12.3.36
patim tyakshyanti nirdravyam
bhritya apy akhilottamam
bhrityam vipannam patayah
kaulam gas capayasvinih
Cities will be dominated by thieves;
the Vedas will be contaminated by speculative interpretations of atheists;
political leaders will virtually consume the citizens;
and the so-called priests and “intellectuals” will be devotees of their bellies and genitals.
Source: Srimad Bhagavatam 12.3.32
rajanas ca praja-bhakshah
Despite all of these dark prophecies,
there is one good quality in this age of Kali yuga:
kaler dosha-nidhe rajann
asti hy eko maha gunah
kirtanad eva krishnasya
mukta-sangah param vrajet
“Although Kali-yuga is an ocean of faults, there is still one good quality about this age: simply by chanting the names of Krishna, one can become free from material bondage and be promoted to the transcendental kingdom.” (Source: Srimad Bhagavatam 12.3.51)
So let us take advantage of this special spiritual gift given during the dark times of Kali yuga to quickly raise ourselves spiritually through chanting of God’s holy names.—
Can anyone then ignore the 15th prediction in which lies the only hope?
DEVOTION AS A METHOD OF INQUIRY:
We started this discussion to show our appreciation to Jonardon Ganeri, Professor of Philosophy, Department of the Study of Religions, The School of Oriental and African Studies(SOAS), University of London, who displayed a commendable understanding of Indian Schools of Thought in an interview that was published and shared with us by one of the members of this forum. Kindly read the interview and the Hyperlink is given at the end of this blog post. The basic purpose of this exchange of views is about knowing man and the world in which he exists.
In that context, I discussed the motions of Earth. The Milky Way Galaxy is moving at about 1.2 million miles/hour(not all the stars of the Milky Way Galaxy System move at this speed). Sun is moving at about 140 miles per second. Earth is revolving around Sun at about 66,660 miles/hour and is spinning around its axis at about 1,000 miles/hour. In my life journey on the surface of planet Earth, I partake in all these motions as I have no other individual choice, no freedom of action or ability to rule or govern myself according to my individualistic desires.
Nicolaus Copernicus(1473-1543) Polish astronomer discovered that planets revolve around the Sun and that the turning of the Earth on its axis from West to East accounts for the apparent rising and setting of the stars( includes Sunrise and Sunset), and it forms the basis for modern astronomy.
Johannes Kepler(1571-1603) German astronomer and mathematician discovered the Kepler’s Laws of Motion.
Sir Issac Newton(1642-1727) English mathematician, physicist, and natural philosopher formulated the Laws of Gravity and Motion.
Albert Einstein(1879-1955), US physicist, born in Germany formulated the Theory of Relativity. The most important matter and energy equation is that of the ability of the living things to exploit matter and energy to their advantage.
I respectfully acknowledge their contributions and there are several others who had verified the information provided by them. However, it may be noted that none of those contributors are physicians and their primary concern is not about the problems of human existence. For man is a mortal being, there is no escape from the problems of aging, and longevity. Man exists with a life-span, and has a lifetime which is measured by the time interval between two events that cause a significant environmental change that the human body recognizes as if it is operated by a precise clock. Of all the motions that I described, to account for the problems of human existence, I have to examine the spinning motion of Earth around its own axis. All other celestial motions are relevant but my life’s journey on planet Earth is involved and is impacted by Earth’s spinning motion. In Medical Science, we recognize Vital Functions, Vital Operations, and Vital Principles. A physicist has not accounted for any of the Vital Functions that govern or rule human existence. So, at a fundamental level, to understand the issues that involve human existence, we need a method of inquiry that a physicist may not use.
I am asking my readers to learn to make the distinction between mechanical actions and intelligent actions. We need to separate mechanical operations from vital operations. There is the difference between mechanical performance and intelligent performance. People make the distinction between Transitive Action and Immanent Action. The action performed by an inert body on another inert body is called Transitive Action. In contrast, Immanent Action perfects the agent that performs the action. To establish life, in the performance of the vital, living functions, the agent is perfected by its own actions such as growing, sensing, understanding, and developing. For example, heating is a Transitive Action for the hot thing loses its own heat. In the performance of Vital Functions and Intelligent Actions, the results of action remain in the agent to provide some benefit, advantage, or purpose. The term purposiveness describes actions that are guided to achieve a future end and it includes the selection or the choice of means to accomplish or obtain the desired goal.
The word ‘animal’ is derived from Latin name for “SOUL” the Vital Principle of animation. It helps to divide Matter into two kinds; animate, and inanimate, living, and nonliving, sensible, and insensible, or Physical Matter, and Living Matter. The biological property called consciousness describes the difference between Vital Powers and the Capacities of Inert or Physical Matter. Consciousness describes the difference between animate and inanimate things. Consciousness accounts for the power of Self-Nutrition( In Physiology called ‘NUTRITION’), which is the originative Power the possession of which leads us to speak of things as living or nonliving. Apart from Physics, Biology demands explanation for knowing Matter, Energy, and Motions of Objects. The Laws of Physics cannot account for the correct understanding of Vital Powers, Vital Functions, Vital Operations that are based on Intelligent Actions.
In the Divine Song popularly known as The Bhagavad Gita, Chapter VII, verse #25, Lord Krishna speaks to Prince Arjuna: “Naham prakasah sarvasya Yoga-Maya-samavrtah; Mudho’ yam nabhijanati loko mam ajam avyayam.” “I am never manifest to the foolish and unintelligent. For them I am covered by My eternal creative potency(“MAYA”) and so the deluded world knows Me not, who am unborn and infallible.”
The scientific method of inquiry is relevant to understand certain aspects of Matter, Energy, and Motion. There is an aspect of human existence that is operated by the Force of Illusion(“MAYA”) and this existence is not accounted by the realities of the world and the universe in which man finds his existence without any choice of his own. To account for this human existence which needs the operation of illusion, I make my inquiry using “DEVOTION” as my tool or method to investigate the problem.
Ann Arbor, MI 48104-4162, USA
On Tuesday, 9 September 2014 10:33 PM, R.Rudranarasimham wrote:
MADHU, MADHAVI, AND MADHURYA:
Sugar, alcohol and sweetness are related terms. Photoreception is the basis for Photosynthesis and it always performs a creative action to produce sugars and other plant products. We often miss the point about the creative generation of sugars. Madhavi symbolizes a person associated with this creative power that is involved in the generation or production of sugar( the fermented liquid, wine or alcohol is called Madhu) and it is easily identified by the taste sensation it imparts. In other words, the creative power, potency can be physically experienced using the taste sensation. Creation is not an abstract idea. Man experiences the fact of creation using the five organs of sense perception.
Thanks for knowing the difference between propulsion and propellant. All said and done, man can only look at the distant stars and admiringly sing, “Twinkle, Twinkle Little Star, How I Wonder What You Are,” for man cannot devise a propulsion mechanism using all the expendable propellant and reach any of those stars that shine in the night sky. For that matter, man has no ability to make an experimental model of a solar system that sustains the varied motions using the operation of natural forces. Science is not a Power/Force/Energy. Knowing Science does not make man the Controller of Power/Force/Energy.
On 9 September 2014 07:17, Srinivasa Rao Kankipati wrote:
Marvellous exposition Dr Rao garu. When I delete every other message in these emails, still I will retain yours forever for the precision and for the value of the no-nonsense, point-by-point and scientific information it contains. Thank you so much.
– Dr K Srinivasa Rao, MA CAIIB PhD, Chief General Manager (retd), State Bank of India.
On 9 September 2014 02:56, Dr. PVS Rao wrote:
Thank you for your mails. Your sentences are in quotes ” ” and are followed by my responses.
“Thanks for your reply and thanks for that extra effort to answer the issues by including quotes from my letter.”
Thanks for your kind comments. At first, a few clarifications.
“language that is called ‘Binary Code…”
There is no ‘language’ called binary code. Languages and codes are entirely different.
“All of our communications are made possible because the computer programmer has used this Binary Code.”
Programmers do not use the binary code at all.
“Binary code … uses numerical symbols”
It uses only ones and zeroes.
“The word ‘Madhurya’ is derived from the word ‘Madhavi’ which means sweetness and the sweetness is compared to the sweetness imparted by honey, nectar and wine.”
The root word is Madhu which means honey besides many other things.
Madhurya means sweetness
Madhavi means a procuress, bawd, a brothel keeper, an intoxicating drink, sugar, a drink made from honey, tulasi, a white flower ….
To the best of my knowledge, it does not mean sweetness or honey.
“Apparently, I am doing better than last year when
most people simply ignored what I write and have not bothered to give a response. I will keep trying and give a chance to people to think over the issue.”
As for response, almost without exception, the people on our mailing lists are persons who have made their own individual mark in various professions (academicians, vice-chancellors, award-winning scientists, reputed engineers with many patents to their credit, CEO’s and heads of organizations, senior administrators, and so forth. They are a mature, knowledgeable lot…. How ever, they do not respond as often as one would like them to.
1. They may not respond to something which is obviously true, because they feel that there is no need to endorse the obvious.
They may keep quiet when they see something patently absurd, thinking it would be pointless.
2. They may not want to react when they read statements which can neither be proved nor disproved (e.g. God created the world in 6 days…..).
3. They may also hesitate if they get the feeling that some of us tend to be preachy, patronising, judgmental, do not take even constructive analysis or comments kindly and, simply because we do not agree with some one’s views, react with anger, sarcasm, or merely to score debating points rather than with an open mind, unemotionally, constructively and with mutual respect.
The language of a scholarly discourse on a spiritual subject, a discussion in a scientific conference room, a paper in a scientific journal or a an article in a popular science magazine is much different from that of a political squabble or a teenage spat.
Some of the language we see in the mails and exchanges makes me uncomfortable. Perhaps it makes others uncomfortable too.
This may account for several amongst us keeping quiet even if they have contributions to make… just to avoid possible unpleasantness.
“To understand man and the world in which he exists, we need to know the dynamics of a star called Sun and a planet called Earth and their relationship as members of a Solar System. Each planet and the star that form this Sun family exhibit different kinds of motions”
This, and some other things.
“no single Law or mechanism that can account for this variation in their motions.”
The existing, well established sciences (Newton, Galileo, Kepler down to Einstein and the rest of the stalwarts) seamlessly explain all these and much more quantitatively ….
If you need separate sets of laws principles and explanations for individual cases, it will be an ad-hoc patchwork, not science.
“To postulate any hypothesis, basically it must be understood that planet Earth is a solid planet like Mercury, Venus, and Mars; whereas Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune are gaseous planets.”
astrophysicists and physicists do understand this. Astronomy explains all these and black holes, neutrino stars, novae and supernovae …. It has even predicted the existence of unknown planets which were indeed discovered later. They were found at the exact locations that were predicted for them. There are innumerable other such predictions that science made which later turned out to be true (including the bending of light in a gravitational field and even the misleadingly named God Particle).
“It (the earth) is constantly moving and its position is constantly changing. We do not use the precise language called Mathematics to describe such a variable condition to which no value can be attached by using any kind of symbol that we can possibly imagine.”
It is for precisely such situations that the precision and power of various branches of mathematics are ideally suited, they have been and are being used for this purpose. (Mathematics is not a language.) In-depth knowledge of mathematics and physics will clarify how this is being done.
“To explain the complexity of Earth’s rotational spin, the Newtonian Mathematical Formula is inadequate and is imprecise.”
Anyone who can prove that Newtonian and subsequent physics is inadequate and provide a more adequate way will become more famous than Newton.
Anyone who is able to throw out the current foundations and framework of physics, astrophysics and astronomy by replacing them with a better one will be a bigger scientist than Newton, Einstein and the entire Galaxy of scientists and Astrophysicists who have so far worked in this area from times immemorial. He will be immortalised and reverentially remembered for all times to come, as long as there is mankind..
“If you use the word, “EVOLUTION” like a Magic Formula, it does not provide any answers.”
It is true that even in the 21st century, there is a Flat Earth Society and there are also people who junk Darwinian evolution. Often, opposition to Darwin is due to strong religious convictions. Therefore no comment.
“I state that cognition is a function of the living cell and not a function that could be performed by brain. It can be verified by simply studying amoeba which has cognitive abilities without having any special organs of sense perception.”
