What it is to be a Substance? and What it is to Exist? We need to establish knowledge about the man and the world on a firm basis and the information it provides must be tested for its accuracy and consistency with an external reality. We have to make the fundamental distinction between the living and the non-living matter. The scientific advances of the 19th and 20th centuries reinforced the materialistic position concerning the basic similarity of organic living and inorganic physical matter. The man is viewed as a product of natural evolution and is thought to be subject to the same laws of Physics and Chemistry or mechanistic principles.
We need a methodology to study philosophy and to understand philosophical statements. Logical Positivism, also known as Scientific Empiricism aims to clarify concepts in both everyday and scientific language. It describes analysis of language as the function of philosophy. This analysis of language and of concepts is important to understand questions of belief and ideology which affect what we think we ought to do individually and socially. I would use this method of ‘Applied Philosophy’ to analyze the concept of Spiritual Optics, the Spiritual dimension of biological coloration.
WHAT IS COLOR AND WHAT IS COLORATION?
The term ‘color’ refers to the spectral qualities of emitted or reflected light. The term ‘coloration’ is a dynamic and complex characteristic that has captured human interest and attention for a long time. The human interest to coloration ranges from purely aesthetic to the rigidly pragmatic.
The comprehensive understanding of biological coloration demands a study of Physics, Chemistry, Physiology, Biology, Psychology and other subjects. It is equally important to pay tribute to people who have contributed to a better understanding of the principles involved in color production. I am happy to introduce Lord John William Strutt Rayleigh, 3rd Baron, 1842-1919, British physicist, professor and Superintendent at the Royal Institution, London (1887-1905) to my readers.
WHOLE DUDE – WHOLE DESIGNER – RAYLEIGH:
John Tyndall stated that Sky’s Blue color results from the scattering of the Sun’s rays by molecules in the atmosphere. Lord Rayleigh provided the theoretical explanation for Sky’s Blue color. Lord Rayleigh conducted research in Sound (Acoustics), and Light (Optics). He stated the Theory of Wave Propagation of Light. He had received the 1904 Nobel prize in Physics for the discovery of Argon, inert atmospheric gas. During 1871, Lord Rayleigh published paper about dispersion of electromagnetic radiation by particles that have a radius less than approximately 1/10th wavelength of radiation.
THE COLOR OF THE SKY:
The atmosphere consists of air molecules, dust particles, and water droplets, most of which are small in size by comparison with the wavelength of visible light. The submicroscopic particles of the atmosphere scatter part of the Sun light.
Rayleigh Scattering occurs when light interacts with particles smaller than 1/10th of the light’s wavelength (visible light has a wavelength between ~400nm for blue light and ~700nm for red light). Any sufficiently small particles will do, but the most common will be molecules of nitrogen and oxygen (which make up about 78% and 21% of the atmosphere, respectively).
The probability of scattering is inversely proportional to the 4th power of the wavelength. Since red light has a wavelength about 1.75 times longer than blue light, blue light is about 9.4 times more likely to scatter than red light.
The scattering is elastic, which means that the photon of light does not gain or lose any energy – it only changes direction.
Light reaching us from the sun travels in a straight line. If there was no Rayleigh Scattering, then the sky would appear black (as it does on the moon – which has no atmosphere). Because of Rayleigh Scattering, the sky is filled with scattered light – most of which is blue because it scatters the most.
Violet light whose wavelength is 400nm is scattered more effectively than Red light whose wavelength is 700nm. The color of the Sky is caused by this selective scattering; the scattered light reaching the observer being predominantly Blue.
The sky appears reddish around sunrise and sunset because the light has to travel a greater distance through the atmosphere. This results in much of the shorter wavelengths of light (blue and green) scattering long before they reach us, leaving only the longer red wavelengths reaching our eyes. At Sunrise, and Sunset, the light from the Sun loses its short wavelength components by selective scattering before reaching the observer; and the Sky is therefore Yellow, Orange, or even Red at Sunrise, and Sunset. f you observe the sky very carefully during sunrise or sunset, when the top part of the sky is blue and the bottom part is red, you may observe a thin yellow and green band between them. All the colors are a result of Rayleigh Scattering.
About 99% of the Earth’s atmosphere is contained between sea level and an altitude of about 18 miles. Above 18 miles, there is very little Rayleigh Scattering and the sky above appears very dark. Rayleigh Scattering still occurs in the atmosphere below and it appears blue.
The appearance of Sky’s color when viewed by an observer on planet Earth is Blue, and yet this appearance is not common in the vast universe that man has explored. It may be suggested that planet Earth is unique, original, distinct, and one of its own kind of celestial object and it meets the criteria that are required to name an object as a designed object.
The fact of Planet Earth’s creation as a designed object could be revealed by the appearance of the color of the Sky when it is viewed from Earth’s surface. The chance of discovering a similar Earth-like Planet appears to be very remote as man has already discovered thousands of planets that exist beyond our Solar System. The man is conditioned to exist on the surface of Earth under the influence of Earth’s atmosphere. Rayleigh Scattering accounts for the coming together of the man, Earth, Light, and the Sky.
Who is the Artist? Who is the Designer?
No single function can explain the coloration of living things. We need a comprehensive theory that predicts the lines and patterns of coloration of plants and animals and of the World in which they exist. An artist’s palette containing only three properly chosen colors is entirely adequate under most circumstances to produce the various visual effects of color that is observed. The optical mechanisms involved in the production of color are complex. Coloration is a dynamic and complex characteristic and the term must be clearly distinguished from the term ‘color’ which only refers to the spectral qualities of emitted or reflected light. It is apparent that plants, and animals have no cognitive abilities to produce the coloration by which they are recognized. However, the coloration displayed gives us a clue about the nature of the “Whole Artist” who could be using imagination, has feelings for the forms created and seeks satisfaction from the visual effects that he produced. If man has the ability called visual perception, he must use the ability to visualize the “Whole Artist” who is at work. I ask my readers to give attention to the three dimensions of Color Perception. These are, 1. The Designer or the Artist, 2. The Object of Perception, and 3. The visual capacity of the Viewer.