In case this is the currently accepted state of the art in this area, I would be grateful for a reference to the relevant scientific publication.
If on the other hand, it is a new idea, I suggest that you incorporate this claim in a ‘scientific paper’ and publish it in a reputed journal (perhaps even ‘nature’ because it appears very revolutionary.
“I am not sharing a romantic or poetic view about Love. In Indian tradition, the word Love is not used very often. Indian thinkers prefer to explain the experience of Love called Joy, Happiness, Bliss and use terms such as ‘ANANDA’, SANTOSH’, and ‘MADHURYA’.”
No comment, religion and tradition become touch-me-not subjects.
“For Love is a Fundamental Force, it operates biological actions and interactions and the fact of its existence is known by both subjective and objective criteria that can be used to measure the degree of happiness or unhappiness.”
Serotonin and endorphins.
“It is important to know that man is not the Controller of Energy/Power/Force for man leads an energy-dependent existence. If the fact of man’s energy dependence is not understood, you will not be ready to learn the first lesson of Spirituality Science.”
“The Laws of Physics and Chemistry are based on mechanistic principles. …. I am stating that you cannot explain the relationship between the energy-yielding, and energy-dependent molecules using the principles shared by Physics and Chemistry. I do not mind if you want to recognize what I call and describe as the ‘Spirituality Science’, the Science that is concerned with matter and energy acquisition and transformation to sustain biological actions and interactions.”
I feel that no one should conduct bhajans in an operation theatre or do post-mortem dissections (or even surgical operations) in temples.
“In the motions of planet Earth in relation to Sun, we can discern purposiveness, goal-oriented actions that can be subjectively and objectively experienced to understand the Magic of Creation.”
Obviously this is a statement of faith (It is like saying “there is God’ or that He pronounced the Ten Commandments). As far as I can see, it is not a scientific hypothesis that can be put to the rigours of very accurate quantitative testing and validation, which all theories and hypotheses of physical sciences have to pass and have passed before they were accepted. They can neither be proved nor disproved.
We scientists have therefore to leave these claims alone, because they fall outside the discipline of Science.
“To narrow the field of discussion to a few topics at a time, you can choose a topic of your choice; 1. The Laws of Thermodynamics-Entropy, and Temperature regulation by human body, 2. Oxidation-reduction Chemical reactions and control of H ion concentration as a subject of Spirituality Science, 3. Consciousness as a living function unexplained by Physics or Chemistry which explain chemical and physical interactions in the physical world, 4. Cognition, Intelligence which is unrelated to acquired knowledge or learned experience, and 5. Life span in relation to molecules and elements that are not perishable and immutable.”
Thank you for the kind and generous offer. But thanks to my current professional and other commitments, I have to forsake that luxury. Once again, thanks for your offer.
Hence, please understand if I do not participate anymore in this stream.
Dr. PVS Rao
On 9 September 2014 06:14, R.Rudranarasimham wrote:
What is Binary Code?
The computer that we use, may be using a language that is called ‘Binary Code’. All of our communications are made possible because the computer programmer has used this Binary Code and the instructions given to the Computer are easily recognized by this language of Mathematics that uses numerical symbols. But, if I write this letter using the Code, most of us would fail to know its contents. To experience the reality of man, and the reality of world, the medium called Mathematical Language is totally inadequate. You may be able to make statements using precise numbers with values and yet it will remain unintelligible.
To explain the complexity of Earth’s rotational spin, the Newtonian Mathematical Formula is inadequate and is imprecise. It is easy to describe the Conservation of Angular Momentum but it is extremely difficult to evolve a mathematical formula to describe the Momentum in its relationship to Earth’s precise location in this vast universe. From the moment planet Earth came into its condition called existence, there are never two identical instants in its long life which is measured as billions of years. At no instant in this long existence, planet Earth existed at the same location of the universe. It is constantly moving and its position is constantly changing. We do not use the precise language called Mathematics to describe such a variable condition to which no value can be attached by using any kind of symbol that we can possibly imagine.
Ann Arbor, MI 48104-4162, USA
On Monday, September 8, 2014 6:18 PM, Srinivasa Rao Kankipati wrote:
It would be nice if all this longish narration is put in mathematical form and presented to a scientific journal for publication. It would benefit a wider audience, who otherwise have to reach your blog on their own and swim for the nuggets of truth. Newton, Einstein, Planck etc not only narrated their discoveries in a short form but also expressed them in mathematical form. For example, Newton’s Second Law of Motion takes the concise form
F = m a, where F and a are vector quantities. If F =0, it means a = 0, meaning that v = 0 or c, implying that the body is at rest or is having uniform motion in a straight line.
Similarly, it should be possible to frame your theory on Law of Love in mathematical form and regale your audience and edify them. Please try it with your vast capabilities you I am sure will not fail. Best Wishes.
On 8 September 2014 14:22, R.Rudra Narasimham <rebbapragada> wrote:
What is force?
In Physics, force is defined as the cause or agent that puts an object at rest into motion or alters the motion of a moving object. This issue has come up for discussion to account for man’s existence on the surface of a fast spinning celestial object. The fundamental force called gravitation may explain planet Earth’s elliptical orbit but it cannot account for the Earth’s revolution around its own axis. Since the concern is about explaining human existence, as we belong to the Solar family, we have to initially give attention to the motions displayed by other members of this family. In this context, I have used the term fundamental force and mentioned that Love is a Fundamental Force. I am not speaking about feelings or thoughts of Love. I am trying to find a name to describe the force that has put Earth into its fast spinning motion. If there is a name in Physics, kindly feel free to reveal that name. The suggestion that a glancing collision can initiate or alter the motion of a moving object sounds good but cannot withstand simple scrutiny. We need a variety of celestial objects of different dimensions to collide with other celestial objects of varying dimensions and generate the angular momentum that establishes the uniqueness of the celestial object. For example, planet Earth, and Moon need two different kinds of objects to give them the rotational spins they display. Then, what happens to that agent that caused this motion? I would expect that agent to remain in the Solar system as it would be governed by Sun’s force of gravitation. If the agent is too small, it will not be able to exert enough force to cause a change in motion. We are able to develop and use a Lunar calendar and develop a concept of time for the motions of Moon are synchronized with motions of planet Earth. Apart from that living beings like man exist for a measured length of time in which the individual organism uses the length or duration of periods of light called day, and periods of darkness called night. While the living matter has its own kinds of motions, its living functions are operated by an environmental change that is recognized as Sunrise and Sunset while in reality there is no Sunrise or Sunset. Take your time, give the name from Physics. If Physics cannot name it, I would name the Force as Love.
What is Cognition?
Cognition involves the ability to process information( the act, the condition, and the state of knowing a range of facts). The living cell is separated from its external environment by its Plasma Membrane or Biological Membrane. This Membrane allows a highly controlled exchange of matter across the barrier it poses, some compounds are able to pass through the membrane easily, others are completely blocked. The selective absorption of ions, molecules may require the use of energy and it is not operated by laws of Physics which govern the movement of particles across semipermeable membranes and depends on partial pressures. At a fundamental level, every living cell has the cognitive ability to recognize the existence of other living cells that are present in its immediate, external environment. Kindly find time to read about Membranes, Membrane transportation, Membrane Structures and functions. The Outer Unit Membrane of Mitochondria controls the passage of material into and out of the Mitochondria and govern their internal environment. This Membrane recognizes and controls the flow of nearly 1,500 different peptides. Actually, my brain may not even know all the names of these compounds. My cognitive power and ability is far inferior when compared to the cognitive abilities of individual cells and other membrane-bound structures like nucleus, mitochondria, and ribosomes.
I describe ‘consciousness’ as the biological function that is concerned with knowing the fact, state, and condition called existence at a given place and time. At a fundamental level, consciousness is not a function called thinking which is a mental function or cortical function.
Ann Arbor, MI 48104-4162, USA
On Monday, September 8, 2014 12:57 PM, Srinivasa Rao Kankipati wrote:
We all know that the feeling of love guides human affairs and even the behaviour among animals though not in plants. But it is news that there is a Law of Love which governs all other forces. If so, the way it governs has not been indicated, only postulated. And postulation is not proof. By authoritarian means, it can be rubbed down the throats of gullible followers but even they will not be convinced after the initial newness of the theory wears off.
One person says the Law of Love governs the universe. He does not define the terms Law and Love. The same man at another point says that cells have the power of cognition, without caring to define what cognition is. If cognition is the ability to carry out certain prescribed functions but not others, then even a computer chip is able to do that and it is ridiculous to endow them with the ability of cognition. All that is required for certain functions to be carried out is that the proper structure must be there in the agent that carries out the function, and there must be the energy supply to the agent to enable this to be done. Thus both structure and energy are essential. I am not prepared to call this combination cognition, because it is just a new word for a known function.
Another man loosely says that the entire universe is governed by Consciousness. And he is not even conscious that consciousness is nothing but a recording of some information and the ability to recall it, carried out by remarkable swiftness and accuracy by brain cells in human beings and other beings. But 99.0099% of the universe is not conscious of any aspect of the rest of the universe! Still the man theorizes that Consciousness governs the universe. He is even so preposterous as to hypothesise that God is Consciousness Incarnate, without caring to define consciousness and personification
Even Swami Vivekananda defines the goal of life as Freedom. The way he defines Freedom is to say: “In Freedom we arise, in Freedom we exist, and in Freedom we merge”. Try as I did with due to respect to this great man, I could never decipher the meaning of this statement. The maximum meaning that can be squeezed into this statement is that man has no existence before his birth, and that he has no existence after his death. This again flies in the face of the assertion of the Gitacharya Krishna that there is a previous birth and an after-birth, and some vasanas are carried forward by an entity called Atma. He has generously allotted an atma to even plants, but has not bothered to explain what a prebirth for a given plant is and what is going to be its next birth, and what vasanas are carried forward by its atma. Meanwhile atma itself is a nebulous entity simply carrying the vasanas, and after all the vasanas are worked off, atma just disappears.
My own feeling is that man is a superior structure evolved over at least two hundred thousand years by Nature, having the apparatus to imagine, think and postulate. His very imagination makes him drunk with the feeling that whatever he imagines must be real. That is why every Tom, Dick and Harry floats his own theory of the creation, existence and decease of the universe and collects his own following to shout support to that theory. The modern equivalent is to create a blog, and use a loudspeaker to cry to everybody, “Love me, Love my blog”, or “See my twitter, See my flutter”.
The great goals before science are to find out how genes inherited also enable the inheritance of certain behaviour patterns in each man, and how inheritance, instructions and impressions, which are the chief factors governing a man’s life during his existence between his Conception and his Death, are getting embedded in one’s own genes and are passed on to his offspring. No need for atmas, suvasanas or durvasanas, and no previous births and no future births. A man’s Beginning is his Conception, and his Breakup is his Death, and no Existence prior to Conception and posterior to Death, and his ability to interact with the world of other human beings, other beings and things, and his ability to be interacted upon by them, exists only during the brief period starting with his Conception and his Death. Men must allow time for Science to investigate this fact seriously, and not license Religion to speculate it furiously. Because the so-called religionists by definition abjure all responsibility to explain their theories, claiming an exclusive divine authorisation for all their prattle. Unfortunately, Divinity seems to be conveying different conflicting messages to different messengers whereas scientists always try to employ repeatable and objective experiments to arrive at verifiable, logical and consensual results. Scientists have a lot of work to do on their hands but have no more than 24 hours a day in which to do this. But most other men with no worthwhile work to do also cannot have less than 24 hours a day. They have to spend this forced time duration to speculate and to collect followers, who otherwise spend their own 24 hours a day in perpetrating mutual violence and destruction. Religion has its origin in this fact of nature which compels man to use his 24 hours a day in at least some useless activities such as religious rituals so long as they are not harmful, as otherwise the worse alternative is to spend that time in violent activities. The best preoccupation for man could be pursuit of science and adoption of humanism to find out how the human misery found everywhere can be mitigated. The worst preoccupation is to indulge in crime and in heaping violence on others under “motive less malignity” as Shakespeare describes about Iago. In between stand various religions and their sects, the greatest being the Vedic thought of equality of all men, their essential divinity and tolerance towards all religions, and the worst being those which enjoin on their followers the dictum “Convert or Kill”.
On 7 September 2014 09:14, R.Rudra Narasimham <rebbapragada> wrote:
Dear Mr. Xavier,
Thanks for your very kind response. I am glad to write that you are the first person, who for the first time, asked me to explain the term called ‘spirituality’. That gives me a chance to attach the meaning to the word that I use. Kindly find time to visit the blog post on this subject and it takes about five minutes to read. I derive the understanding of spiritualism or spirituality from the work done by scientists such as Jan Evangelista Purkinje(1787-1869 Czech Physiologist), and Hugo Von Mohl(1805-1872 German Botanist) and it is very important to recognize these names and to pay tribute to their living memory and honor them for their work and contributions.
Whether people sing Bhajans or Keertans, eat Chicken after ritualistic killing, or consume flesh from cadavers, or drink alcohol(Soma or others), the basic motivation is attributable to the tensions inherent to the human condition called existence. There are two strong, and opposing forces that are at work while man lives in the real world; 1. Dependence, and 2. Freedom. Man leads a dependent existence that demands continuous supply of energy from an external source and man uses the power called imagination to seek Freedom, Liberation, Release, Vimochan, Salvation, Mukti, or Moksha from the misery of his conditioned, dependent existence. There is a fundamental drive to discover a theory that may provide a solution to this human problem caused by inherent contradictions or dualism or dichotomy. Humans are searching for an answer and they hope to find it in the religious doctrines they formulate or inspired to reveal. To that extent, I describe Spirituality or Spiritualism as the quest to discover peace, harmony, and tranquility in the living human condition. For man is a social animal, it should not be of any surprise if several people come together and behave as a group sharing certain beliefs and practices.
In the Indian tradition, thinkers are directed to look inwards rather than outwards. This is a method of inquiry, investigation, or observation and it is scientifically valid. As a scientist, I look at myself, I am the Observer and at the same time, I am the object of scientific inquiry or the Observed. I use the term Spirit or Soul to describe the animating, vital, life principle of all living things. The Principle is known by the functions it operates. In Biology, and Physiology, the structures and their functions are discovered through careful observations and experimental verification. When I speak about Spirituality, I visualize the living substance, living matter, or living material called Protoplasm described by scientists like Purkinje and Hugo Von Mohl. Since Spirit and Soul are associated with a material substance that can be studied, the Spirituality Science that I describe is ready for testing and verification. In my view, my Theory of Spirituality is already verified and the dispute if any pertains to the reasoning process that I use to interpret the scientific body of information. I do not ask people to agree with my statements and I do not ask people to approve my statements, and I am rather challenging people to contest my interpretation of verified scientific knowledge that already shared by text books on Biology, Anatomy, and Physiology. I simply curious as to why people are silent.
Ann Arbor, MI 48104-4162, USA
On Sunday, September 7, 2014 10:53 AM, Srinivasa Rao Kankipati wrote:
Well said, Xavier. Out of politeness, we refrain from calling a spade a spade. But this is taken as a lack of strength in our arguments and the opponents make a downright attack on our views. As you say, in almost all cases, people who put up a show of spirituality actually fall for the music in the songs or the rhythm in the poems and do not understand what exactly the words therein stand for.
If A and B both have admiration for X, then it is human weakness that A, B together form a tacit or explicit brotherhood. Next to their own selves, the object of their protection and promotion is this brotherhood. This is done by adding more members in the brotherhood, and attacking C and D who similarly have developed an admiration for Y. This is how sects, political parties and religions are formed. Meanwhile, X and Y do nothing to benefit their followers. If X and Y are dead, moreover, they also cannot do anything for their followers. If they have spirits as is popularly supposed, then their spirits also keep fighting in heaven. Perhaps Jesus and Muhammad are still fighting in heaven, instead of reaching an amicable settlement and conveying to their followers here on earth, by dint of their powers, the urgent need to live a happy human life instead of spilling blood.
On 6 September 2014 19:18, Xavier William wrote:
Dear Rudra,In your extensive and no doubt erudite treatise you have dwelt upon many things which are way over my head though I am a qualified engineer. In your treatise you also mention the word spirituality a number of times. The naive, uneducated idiot that I am (according to Rabindra Kaul) I simply cannot understand what spirituality means. And as a rationalist I think there is no sense whatsoever in discussing a thing which does not mean anything to me. According to my idiocy the first thing to do in a discussion is to define the words used. So I looked up dictionaries and encyclopedias and I find that they too are as much in the dark as I am in defining exactly the word spirituality, except that it has something to do with religion and beliefs. So Mr.Rudra can you please enlighten me on exactly what you mean by spirituality.
Take the song or keerthan ‘Jai Jagdish Hare’ from the movie ‘Purab Aur Paschim’ It has a certain rhythm to it and as you swing your head left and right in accompaniment to the drums and bells you feel something. This I think is called spirituality. But people who do not cater to your beliefs do not feel anything about the keerthan or other like it.
There is a temple at Kodungalloor some 70 km from my place where spirituality comes by drinking and dancing and biting off the head of a chicken and drinking the blood that squirts from the chicken. But I am sure that such practices are obnoxious to you and hold no spiritual value to you.
Then there are the aghoris of Benares who consume morsels of burnt human flesh from the funeral pyres along the Ganges banks. They do it in the belief that such cannibalism will liberate them from the endless cycles of births and rebirths. For them such cannibalism has a spiritual dimension to it whereas the very thought of consuming human flesh would make you throw up. However thousands of years ago human sacrifice and cannibalism were practiced by our ancestors and these practices had spiritual values associated them. Similarly for Vedic people animal sacrifices and consumption of liquor (soma) had spiritual dimension. But now …
Obviously spirituality is highly subjective and depends on one’s beliefs which in turn depends on your parents and society. What is spiritual to one is profane to another. Spirituality is also an instance of self-hypnotism or self-delusion. If you delude yourself into the belief that singing Jai Jagdish song will elate you to nirvana it will. If you don’t believe in such stuff there is no spirituality. So my dear Rudra do no put up such subjects as spirituality up for discussion since such things mean vastly different and often incompatible things to different people.
On Sat, Sep 6, 2014 at 11:37 PM, R.Rudra Narasimham <rebbapragada> wrote:
Thanks for your reply and thanks for that extra effort to answer the issues by including quotes from my letter. Apparently, I am doing better than last year when most people simply ignored what I write and have not bothered to give a response. I will keep trying and give a chance to people to think over the issue.
You made an attempt to explain the rotational spin of planets and your own explanation is not consistent with your own statements. Initially, you suggested that a glancing collision can cause the rotational spin of a planet( this is a theory to explain the rotational spin of Venus) and later you state with a profound sense of optimism, nothing can stop or suddenly slow down Earth’s rotational spin. You have to reconcile your own views.
The thing called rocket uses a mechanism of propulsion called ‘thrust’, and a variety of propellants are used to produce the desired ‘thrust’. To send a rocket at the speed of light, we may have to use the entire mass of this universe as a propellant to obtain or generate the power or force using the mechanism of thrust propulsion. I do hope that you understand as to why I am giving this explanation. The size of the particle is of great importance. You may have to imagine the size of photon or light particle as compared to the size of rocket with or without man.
Again, I ask all of you to discuss one concept at a time so that we may have a better understanding of the subject. If you use the word, “EVOLUTION” like a Magic Formula, it does not provide any answers. The Biological Clock is the same and we really know that life is existing on planet Earth for billions of years. The Clock is the same and it is unchanging and it is not evolving. The living substance or matter is the same and it is not evolving. The Biological Clock serves to maintain existence and it also serves to determine the life span of the individual organism. It is a plan for dissolution after a predetermined lifetime.
The Laws of Physics and Chemistry are based on mechanistic principles. They explain interactions that are random, unguided, and purposeless. These are the most common interactions that we observe in the vast universe. But, we observe living things only on planet Earth in this vast universe that we have explored and known. The biotic interactions are guided, sequential, purposeful, and goal-oriented. There is a principle called ‘altruism’ that aims at the survival of the organism. The Four Fundamental Interactions; Strong Nuclear, Weak Nuclear, Electromagnetism, and Gravitation cannot account for biotic interactions and actions. When we explain the term food chain, it describes the movement of matter and energy. It speaks about the relationships between energy-yielding molecules, and energy-dependent molecules. I am stating that you cannot explain the relationship between the energy-yielding, and energy-dependent molecules using the principles shared by Physics and Chemistry. I do not mind if you want to recognize what I call and describe as the ‘Spirituality Science’, the Science that is concerned with matter and energy acquisition and transformation to sustain biological actions and interactions.
You have stated that cognition is a function of the brain. I state that cognition is a function of the living cell and not a function that could be performed by brain. It can be verified by simply studying Amoeba proteus which has cognitive abilities without having any special organs of sense perception.
To narrow the field of discussion to a few topics at a time, you can choose a topic of your choice; 1. The Laws of Thermodynamics-Entropy, and Temperature regulation by human body, 2. Oxidation-reduction Chemical reactions and control of H ion concentration as a subject of Spirituality Science, 3. Consciousness as a living function unexplained by Physics or Chemistry which explain chemical and physical interactions in the physical world, 4. Cognition, Intelligence which is unrelated to acquired knowledge or learned experience, and 5. Life span in relation to molecules and elements that are not perishable and immutable. I am not sharing a romantic or poetic view about Love. In Indian tradition, the word Love is not used very often. Indian thinkers prefer to explain the experience of Love called Joy, Happiness, Bliss and use terms such as ‘ANANDA’, SANTOSH’, and ‘MADHURYA’. The word ‘Madhurya’ is derived from the word ‘Madhavi’ which means sweetness and the sweetness is compared to the sweetness imparted by honey, nectar and wine. In other words, Indian tradition claims that Love can be experienced like a sensation and it can be subjectively and objectively verified. Indian tradition uses term like ‘MADHAVA’ to describe the Controller of a Force/Power/Energy/Shakti called ‘MADHAVI’ and that Force is known from knowing the experience it generates. For Love is a Fundamental Force, it operates biological actions and interactions and the fact of its existence is known by both subjective and objective criteria that can be used to measure the degree of happiness or unhappiness. It is important to know that man is not the Controller of Energy/Power/Force for man leads an energy-dependent existence. If the fact of man’s energy dependence is not understood, you will not be ready to learn the first lesson of Spirituality Science.
Ann Arbor, MI 48104-4162, USA
On Saturday, September 6, 2014 3:13 AM, Dr. PVS Rao wrote:
Thank you for your mail. Your sentences are in black and my responses are in blue.
There are reasons as to why man is not able to design rockets that can travel faster.
There could be technological issues but no fundamental barriers to achieving non-relativistic velocities using a variety of known propulsion methods.
Man is not a Controller of Force/Power/Energy.
Not an issue.
.. you make no attempt to explain the relation between Earth’s rotational spin and Force of Gravitation.
Either you have not understood the inquiry or you know that Force of Gravitation cannot account for it.
The physics involved in the rotation of stellar objects is as follows.
Consider a set of gas clouds in a region of space. While moving at their own speeds, these are also subject to mutual attraction due to gravity. So they tend to move closer to each other, in fact towards their common centre of gravity. Since they were all moving independently to start with, they would have a lateral velocity component (in addition to the radial component due to attraction towards the centre of gravity). If they were stationary to start with, they would have moved directly (straight) to the centre, but due to the lateral component of their velocity, they would be moving in converging, (concentric) spiral paths.
Also, since (angular) momentum has to be conserved, their angular velocities will increase as the radius of curvature decreases. The circular movement gets faster and faster as they get close to the centre. (An apt analogy would be a pirouetting ballerina or ice skater – when she moves her hands and feet close to her body, she spins faster.) As the distance to the centre decreases, the clouds merge and their combined rotational (angular) velocity would be the weighted vector sum of the velocities of the individual clouds.
This (adiabatic) contraction increases the temperature and pressure, eventually making nuclear fusion possible. We now have a bright, hot, concentrated, spinning mass of gas, generating (nuclear) energy – i.e. a spinning star.
Thus, gravitation does play a prominent role in causing the stars to form and spin.
Planets and satellites spin due to retention of rotational energy from the parent star as well as due to glancing collisions with other celestial bodies.
The rotational spin does not significantly affect the ‘force of gravitation’. The centrifugal force due to the earth’s rotational spin acts counter to the force of gravity, so that the resultant effective downward pull is reduced slightly. This reduction can be calculated.
We started this discussion about speed, and velocity in the context of man’s physical existence on the surface of a fast spinning, and moving object.
I claim that man has no ability to have direct sensory experience of the speed of Earth.
In that case, you are in agreement with my explanation.
The fact is that this inability is not really only a human characteristic. Man cannot experience the velocity of the earth because movement with constant velocity has zero effect on physical matter (animate or otherwise). There is therefore no scientific experiment by which one can determine or feel movement at constant velocity in a straight line. Consequently, man too, who uses physical matter for sensory inputs, cannot have any sensory awareness of such movement. (As regards rotation, a Foucault pendulum or Gyroscope will tell him about this.)
The first experiment in physiology is often the study of muscle contraction. (common school science exhibition demos with dead frogs leaping when given an electrical shock.) When the nerve is stimulated using an electrical impulse, the muscle contracts and it is recorded on a paper. There are physiological limits to this ability called contraction. When the nerve is repeatedly stimulated, the muscle contraction fails; rather we see the problem of twitching, fibrillation, or seizure in which the contractions cannot perform any useful task. (tonic and tetanic contractions, muscle twitch, nerve refractory time, need for sodium ion replenishment, tetanus, are accepted facts).
I agree entirely with your paragraph. However, there is and there can be no scope for overstimulation as a consequence of the earth’s movement in space (discussed in later paragraphs).
The Vestibular function is concerned with motion and balance and over-stimulation does not produce recognizable sensory experience.
This is true.
Astronauts are trained to test their physiological functions and pilots use simulators to experience the effects of speed and motion.
(I would say, to experience the effects of acceleration and deceleration. The simulator of course has many other features which are most important for pilot training).
When you watch a film, if you move the film at a fast forward rate, you see a blur on the screen. The Visual sensory function fails if the images are moving too fast.
Man is placed on a fast-moving Earth.
Scientists say he is there as a result of Darwinian evolution.
Man is protected from the sensory experience of speed as the physiological mechanism gets overstretched.
We do experience sensory overload if we look at the close-by girders when in a fast train negotiating a bridge.
When I traveled on the Bullet train in Japan for the first time in the sixties, I knew from physics that I would not be able to feel the linear speed, but I was thrilled at the prospect of experiencing this sensory overload that I expected to occur as nearby trees rushed by. Sadly, when in the bullet train, I was so disappointed. There was absolutely no sensory overload even at this high train speed – simply because I could see absolutely nothing rushing by. Why? Because the Japanese made sure that there were no trees or other discontinuities anywhere near the train tracks. No telephone or other track-side poles either. The only thing visible was the distant landscape, and thanks to this distance this appeared to move ever so slowly. This is what happens even when we fly and see the landscape below. Everything appears to be moving slowly, because of the great height, and there is no sensory overload (except, to a small extent, while landing and take off because of seeing nearby objects in fast apparent motion). Conversely, seen from below, the plane too appears to be moving slowly, because of the distance and its small-size, relative to the distance.
This is also what happens when we, traveling on our planet, see the other fast-moving celestial objects. They don’t appear to be moving at all.
Now, man moving at ‘high’ speed, riding the earth: The earth is moving at whatever speed in space – space which is practically empty. There are a few relatively small objects sun, moon, planets and stars) in the vastness of space, at great distances from each other. We must remember that the earth takes one year to cover the near-circular orbit!
Also, what is important when we talk of sensory overload is the rapidity with which the image moves on our retina; this depends not on the actual speed but only on the angular velocity of the object(s) with respect to the eye, as I mentioned in the case of the bullet train and the aeroplane.
Thanks to the great distance and consequently the very small angular velocity, there is no sensory overload on us despite the speed of the planet(s). A visual overload would have occurred if the neighbouring objects had been close enough to have a high angular velocity with respect to the retina. In such a case of course, this would have been the least of our problems. Their gravitational pull would probably have devastated the earth as we know it.
Hence, no special protection mechanism is needed for man… and there is none.
Man experiences severe giddiness if the speed comes down suddenly.
We can blissfully live on the surface of Earth as long as it will not slow down. Venus moves very slowly around its axis and man cannot tolerate if the speed of Earth suddenly changes.
I agree entirely ,,,, BUT…
There is no — absolutely no.. way by which the earth’s rotation can change even quickly, let alone suddenly.
The earth, like a spinning top, will continue spinning, thanks to the law of conservation of angular momentum. I can liken it to a spinning merry-go-round. It can never stop abruptly. Even the brake on the merry-go-round takes time to bring it to a stop.
There are no forces in the universe that can make the earth to change its spin velocity suddenly, so we are very safe.
The earth does in fact slowdown … very slowly … due to energy loss because of the tidal action due to the sun and the moon, but even this slow down is very small. The tidal action of the sun did slow down the speed of rotation of Venus but one has to remember that Venus is much smaller and closer to the sun … also that even so, it has taken eons for this slow down to happen. The same is the case with the rotation of the moon which also slowed down due to tidal action caused by the earth’s gravitation (again very slowly) till it ended up always showing the same face to us (period of rotation became equal to period of revolution round the earth).
Similar arguments apply regarding the earth suddenly slowing down in its orbit. It just cannot do that … any more than a train or a car can stop suddenly. Conservation of momentum means it takes much force applied over much time for a moving heavy object to stop.
But, man’s existence on Earth is synchronized with the speed of Earth for it gives man day and night and changing seasons with expected frequency.
Due to the process of evolution, many flora and fauna ended up having biological clocks which are circadian. Lunar cyclicity is also known in human body functions. In fauna, this annual cycle runs driven to a considerable extent by varying lengths of days and nights, temperature, humidity and other parameters which have an annual cyclicity.
The rules and laws of Physics do not determine the physiological abilities and functions like motion that living matter exhibits.
It is true that understanding living matter requires a vastly interdisciplinary approach. But doesn’t your above statement amount to saying that physiological abilities and functions are beyond or contrary to scientific laws and hence outside the capabilities of scientists and of the medical profession to understand and systematically cure?
Such beliefs (putting living matter in a special ‘this-is-not-physics- or-chemistry’ category) were indeed prevalent in the initial stages of scientific development. However, scientists, by their efforts, have lifted the veil that blocked our vision and made various branches of science (which deal with living matter, including medical science) possible. For example. it was believed at one time that organic compounds (such as urea) cannot be synthesized in the laboratory ( i.e. outside living organisms) because they required a mysterious life force which, it was claimed, existed only in living organisms. Now, not just urea but we synthesize the most complex organic molecules; even DNA can be manipulated. We know a lot about how the brain works. Scientific research is expanding the frontiers of knowledge. The entire edifice of medical knowledge and practice is based on how well we understand the various physiological functions of living matter. Belief that medical science works is based on the assumption thatthese functions can and have largely been understood using scientific methods in terms of the laws of physics, chemistry and so on.
Scientists are working to further push forward the frontiers of knowledge, to understand and explain all biological processes (including even complex brain functions like cognition).
Another thought: one can see physics and chemistry systematically at play in every biological function: kidneys and the bladder, digestion and excretion, retinal processing and transmission of visual images to the brain including the mechanics of stereoscopic vision, the auditory system including recognition of speech and non-speech sounds, the hand bowling, batting or catching the ball in cricket, the foraging bee communicating information to other bees about a cache of honey bearing flowers that it has located, finally even the simple act of a human just standing still …. The scientist has understood these in terms of (laws and rules of) physics and chemistry – without if’s or but’s. In each of these, there is no mystery at all.
(I am leaving out scientific work relating to ‘intelligence. For the time being, because that is still on.)
It is the belief that science is the proper and effective tool to understand the functions of living matter (and that this is a proven fact) which is the solid base and premise on which medical science and practice stand.
Hence, there is a Law that brings unity, harmony, and tranquillity in the human living condition and experience, and I claim that Law is LOVE, a Fundamental Force that operates all other forces.
“A fundamental force of love operating all other forces” is an interesting thought, and reminds me of Einstein’s radical prediction that light bends in a gravitational field. Science accepted this only after it was tested and verified (during a total solar eclipse).
Thoughts about he force of love are common in (romantic) literature. After Einstein, an immortal poem comes to mind
“for mightier far – Than strength of nerve and sinew, – or the sway Of magic potent over sun and star, – Is love”
.. almost exactly what you are saying.
The next lines, say
“though oft to agony distrest – And though his favourite seat be feeble woman’s breast.”.
What beautiful poetry, WIlliam Wordsworth be praised!
I wish this love force is identified, controlled and used for the common good.
In the meanwhile, no one should be able to repeat to us, men of science, a few more words from the same poem,
“And Thou, though strong in love, art all too weak in reason”
Prof PVS Rao
On 2 September 2014 23:10, R.Rudra Narasimham <rebbapragada> wrote:
Thanks for basically evading the discussion and presenting speculation as a possibility. There are reasons as to why man is not able to design rockets that can travel faster. You can easily find out these reasons for yourself. Man is not a Controller of Force/Power/Energy. Secondly, you make no attempt to explain the relation between Earth’s rotational spin and Force of Gravitation. Either you have not understood the inquiry or you know that Force of Gravitation cannot account for it. We started this discussion about speed, and velocity in the context of man’s physical existence on the surface of a fast spinning, and moving object. I claim that man has no ability to have direct sensory experience of the speed of Earth. Some basic understanding of physiology is needed to know the ability of nerve to conduct a nerve impulse. The first experiment in physiology is often the study of muscle contraction. When the nerve is stimulated using an electrical impulse, the muscle contracts and it is recorded on a paper. There are physiological limits to this ability called contraction. When the nerve is repeatedly stimulated, the muscle contraction fails, rather we see the problem of twitching, fibrillation, or seizure in which the contractions cannot perform any useful task. The Vestibular function is concerned with motion and balance and over-stimulation does not produce recognizable sensory experience. Astronauts are trained to test their physiological functions and pilots use simulators to experience the effects of speed and motion. The limits of tolerance are understood. When you watch a film, if you move the film at a fast forward rate, you see a blur on the screen. The Visual sensory function fails if the images are moving too fast. Man is placed on a fast-moving Earth and man is protected from the sensory experience of speed as the physiological mechanism gets overstretched. Man experiences severe giddiness if the speed comes down suddenly. We can blissfully live on the surface of Earth as long as it will not slow down. Venus moves very slowly around its axis and man cannot tolerate if the speed of Earth suddenly changes. But, man’s existence on Earth is synchronized with the speed of Earth for it gives man day and night and changing seasons with expected frequency. The rules and laws of Physics do not determine the physiological abilities and functions like motion that living matter exhibits. Hence, there is a Law that brings unity, harmony, and tranquility in the human living condition and experience, and I claim that Law is LOVE, a Fundamental Force that operates all other forces.
Ann Arbor, MI 48104-4162, USA
On 1 September 2014 23:19, Dr. PVS Rao wrote:
Thanks for your interest. Here are the answers. The questions are in black and the responses in blue.
There is no device that can accelerate man to make him travel at the speed of light.
Pl note my qualifier in my last mail:(We shall be considering speeds much less than that of light (0.3 million km/sec- in vacuum) so we will not consider relativistic effects.)
It is inconsistent or the statement that suggests that speed has no effect on man is flawed.
Not applicable; as clarified at the beginning of my last mail, I am talking only about speeds much less than that of light.
The Linear Velocity of Earth is 66,660 miles/hour, or 107278.87km/hour, or 18.5 miles/second with a slight variation due to Earth’s elliptical orbit. This Velocity is apparently greater than the Escape Velocity that you have mentioned.
This is earth’s velocity relative to the Sun and the earth’s orbit. Escape velocity relates to escaping the earth’s gravitation and is defined relative to the earth. The speed with which the earth is travelling relative to some to other frame of reference (e.g. the sun) is of no consequence. In other words, when we are at rest on the earth, we are already travelling at this velocity, along with the earth. We need only to add only another 7 mph ie 11.2km to this speed which we already have. Only this escape velocity, relative to the earth, is needed.
Kindly describe the device such as a Rocket that man may use to travel at the Linear Velocity of 18.5 miles/second. Is there a device that can carry man into space at that speed
As clarified above, such speeds are not needed to get out of the earth’s gravitational pull; we need only 7 mph or 11.2 kmph. Men have already used such devices to reach the moon (somewhat less than 7 mph is needed to reach the moon). They are planning to use them for manned Mars missions. (Unmanned missions are already on).
What kind of fuel or energy or force that man may use to accelerate himself into space to attain that Speed?
How long and how far man would travel at that Speed?
As needed; no limit except food, supplies and lifetime.
What would happen if man has to decelerate to get back to planet Earth or any other destination?
Nothing would happen to the man. He has to have a rocket or similar device to provide him controlled deceleration (to keep G forces during the deceleration within limits) that will bring him to landing speeds in reasonable time. Before landing any planet, say, you have to match its speed in the solar system. This requires careful planning of the trajectory (including the expected position and velocity of the target planet at landing time) to start with. This is a bit like a circus acrobat jumping from one swing to another.
The problem of speed, acceleration, velocity, direction and duration of motion is not over until you talk about the motion performed by living things ….
The movement of living beings (land, air or water) is well understood.
The living substance called Protoplasm or Cytoplasm….
I am sure there are scientists who can talk to you about this.
Dr PVS Rao
On 31 August 2014 23:15, R.Rudra Narasimham <rebbapragada> wrote:
Thanks for that kind explanation. I do hope that you are not in a hurry to make an interpretation that is not supported by the information that you have shared. We live in the era of ‘Particle Accelerators’ and people have designed devices to impart acceleration and study the effects.
To state that man can travel at any speed may not stand the test of verification. There is no device that can accelerate man to make him travel at the speed of light. Light consists of pockets of energy called photons which can race through space at that amazing speed. Man needs Light and its energy but man’s structural and functional organization is described by molecules and man does not exist if he is transformed into particles and be given the acceleration. It is inconsistent or the statement that suggests that speed has no effect on man is flawed.
The Linear Velocity of Earth is 66,660 miles/hour, or 107278.87km/hour, or 18.5 miles/second with a slight variation due to Earth’s elliptical orbit. This Velocity is apparently greater than the Escape Velocity that you have mentioned. Kindly describe the device such as a Rocket that man may use to travel at the Linear Velocity of 18.5 miles/second. Is there a device that can carry man into space at that speed? What kind of fuel or energy or force that man may use to accelerate himself into space to attain that Speed? How long and how far man would travel at that Speed? What would happen if man has to decelerate to get back to planet Earth or any other destination?
The Force of Gravitation can account for Earth’s Linear Velocity and elliptical orbit. The problem is about accounting for Earth’s rotational spin around its own axis. The Force of Gravitation cannot account for this Angular Speed. Each celestial object that is explored by man and is observed by man shows a rotational spin and a spin with its own characteristics apart from the rate of spin or speed. You cannot name two celestial objects of this vast universe with “identical” rotational speeds and inclination of the axis for that rotation. To say that the Force of Gravitation is acting in a mechanistic manner will not account for this observed variation in the behavior of celestial objects.
The problem of speed, acceleration, velocity, direction and duration of motion is not over until you talk about the motion performed by living things in the physical universe where all interactions are accounted by the Four Fundamental Interactions. The living substance called Protoplasm or Cytoplasm shows its own characteristic motion called ‘Amoeboid’, and Cytoplasmic Streaming that can be easily observed. What are the Laws that govern this motion exhibited by the living things? What are the Fundamental Interactions that determine this motion or movement? How to explain the change in direction of movement of living things?
In my native language of Telugu, a proverb recommends that it is better to drink water while standing rather than drinking milk while running. Man can run but there is no place that he can hide. If man is saved, he is saved by the Fundamental Force called ‘LOVE’ and it can be observed in behavioral characteristics such as Krupa, Daya, Prema, Vatsalya, Maryada, or Mercy, Grace, Compassion. These are often grouped together as ‘PROVIDENCE’.
Ann Arbor, MI 48104-4162, USA
On 30 August 2014 21:24, R.Rudra Narasimham <rebbapragada> wrote:
GOD IS ONE INFINITE SUBSTANCE:
Baruch(Benedict) Spinoza(1632-77), Dutch philosopher taught there is but one infinite substance, God or Nature having infinite attributes of which only thought and extension are knowable. He was excommunicated from Jewish community. He held that mind and body as merely different aspects of a single substance. He defined God as Nature in its fullness.
Whatever may be the problems of religion, and whatever other people choose to do is not the purpose of our discussion. The purpose of Science is to describe and codify observations and experiences. Natural Sciences provide accepted body of information about the world and human body. We need to arrange this information into a meaningful pattern and interpret it to describe the reality or truth about man. We need to apply a reasoning process which involves analysis of basic concepts to determine their consistency.
In modern science, the investigator looks at problems in a very narrow, and specific field, we are gathering enormous amounts of information which has no meaningful pattern and is not easy to interpret. We may study human physiology for the duration of our entire lifespan and yet we may not know as to how the body performs all the functions it performs. While scientific study is useful, it may not entirely solve the problem unless the information coming from different directions is reviewed and is rearranged for proper interpretation. When I interpret information provided by Biology, I describe man as a Spiritual being for man has the substance that has the spiritual attribute that promotes cooperation, tolerance, altruism, and functional subservience. Even a cruel or wicked person exists in the world because of the spiritual nature of his substance that makes his cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems to serve him and provide him a benefit. If the world is full of crooks, Science cannot solve the problem. The body refuses to learn from Science Journals. The body has the fundamental nature and it cannot be changed by exposure to scientific information. Human nature and human behavior are not equivalent terms. Behavior refers to actions performed in the external world due to stimuli in the environment. My ability to be wicked or cruel still demands that the cells, tissues, and organs of the body have to act together in a harmonious manner. I will be able to get the insight about my body and its nature if I reflect on its ability to perform functions without any assistance from Science or Scientific experience. If I am not alienated or estranged from my body’s true nature, I will be able to easily reflect that nature in my actions and behavior. A wicked or cruel man cannot change his actions and behavior by reading Science Journals. It is very likely, it is very reasonable to suggest that a wicked or cruel man may change his behavior if he reflects inwards and tries to know the nature of his own body and its abilities to perform actions to keep him alive. In Indian tradition, this internal reflection is called Adhyatma Vidya or Self-Knowledge. There is no speculation here. I am not quoting religious scriptures. I am not asking you to give me flowers or fruits. I am asking for no money or favors. I am saying that you cannot change human actions and behavior by promoting the study of Science Journals. To begin with, Science cannot deal with that problem.
Ann Arbor, MI 48104-4162, USA
On Saturday, August 30, 2014 3:09 PM, Srinivasa Rao Kankipati wrote:
What must be left as subject matters for serious investigation by science are often taken up for furious speculation by religion. That is why so many charlatans thrive in religion. With due respect, it must be noted that 99% of the masses are afraid of logic and commonsense and are content with untrue beliefs. They also have money and influence and the gift of the gab.
On 28 August 2014 10:05, R.Rudra Narasimham <rebbapragada> wrote:
Perspective is stated as the relationship or proportion of the parts of a ‘Whole’ regarded from a particular standpoint or point in time. In knowing things, we need to know the true relationship of the parts to one another. We can have an “all-inclusive” perspective about Illusion but not an “all-inclusive” perspective on Truth and Reality for human existence demands both Illusion and Reality. We have the ability to investigate and explore the problem of Truth and Reality for we maintain our existence because of the influence called illusion. While publishing in Science Journals gives many people the opportunity to earn income, fame, and livelihood, the living cells perform complex, sequential, guided functions without knowing what may be published in those Science Journals.
Ann Arbor, MI 48104-4162, USA
On Thursday, August 28, 2014 5:24 AM, Dr. PVS Rao wrote:
Since the topic has come up, it may be in place to mention the process involved in publishing a paper in a scientific journal.
In the first place, the paper is written in a structured format (abstract, introduction, … experimental results, discussion, conclusion, references etc.
The editor, after receiving the paper, sends it to three or more referees/reviewers who are experts in the field/subfield with established accomplishments, reputation and ability, and who are chosen depending on the subject that the paper is concerned with. The referees then carefully read and review the paper and give recommendations: accept, accept with suggested modifications without another review, paper to be modified as suggested and to be reviewed again, or reject straight way. In some cases, a paper may go through multiple cycles (3-4 modifications and review) and still get rejected at the end.
Reviewers are generally very meticulous, thorough and tough and take the responsibility very seriously. (There is no payment).
The review process follows a single (or double) blind system, where the author is not told who the reviewers are (and vice versa).
This process can take even up to two years or more and ensures to the maximum extent possible that the review process is rigorous, objective and that the papers published are of the highest quality. In view of this delay in publication, journals publish the date of receipt of the original paper and the final; revised paper so that issues regarding precedence and originality of the work are clear.
Researchers advance in their careers depending on the number and quality of publications and the reputation of the journals in which their papers are published.
Prof PVS Rao
On 26 August 2014 05:19, R.Rudra Narasimham <rebbapragada> wrote:
Indeed a great composition. In a way, you sum up the ideas shared by Blaise Pascal(1623-62), French scientist, mathematician, and religious philosopher who founded the modern Theory of Probability and discovered the Pascal’s Laws in Physics(Hydraulics):
“Man is infinitely removed from comprehending the extremes; the end of things and their beginning are hopelessly hidden from him in an impenetrable secret; he is equally incapable of seeing the Nothing from which he was made, and the Infinite in which he swallowed up.”
For that reason, I would just prefer to talk about existence, the thing in a condition called being.
Ann Arbor, MI 48104-4162, USA
On Monday, August 25, 2014 6:30 PM, Srinivasa Rao Kankipati wrote:
Dear Rudra Narasimham, If you think that your blog has more readers than scientific journals, it is great news. All the same, please do publish your discoveries in some reputed scientific journals, by first removing all sarcasm in your writings and then giving too many unjustified references to medicine, where you would like to be known as an expert.
On 17 August 2014 21:23, R.Rudra Narasimham <rebbapragada> wrote:
Thanks for your very kind response and suggestion about publishing my blog posts. The blog is published using World Wide Web and hopefully reaches a wider audience than those published in Science journals. I welcome you and all others to respond to the views shared by me and the readers of my blog posts would really appreciate your effort. I have already shared your view in my recent blog post and kindly feel free to defend your statements and respond to my view that I shared. I am particularly happy to read about your concern about Science and for you may not be able to accept my interpretations of basic information provided by Science, you must speak to your friends or check reference materials or search on the Internet.
To understand the effects of Speed on human body, you may have to seek some understanding of Aviation Medicine. There are recognized medical hazards in Aviation due to acceleration, deceleration, centrifugal force and you may have to know the terms like ‘jolt’ which indicates the force with which acceleration develops and is expressed as ‘Gs’ per second. Weight is the force with which a mass of body is pulled by the gravitational force of the Earth. Under 3G conditions, the same body will weigh 3 times its original weight. During the deceleration phase, pilot and crew of a bomber jet may lose vision and experience ‘black out.’ You may speak to a fighter jet pilot and can experience the effects by using a training module. You may want to read about ‘VERTIGO’, a medical condition in which the person has a subjective feeling of movement of the external environment or of the head. It may come suddenly and could be severe and very distressing. If you experience ‘VERTIGO’, you will immediately thank God for His Mercy, Grace, and Compassion in giving you a life without the distress caused by Vertigo while the Earth is moving at a speed that is beyond all human imagination. You cannot imagine, or dream about the Speed of Earth.
People on earth’s surface experience the effects of speed during travel and due to changes in atmospheric conditions. You may want to check the speed of air in F – 5 tornado, and I would assure you that you would lose your consciousness. Some people have set up high-speed records but you lose several mental abilities if you travel at very high-speed. The ‘escape velocity’ at the surface of the Earth is about 6.95 miles per second. Whereas, I am describing the speed of Earth as about 1,000 miles per hour and a linear speed of about 66, 660 miles/hour for Earth travels 584 million miles to complete its orbit around the Sun. Are you kidding me? Are you saying that you can experience the speed of Earth by sitting in a rocket? What are you trying to say? You are trying to make an argument simply to support a view that is not established upon valid, scientific information. I am not concerned about your experience with some Swamy or Baba. I am neither a Swamy nor a Baba. I am not expecting “Pada Puja.” I am not preaching the Gospel or Scripture, or Gita. I am simply asking you to account for the fact of your physical existence on the surface of a fast, spinning object. If you say, gravity, I would like to know as to how the Fundamental Force called Gravitation has made a decision to keep you conscious without giving you the chance to know the basic realities of Earth’s motions? What happens, if you have to live on the surface of Venus? If you answer me, I will refund you the Ten or Ten Thousand bucks you lost paying the Swami in Allahabad.
Ann Arbor, MI 48104-4162, USA
On Sunday, August 17, 2014 11:28 AM, Srinivasa Rao Kankipati wrote:
What is meant by your last sentence? We have no mental experience of the speed of earth, because we move with the earth and our surroundings including air also move with the earth with the same speed. To have mental experience of the speed of earth, we have to attain a different velocity. ( I hope our knowledge of physics is sound enough to let us know that when speed, direction of movement or both are different, then the velocity is different). This is achieved when we go at a high enough speed in a rocket. So we can understand the reality of human existence when we are inside a rocket? This is a new discovery and should be published not in a private blog but in a scientific journal.
On 16 August 2014 21:47, R.Rudra Narasimham <rebbapragada> wrote:
In the past, we have discussed the subject of ‘consciousness’ several times. It surprises to note that none of you have the time to talk about ‘consciousness’ to a doctor and ascertain as to how the doctor makes a determination about the level of consciousness. Some of you seem to be related to scientists and yet not able to quote or share any view or opinion of a person that you may believe to be credible.
Consciousness has to important aspects; 1. The Seat or the Capacity of Consciousness, and 2. The Contents of Consciousness. Most of us have the general experience of the Contents of Consciousness which must be correctly described as ‘Cortical Awareness’. The Seat or the Capacity of Consciousness is in the Brain Stem and is described as the Reticular Formation. You may have to see the photo images that appear in my blog post and you will be able to distinguish the difference between Cerebral Cortex and the Reticular Formation. You can also easily find information on Internet if you Google those terms. The person who is fully awake, or fully conscious because of the Reticular Formation which actively screens all information and relays information to the areas of Cerebral Cortex where the information is revealed as Cortical Awareness. Since the Brain Stem controls all the major functions including the state of Arousal and Sleep, it relays information selectively as needed. Thereby, it really helps us to live normal lives by protecting the Cerebral Cortex from receiving unnecessary information. In all states, fully awake, sleep, and dream, the Brain Stem is alert and keeps functioning until death intervenes. Several major organs continue to function at varying rates during all the days of life. For purposes of reference, from the moment called conception, there is consciousness and awareness. It never stops its functions. The electrical activity recorded is useful for certain types of neurological evaluations. I can easily determine if a person could be Brain Stem dead by clinical examination. I had certified death on numerous occasions without any assistance from a Neurosurgeon and no EEG recordings are needed. A person who is brain-dead is deeply unconscious and the Brain Stem reflexes will be absent. You should not be surprised if people give detailed account of their dreams.
I address the issue of Illusion and Reality from a different perspective. It is incorrect to call ‘Rainbow’ an illusion. I am sorry to state it; you need to learn basic Physics and understand the properties of Light. I can see the Rainbow, and I can describe the Colors and I can explain the mechanism involved. If God made a ‘Rainbow Covenant’; it cannot be refuted by claiming that Rainbow is an Illusion. It is time to learn Physics before talking about God, Covenant, and etc., The fundamental Illusion is about the Linear and Angular Speed of Earth. We live on the surface of Earth and we have no choice other than that of participating in those motions. Fortunately, our existence is defended as the Force of Gravitation imposes an Illusion that man cannot overcome. We can read and learn from books and we can measure the speed of Earth, but we have no mental experience of the Speed of Earth. Without this Illusion, the Reality of Human Existence cannot be established.
Ann Arbor, MI 48104-4162, USA
On Saturday, August 16, 2014 9:01 PM, Srinivasa Rao Kankipati wrote:
Mr Xavier William suggests that there should be some commonality of experiences. Dr Ramarao feels there is some kind of continuity in wakeful state and dream state. I agree with both.
In both these states, there is the same you, with the same body and the same mind. In the awake state, the mind is influenced by the information brought to it by the sensory organs, together with the effect of the stock of past experience stored in the mind. In sleep, there is no conscious impact of sensory experiences. But it can be seen that the mind is at work though no impressions need be made on the memory mechanism for purposes of recall later.
But if the mind dreams, and if the dream is vivid, some recollection can be usually made on waking up, even though not every minute detail can be recalled in absolute clarity. The very fact that some issues contemplated deeply during the day are automatically solved (not always, but in quite a few cases) in the night shows that the mind is at work and does not go to sleep.
If we are similarly not able to recollect during a dream the incidents of the day, it goes to show that the recall function of the mind is weak during a dream. Our ability to recall dream details with some clarity in the day goes to show that during our awake state, the recalling capability of the mind is strong.
I therefore find it difficult to agree with Dr Ramesam garu that there is a dreamer-you and there is a waker-you and that these are mutually exclusive. There is only one you, with one body and one mind.
But we can say that dreamer-you is different from waker-you if we are talking of dreamer-you of one person A and waker-you of another person B.
Another notable feature is that among all waking persons, there is reasonable commonality of experience as regards events, as per Mr Xavier’s precondition. But if you take a survey of all people who have gone to sleep and have dreamt, there is no commonality of experience. All you can collect is a heap of narrations of disjointed and disconnected and stray personal experiences which have nothing in common. Often each person regards his dream as a divine revelation specially granted to him.
Apart from the dream state, there are other states: (1) the inebriated state, (2) the lunatic state, (3) the post-anesthesia state, and so on. In the fully wakeful state that follows, the person concerned is able to call to mind some details, even if not in great clarity. For that matter, we are often unable to recall with dazzling brightness some incidents which have taken place during our full consciousness.
SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE AT THE WHITE HOUSE:
Special Frontier Force as a military organization symbolizes the recognition of Tibet as a Sovereign Nation and it specifically acknowledges that the Institution of Dalai Lama and the person holding that title as the true independent, ruler of Tibet apart from being a high-ranking priest of Tibetan Buddhism.
Special Frontier Force is a military organization jointly founded by the United States, India, and Tibet during the presidency of John F. Kennedy. On March 31, 1959, His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama had arrived in India as a political exile and was granted political asylum in India. He had established the Tibetan Government-in-Exile which is based in Dharamsala of India.
The United States often describes His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama as a spiritual, and cultural leader of Tibetan people without explaining the cultural aspects of Tibetan governance. In Tibetan Culture, the title Dalai Lama is given to the Leader or Chief who provides a system of Government. The Dalai Lama has the same executive powers that are typically exercised by the Head of State of any independent, sovereign nation. The title of Dalai Lama is the equivalent of titles such as President or Prime Minister who hold the executive power in nations like the United Sates, India, and Great Britain.
THE SOVEREIGN, POLITICAL INSTITUTION OF DALAI LAMA:
His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama who had visited The White House in Washington, DC on February 21, 2014 and on numerous other occasions meeting with various US Presidents during the last 30 years, is the rebirth of a long line of “TULKUS” who descend from the Compassionate Bodhisattva named “AVALOKITESVARA.” In Tibetan Buddhism, a “TULKU” is a particularly high-ranking Lama, of whom the Dalai Lama is one. But, it is very important to recognize Dalai Lama as a ‘Hierarch’, a Leader or Chief who provides a system of Government. The Sovereign, political institution of Dalai Lama is formally known as ‘Ganden Phodrang’. The succession of this ‘hierarchy’ is maintained by the discovery of a child born soon after the death of a Dalai Lama into whom the ‘Spirit’ of the deceased has entered.
The Great Fifth Dalai Lama, Lobsang Gyatso(1617-1682) founded the Ganden Phodrang Government of Tibet in 1642. During his reign, the Potala Palace on the Red Hill in Lhasa was built. The successive Dalai Lamas have headed the Tibetan Nation for nearly four centuries. The name “DALAI” is the anglicized version of Mongolian word “TA -LE” which is used as an honorific title and the equivalent of the Tibetan “RGYA-MTSHO” meaning Sea or Ocean which suggests the breadth and depth of wisdom and the temporal power of Dalai Lama on Tibetan way of life. Tibetans call the Dalai Lama as ‘Rgyal-ba Rin-po-che’ which means ‘Great Precious Conqueror. The Third Dalai Lama, Sonam Gyatso(1543-1588) had received this honorific title during 1578 while on a visit to the Mongol Chief Altan Khan who had applied this title retrospectively to the previous hierarchs making Gendun Drupa(1391-1474) the First Dalai Lama, and Gendun Gyatso(1475-1542) who became the Second Dalai Lama. This strong hierarchical organization of Tibetan Buddhism and the governance of Tibet has become the focus of Tibetan Cultural Identity and Tibetan National Character. The Eighth Dalai Lama, Jamphel Gyatso(1758-1804) fought a war with the Gurkha troops from Nepal and had defeated them with some assistance from Manchu China. Tibet existed in a serene and unperturbed state for several centuries even while Tibet came under the control of the Yuan or Mongol Dynasty of China. In 1644, Chinese Manchu, Qing or Ching Dynasty was established and Tibet during the reign of its Seventh Dalai Lama, Kelsang Gyatso(1708-1757) came under Manchu China’s nominal protection although for the most part, the Tibetans retained full control over their internal affairs. The Manchu China Dynasty was overthrown in 1911 and the 13th Dalai Lama, Thupten Gyatso(1876-1933) had expelled the Manchu China’s troops from Tibet, promptly reasserted Tibet’s full Independence. The Great 13th Dalai Lama ruled with full personal authority and reigned as head of a Sovereign State. He had further formally announced Tibet’s full Independence on February 13, 1913.
Tibetans celebrate the 13th day of February as Tibetan Independence Day in recognition of their sovereignty. Being ‘Sovereign’ means that Tibetans do not acknowledge any superior and being a Sovereign Nation, Tibet has the full power to levy War, conclude Peace, contract alliances, establish Commerce and do all other acts and things which independent states may have the right to do. For 39 years, from 1911 to 1950, Tibet had indeed existed as an Independent Nation and had signed the bilateral “Mc Mahon Treaty” in Delhi during 1914 following the ‘Simla Agreement’. During October 1950, Communist China’s People’s Liberation Army invaded Tibetan soil and Tibet has come under China’s military occupation. It will be incorrect to suggest that Tibet is a part of China. Tibetans do not acknowledge China’s rule and Special Frontier Force is a military alliance that symbolizes the Tibetan Resistance Movement to oppose the occupation of Tibet. I am pleased to share a few photo images of His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama, the living symbol of the Tibetan Resistance Movement when he visited The White House in recent past.
I would like to respectfully submit to my readers that the term “DALAI LAMA” recognizes the person who represents the sovereign, political institution, the seat of Tibetan Government and Tibetan Sovereignty. Kindly permit me to offer you my “TASHI DELEK” greetings to all of you to seek your support for Tibetan Freedom from occupation.
SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE – BEHOLD THE MAN – ECCE HOMO:
I define the term ‘Spirituality’ as an internal mutually beneficial partnership between the cells, the tissues, and the organ systems of the human organism and the Whole Organism which exists as the human being. Spirituality brings structural unity and functional harmony and is the fundamental basis for man to discover Peace, Harmony, and Tranquility in his living condition and in his living experience in any given external environment as a member of any given external community. In terms of Science, the human being is a biological community of independent cells and each exists with its own internal environment and an external environment and constantly interacts with its own intracellular organelles and other living cells found in its external environment. Similarly, man has an internal environment called ‘Milieu Interieur’ and the organism tries to maintain ‘Homeostasis’ which is defined as the tendency to maintain internal stability by coordinated responses of the organ systems that automatically compensate for environmental changes and it is analogous to maintenance of stability or equilibrium while participating in social interactions within a social group. French physiologist, Dr. Claude Bernard(1813-1878) described ‘Homeostasis’: “All the vital mechanisms, varied as they are, have only one object; that of preserving constant the conditions of Life.” In this context of the structural and functional relationship of the human organism to maintain stability and equilibrium within the organism and while participating in social interactions within a social group, I would ask my readers to “Behold The Man.” I would like to present two men and provide a contrast as to how their ‘Homeostasis’ was compromised and as to how they failed to keep their existence; 1. due to an external threat to existence posed by the social group in which the individual lived and participated in social interactions, and 2. due to an internal threat posed by another living organism with which the individual participated in biotic interactions.
BEHOLD THE MAN – ECCE HOMO – THE SON OF MAN:
The Vulgate or Latin Version of the Bible, the official biblical text of the Roman Catholic Church, in the New Testament Book of The Gospel According to Apostle John, Chapter 19, verses 4 and 5 describe the words used by the Roman Governor of Judea, Pontius Pilate when he presented Jesus to a huge crowd of Jews that had gathered outside his palace to demand that Jesus must be punished by Crucifixion: Once more Pilate came out and said to the Jews, “Look, I am bringing him out to you to let you know that I find no basis for a charge against him.” When Jesus came out wearing the crown of thorns and the purple robe, Pilate said to them, “Ecce Homo !”(Behold The Man)
To maintain Life, man has to always preserve the stability and equilibrium of his internal and external living conditions. But, man constantly faces several threats to his existence and these threats may exist within or without, the environment in which the existence is maintained. Jesus faced the threat called the demand for his crucifixion because of His social interactions with members of His own social community of Jews who failed to understand God’s Will and God’s Purpose in human life. The Roman Governor of Judea, Pontius Pilate was unwilling to find any crime in the conduct of Jesus and had repeatedly told the gathering of Jews that he finds no basis for a charge against Him. Pilate very reluctantly imposed the capital punishment not only because of the insistent demand of Jews , but because of the unwillingness of Jesus to beg for mercy or pleading to set Him free. Apostle John has reported on the conversation between Pilate and Jesus 😦 John 19:10-11) “Do you refuse to speak to me?” Pilate said, “Don’t you realize I have power either to free you or to crucify you?” Jesus answered, “You have no power over me if it were not given to you from above. Therefore the one who handed me over to you is guilty of a greater sin.” Before His arrest and trial by Pilate, Jesus had demonstrated various kinds of supernatural powers and had performed miracles. In fact, both the Jews and the Romans had mockingly told Jesus that He could save Himself from crucifixion using supernatural powers and prove His claim to be ‘The Son of God’. I understand the Biblical narration of crucifixion to behold the human being, to understand the human condition that has no real freedom and is simply dependent upon an external source of support called ‘Providence’. Jesus who had stated that His mission or purpose in life as that of sharing the ‘Truth’, knows that the human being has no ‘Free Will’ and understands that man has no choice apart from living in obedience to God’s Will and Purpose in human life. It is not surprising to find that Jesus made no attempt to run away from the threat, and did nothing to defend His existence. He had simply desired to bear witness to God’s Will and God’s purpose of His human existence. Jesus as a Spiritual Being showed patience and showed tolerance of people who were persecuting Him and for His Deliverance, He called upon His Father: “Jesus called out with a loud voice, ‘Father, into your hands I commit my spirit.’ When he said this, he breathed his last.”(The New Testament Book of the Gospel According to Apostle Luke, Chapter 23, verse #46). The fact that Jesus has simply existed like any other mortal human being is revealed in His final announcement as mentioned in The Gospel According to Apostle John, Chapter 19, verse#28 which reads: Later, knowing that all was now completed, and so that the Scripture would be fulfilled, Jesus said, “I am thirsty.” In my view, thirst is the clearest symptom of mortal existence.
BEHOLD THE MAN – ECCE HOMO – NIETZSCHE:
To Behold The Man called Nietzsche, as a practitioner of Medicine, I would give a least amount of attention to his views and perspectives about human values and human existence. I would like to ascertain his complete medical history and assess his medical condition through a careful physical examination and use any investigative tools that may help me to know the man under my observation. Nietzsche born October 05, 1844 was apparently in good health during 1864 when he went to the University of Bonn to study theology and classical philology and in 1865 he transferred to University of Leipzig. He began military service in October 1867 in the cavalry company of an artillery regiment, sustained a serious chest injury while mounting a horse in March 1868. He resumed his studies in University of Leipzig in October 1868 while on extended sick leave from the military. In 1869, the University of Leipzig conferred the doctorate without examination or dissertation and paved the way for his selection for professorship in classical philology(Linguistics) in the University of Basel, Switzerland. He took leave during August 1870 when he had participated in Franco-Prussian War as a voluntary medical orderly. He had to quit that service when he contracted dysentery and diphtheria. His health problems continued to persist and by October 1876, Nietzsche requested and received a year’s sick leave. Because his health continued to deteriorate steadily he resigned his professorial chair on June 14, 1879. Nietzsche was seriously ill, half-blind, in virtually unrelenting pain during a decade of isolation from 1879 to 1889. He lived in boarding houses in Switzerland, France, and Italy with only limited human contacts. His most acknowledged literary and philosophical masterpiece, “Thus Spake Zarathustra” was published between 1883 and 1885 in four parts. Nietzsche’s final lucid year was 1888, a period of supreme productivity. He wrote and published ‘The Case of Wagner’, wrote a synopsis of his philosophy, ‘Twilight of the Idols'(published later in 1889), The Antichrist(published later in 1895), ‘Nietzsche contra Wagner’, and ‘Ecce Homo : How One becomes What One Is’, a reflection on his own works and his human significance. Ecce Homo got published in 1908, twenty years after its composition. Nietzsche collapsed in the streets of Turin, Italy in January 1889 and lost control of his mental faculties. He spent the last 11 years of his life in total mental darkness. He was first moved to an asylum in Basel, then he lived in Naumburg under his mother’s care and after her death in 1897, he lived in Weimar in his sister’s care. He died on August 25, 1900. His medical condition suggests the diagnosis of Atypical General Paralysis caused by the Tertiary Stage of Syphilitic infection and is known as Neurosyphilis which is the involvement of brain and nervous system due to dormant Syphilitic infection. I am most surprised to note that Nietzsche had failed to take into account the problems of his own injury and sickness that compelled him to change the direction of his life repeatedly without giving him the opportunity called “Free to Will.”
Nietzsche’s ability to maintain ‘Homeostasis’ was undermined when he got exposed to infection by a Spirochete bacterium called Treponema pallidum which infects man during sexual relationship with an infected individual. It is very easy to ignore this infection as in its Primary Stage the infection causes a painless sore at the site of infection and the sore heals without application of any medication. This bacterium remains dormant and may manifest signs of infection called Secondary Stage after a lapse of several months. During that Secondary Phase there would be generalized eruptions of the skin, mucous membranes, inflammation of eyes, bones, and central nervous system. It must be noted that during Nietzsche’s lifetime, there were no proper antibiotic drugs to treat the Syphilitic infection. The Tertiary Stage is delayed for some time(15 to 25 years) after the initial infection. During the period Nietzsche had lived, this kind of Syphilitic infection accounted for 10 percent of all admissions to mental hospitals. In Nietzsche’s case, looking at the medical problems that he had experienced during 1876, I would like to suggest that he had contacted Syphilitic infection during 1861 while he was about 17-years of age, because of a social interaction with another human being who was already infected by Syphilis. Nietzsche had formulated all his perspectives and views about human values, and human existence not knowing that he has no “Will to Power”, or “Will to Life” if he fails in the battle against the invasion of his body by this Spirochete bacterium. In his book Ecce Homo, Nietzsche proclaims the ultimate value of everything that has happened to him including his near-blindness as an example of ‘Love of Fate'(amor fati). He might not have given attention to problems like injuries and diseases which have a direct relationship to the course of action that man deliberately chooses to express his sense of Freedom of choice and action. The madness that claimed Nietzsche only months after he began writing Ecce Homo had already begun its work. He reveals the tragic fact that his very aliveness was in a state of being overwhelmed, consumed, by powerful unconscious emotion, the condition called ‘decadence’. He writes about Christianity’s decadence while in reality his brain was getting destroyed by the Syphilitic infection.
In the last Chapter of Ecce Homo titled, “Why I am a Destiny”, Nietzsche suggests a contrast with Jesus to claim that he truly is a “man.” In his view, to be a “man” alone is to be more than a “Christ.” In my opinion, both Nietzsche and Jesus had lived their lives as human beings and they faced great threats to their existence from different directions. It is indeed correct to suggest that man is like Christ for man is created in God’s own image. Nietzsche’s Spiritual Being was challenged by the problem of a bacterium that entered his body and similarly, the Spiritual nature of human society is challenged by the problem of Sin and acts of disobedience. Man finds it to difficult to experience Peace, Harmony, and Tranquility as there is no stability or equilibrium in his living condition. I would like to invite my readers to “Behold The Man” to know the human being and the physiological mechanism called ‘Homeostasis’ that is central to the mortal human existence as it faces internal or external threats. Eventually, man depends upon the Force of Mercy, Grace, and Compassion called “KRUPA” in Indian Sanskrit language even when man has no knowledge of God’s existence.
SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE – BEYOND GOOD AND EVIL:
I define ‘Spirituality Science’ – ‘Adhyatma Vidya'(The Knowledge of Spiritual Self) as an investigation of the spiritual nature of corporeal or material substances. I must clarify that I am not seeking to discover a soul or a spirit that could have existence independent of man’s physical being. My inquiry pertains to the relationship between soul, spirit, and human body. When I speak of man as a Spiritual Being, the truth or falsity of my proposition depends on the fact of man’s having a corporeal substance that is of spiritual nature. The structure and the behavior of things contribute to their individual being, and function. In my view, the ability called discernment, the capacity to make a distinction between good and evil is a spiritual function. Good is a property of being or existence and hence it provides the direction of conduct and behavior that support self-preservation. The specific qualities of the maxims that define the difference between good and evil are Peace, Harmony, and Tranquility. The term evil is the opposite of good. Evil is often associated with violence, agitation, disharmony, disturbance, confusion, and unruly behavior or conduct. Life comes into existence when matter and energy come together. The human being comes to life when the body matter uses its potentiality or power to acquire energy and matter from its external environment. This power to exploit matter and energy for the establishment and sustaining existence is called the power of “Nutrition.” It demands the operation of a principle called discernment, a fundamental, or primary function of knowing what is good or bad for the purposes of self-preservation.
“LIFE AS WILL TO POWER”:
The term ‘will’ denotes the power of choice and deliberate action, the power of controlling one’s own actions. The desire, the disposition, the attitude, the purpose, a reasoned choice, or decision to influence actions come under the purview of the term ‘will’. While describing actions, we may have to make a careful distinction between living functions and the behavior of the organism in response to other stimuli including mental stimuli. The living functions do not depend upon mental stimuli. Man may use his ‘will power’ to find food to keep his existence. But, the living function called ‘Nutrition’ does not depend upon such ‘will power’ or some other mental stimulus. However, the Power of Nutrition does require the operation of the principle called discernment of good and evil, the choice between right and wrong in the context of self-preservation or existence. This function is dependent upon the spiritual nature of man’s corporeal substance. Nietzsche correctly observed that life is associated with an instinct for growth and durability. He writes, “Exploitation does not belong to a depraved, or imperfect and primitive society; it belongs to the nature of the living being as a primary organic function, it is a consequence of the intrinsic Will to Power, which is precisely the Will to Life.” Nietzsche contends, “That all the supreme values of mankind lack this ‘Will’, that values which are symptomatic of decline, nihilistic values, are lording it under the holiest names.” In his opinion, traditional philosophy, religion and morality simply represent the masks that a deficient ‘Will to Power’ wears. In Nietzsche’s analysis, the sustaining values of Western Civilization have been sublimated products of decadence using the ‘ascetic’ ideal that endorses existence as pain and suffering. He rejects the concepts of ‘common good’ or ‘common evil’. “Absolute good or absolute evil don’t exist, and instead there’s a universal driving force in humans called the ‘Will to Power'(expressed in ambition, greed, social rank, achievement etc.,) that makes it impossible for ‘common good’ or ‘common evil’ to exist.” He further observes, “And how could there be a ‘common good’ ! The expression contradicts it self; that which can be common is always of small value….. the great things remain for the great, the abysses for the profound, the delicacies and thrills for the refined, and to sum up shortly, everything rare for the rare.” In my view, the “Will to Power” and the “Will to Life” are not the same. The “Will to Life” is similar to the Power called Nutrition and it is a ‘common good’ for it relates to the purpose called existence.
THE GENEALOGY OF MORALS:
Nietzsche locates the origin of Good and Bad in the distinction between the nobility and the commoners.To interpret traditional morality, he used an etymological approach. He examined the etymology of the German words ‘good’, ‘bad’, and ‘evil’. He maintained that the distinction between good and bad was originally descriptive. Good is a non-moral reference to those who are privileged, the masters as opposed to those who are base, the slaves. His criticism is based on the typology of “master” and “slave” morality. The nobility determined that their actions are good. The actions of the strong in Nietzsche’s opinion stand only from their inherent power, not from malice. The good and evil contrast arose when slaves avenged themselves by converting attributes of mastery into vices. Since the masters who represent good and powerful, it is opposed by introducing the idea that the ‘meek’ would inherit the earth. Pride became a sin. Charity, humility, and obedience replaced competition, pride, and autonomy. The Slave Morality further secured its triumph by claiming that it is the only true morality. In his view, both traditional philosophical and religious ethics are based on this insistence on absoluteness. “There is Master-Morality and Slave-Morality, – It is obvious that everywhere the designations of moral value were at first applied to Men, and were only derivatively and at a later period applied to Actions;(it is a gross mistake, therefore,) the noble type of man regards Himself as the determiner of values…. He is a CREATOR OF VALUES.” Nietzsche took an optimistic view of this new, Noble type of man and confidently predicts, “A good and healthy aristocracy would be able to elevate themselves to a higher Existence.” Nietzsche had attacked Christianity and Democracy as moralities for the “Weak Herd.” He argued for the natural aristocracy of the Superman who driven by the “Will to Power” celebrates life on Earth rather than sanctifying it for some heavenly reward. Such a heroic man of merit has the courage to live “dangerously” and thus rise above the masses, developing his natural capacity for the creative use of passion.”
“WHAT IS DONE OUT OF LOVE ALWAYS TAKES PLACE BEYOND GOOD AND EVIL”:
In my view, Nietzsche has not defined the terms ‘man’ and ‘existence’ and hence his perspective on human morality lacks balance. He has failed to make the distinction between human nature and human behavior and actions. I view man as a multicellular organism that is comprised of trillions of individual, independent, living cells. Man is constituted as a biological community of cells and hence there is a need to define ‘common good’ to establish the existence of the Individual who exists because of the living functions performed by all the cells of the human body. When Nietzsche speaks about Actions, he has failed to recognize the actions that are described as ‘Metabolism’ or the living functions that each individual cell performs to keep its own existence. Life is possible because of the intraspecific biotic interactions, the interactions between the cells, the tissues, the organs, and the organ systems that are central to define man as a Physical Being. Man cannot directly rule or govern even a single cell in his entire human body. The reality of cellular autonomy is known to all the students of Biology. Most medical interventions to help man in sickness or health are designed taking into account the problem of cellular autonomy. Man has the primary organic ability to exploit nature because of the ability of green plants to exploit Sun’s energy. Man has no direct ability to exploit Sun’s energy for the purposes of his existence and self-preservation. Even the green plants need the help of microbes to fix atmospheric Nitrogen to synthesize organic compounds. Nietzsche’s claim that a good and healthy aristocracy would be able to elevate themselves to a “Higher Existence” has no merit. In reality, man leads a dependent, mortal existence under the influence called Time. The only hope for “Elevation” in the context of human existence is the operation of God’s Unconditioned Love which does not demand that man must acknowledge the existence of God. The Unconditioned or Whole Love of God always exists Beyond Good and Evil and this Love formulates the ability called Discernment and man makes the distinction between Good and Evil as a tool for his self-preservation. In other words, I may state that man is constituted as a Moral Being and he fundamentally knows the difference between Good and Evil.
SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE – CHINA’S MILITARY THREAT:
India declared itself as a sovereign Republic on January 26, 1950. As Indians celebrate Republic Day on this day, I would like to share an article titled “AIM OF CHINA’S MILITARY REFORMS” authored by Professor Jayadeva Ranade, a member of the National Security Advisory Board, Distinguished Fellow with the Centre for Air Power Studies, New Delhi and who had in the past served as the additional Secretary in the Cabinet Secretariat with which I was associated during service at Special Frontier Force. This military organization has come into its existence during 1962 following a military pact/alliance between the United States, India, and Tibet. Its military mission is to counter the military threat posed by China by its military occupation of Tibet since 1950. China’s military conquest of Tibet still poses the same threat.
For the first time in the history of Special Frontier Force, its Inspector General is now appointed as the Vice Chief of Army Staff(VCOAS). Lieutenant General Dalbir Singh Suhag served as Inspector General Special Frontier Force from April 2009 to March 2011. He served as the GOC-in-C, Eastern Command from June 16, 2012 to December 31, 2013. His present appointment as the Vice Chief of Army Staff indicates that he will become the next Indian Army Chief in August 2014.
In my opinion, China’s military power, military strategy, and military tactics will not assure the inevitability of peace that is imposed by its military occupation of Tibet. Peace and War are conditions that prevail in relationship with an external reality called Natural Order. Tibetan Resistance is a symptom of the absence of Natural Order in Tibet. Resistance will prevail, and Resistance will endure if Natural Order is not restored in Tibet. Tibetans love Tibet and the Love of one’s own country is neither a moral, nor a religious virtue for it is a Natural Virtue. Speaking of War and Peace in Tibet, I would like to ask, “Can we order Peace for the sake of War, and not War for the sake of Peace?” If Perseverance is the Secret of all Triumphs, Tibetan Resistance can hope for its Victory.
Rudra N Rebbapragada
Ann Arbor, MI 48104-4162, USA
R. Rudra Narasimham, B.Sc., M.B.B.S.,
Personal Numbers:MS-8466/MR-03277K. Rank:Lieutenant/Captain/Major.
Branch:Army Medical Corps/Short Service Regular Commission(1969-1972); Direct Permanent Commission(1973-1984).
Unit:Establishment No.22(1971-1974)/South Column,Operation Eagle(1971-1972).
Organization: Special Frontier Force.
Aim of China’s Military Reforms
By Jayadeva Ranade
Published: 21st January 2014 06:00 AM
The writer is a member of the National Security Advisory Board and former additional secretary in the cabinet secretariat, Indian government.
Modernisation of China’s People’s Liberation Army (PLA) has entered the final stage of its current phase. The Chinese Communist Party (CCP)’s Third Plenum, which was held in November 2013 and represents a major advance in China’s reforms, provided a substantive push to the PLA’s modernisation when it approved proposals for major organisational restructuring. The reforms coincide with China’s continuing assertiveness that has unsettled its neighbours.
Appointments to the Central Military Commission (CMC) effected earlier by the CCP’s 18th Congress in Beijing in November 2012 accelerated the drive to strengthen and modernise the 2.3 million-strong PLA. Within days of his appointment as the CMC chairman, Xi Jinping not only endorsed the military modernisation policies of his predecessors Hu Jintao and Jiang Zemin, but also began bluntly advocating more rapid modernisation and technological upgrade of the PLA.
The organisational reforms approved by the CCP’s Third Plenum indicate that changes are imminent in the PLA’s command structure comprising the four principal departments and seven military regions. The PLA Navy (PLAN), PLA Air Force (PLAAF) and China’s strategic missile strike force, namely the Second Artillery, have clearly been allotted an enhanced operational role and will receive priority in allocation of budgets and manpower. Personnel of the Second Artillery, PLAAF and PLAN already receive higher salaries than their counterparts in the PLA’s ground forces. Within days of the Third Plenum, CMC vice-chairman and till recently the PLAAF commander, Xu Qiliang, wrote an article in the party mouthpiece People’s Daily confirming the reforms will be implemented. He mentioned that the number of non-combatants would be drastically reduced and that the reforms would enable the PLA to win wars.
Quite separately, reports filtering out of Beijing and disclosed initially in the solitary official English-language China Daily, suggest that plans have been finalised to merge the military regions. These envisage reorganising the seven military regions into five “combat zones” (zhan chu) within the next five years. Over the past few years China’s military literature has hinted at such impending change with occasional references to “Theatre Commands”. The reorganisation is intended to concentrate firepower and troops trained for a specific type of warfare within a single theatre or zone for ease of rapid deployment. Land and sea warfare forces are to be grouped separately. This reorganisation gives the PLA a definite “outward orientation” neatly meshing with its doctrine of “active defence”.
According to these reports, the three mainly coastal military regions of Jinan, Nanjing and Guangzhou are to be converted into three “combat zones”. Adopting a mainly maritime role, their primary objective will be to reinforce China’s efforts to establish dominance over the East China Sea and South China Sea and face up to the US-Japan alliance. By 2020, all three zones will be reinforced by three aircraft carrier combat groups. Reports suggest existing aircraft carrier Liaoning will be deployed in the East China Sea, while the other two aircraft carriers will be in the South China Sea. Interestingly on January 1, Xinhua showed pictures of Liaoning returning to its home base in Qingdao after month-long exercises in the South China Sea, but avoided mention of the run-in with the US-guided missile warship USS Cowpens.
In April 2013, Xinhua reported Rear Admiral Song Xue, deputy chief of staff of the PLA Navy, saying a second aircraft carrier was under construction. He told foreign military attaches that it would be larger and carry more fighter aircraft. On January 18, 2014, party secretary of Liaoning province Wang Min disclosed China’s second domestically produced aircraft carrier is being built at Dalian and would be ready in six years.
The four inland military regions of Shenyang, Beijing, Chengdu and Lanzhou are to similarly be merged into two large combat zones. Chengdu and Lanzhou both exercise operational jurisdiction over the India-China border. Each of the two new zones will have units of the PLA Navy, Air Force and Second Artillery integral to them. They will function under a new unified combat command. These reports also disclose that the PLA’s 300,000 non-combatant personnel will be eliminated by 2022. Though China’s ministry of defence denied the reports, it is pertinent that mention was first made in China Daily and that its contents are generally in consonance with Xu Qiliang’s assertion in People’s Daily and the reforms approved at the CCP CC’s Third Plenum.
Rapid advances have also been made in the indigenous development of advanced defence technology and hardware in the past three years. Emphasis was underscored with the appointment of General Zhang Youxia, a known proponent of indigenous development of modern advanced defence technology, as director of the PLA’s General Armaments Department (GAD) in October 2012. The latest development was the announcement on January 9 that China had conducted the first flight test of a new hypersonic glide vehicle, dubbed the WU-14 by the Pentagon, thus becoming one of five nations to possess this capability. The hypersonic vehicle, capable of travelling at speeds between Mach 8 and 12, represents a major advance in China’s secretive strategic nuclear and conventional military and missile programmes. China had in May 2012 opened a new JF12 shockwave hypersonic wind tunnel—the largest of its kind—that replicates flying conditions between Mach 5 and 9.
Also this month, pictures of the new two-seater J-16 stealth fighter built by the Shenyang Aircraft Corporation were posted online. Slated to first be inducted by PLAN and later the PLAAF, the J-16 is loaded with eight tons of air-to-air and anti-ship missiles and has a combat radius of several hundred miles, enabling it to help Chinese warships battle for control of regional waters claimed by China. Some reports claim two dozen J-16 are ready for induction.
These military reforms will give the PLA an outward focus, implying that “recovery” of territories claimed by Beijing will be a central feature of China’s strategic agenda. They will reinforce diplomacy aimed at realising “China’s Dream”. Xi Jinping, meanwhile, continues to further tighten his and the CCP’s grip on the PLA. An important example is the Third Plenum approving the PLA being brought within the ambit of the party’s anti-corruption watchdog, the Central Discipline Inspection Commission.
Professor Jayadeva Ranade is a member of the National Security Advisory Board and former additional secretary in the cabinet secretariat, Indian government.
The WordPress.com stats helper monkeys prepared a 2013 annual report for this blog.
Here’s an excerpt:
The Louvre Museum has 8.5 million visitors per year. This blog was viewed about 160,000 times in 2013. If it were an exhibit at the Louvre Museum, it would take about 7 days for that many people to see it. My blog post titled “What is Life – Life is Knowledge in Action” has attracted the most number of views.