SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE – OPERATION EAGLE – MILITARY ACTION IN CHITTAGONG HILL TRACTS – LIBERATION OF BANGLADESH 1971:
SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE – OPERATION EAGLE:
Indira Gandhi, Prime Minister of India, during 1971 had initiated Liberation of Bangladesh with military action in Chittagong Hill Tracts. The battle plan of this military action is known as Operation Eagle.
Major General (Retd) Sujan Singh Uban AVSM, the former Inspector General of Special Frontier Force had published a book that is titled ‘The Phantoms of Chittagong : The Fifth Army in Bangladesh’. He had narrated the story about his Special Frontier Force that had liberated Chittagong Hill Tracts during the Indo-Pak War of 1971. He did not discuss the Medical Plan for Evacuation of battle casualties.
THE ORGANIZATION OF MEDICAL SUPPORT IN THE BATTLEFIELD :
Each Unit or Regiment of the Armed Forces operating in the Field have to initially take care of their wounded soldiers at the Front Line of real combat. Units in the Field often set up a Regimental Aid Post ( RAP ) to give medical support. Army Medical Corps positions its staff which includes Ambulance Assistants, Nursing Assistants, and Medical Officers. The staff belonging to the Army Medical Corps give this morale-boosting blanket of comfort. However, the medical resources that are available at RAP are very limited. Because of the distances, time ( of critical importance for survival and eventual recovery), and practical difficulties involved, the battle casualties are evacuated from the forward-most line of contact to the nearest Field Hospital by positioning Staging Posts along the Chain of Medical Evacuation. A Staging Post that is often used is known as the Advanced Dressing Station( ADS ). At an ADS, the battle casualty could be resuscitated by intravenous fluids. Apart from resources like stretchers and blankets, ADS could deploy ambulances to speedily evacuate wounded men to a Field Hospital or another intermediate Medical Staging Post.
THE MEDICAL PLAN FOR THE FIFTH ARMY IN BANGLADESH :
The Fifth Army was tasked to operate independently with very limited logistical support. During the initial phases of the military operation in Chittagong Hill Tracts, the men had operated on foot, on a ‘Man-Pack’ basis in roadless forests. A military Field Hospital with a Surgical Team was established at Lungleh or Lunglei in the Mizo Hills. Between the battle field and the Hospital, there were no Medical Staging Posts along the route of Casualty Evacuation. The Fifth Army did not set up any Advanced Dressing Stations. The Medical Plan was to initially provide medical support at any place selected by the Battalion in the Field and to directly evacuate the casualty to Lungleh by using helicopters. It was indeed a simple plan. None of us including my Battalion Commander Colonel B K Narayan, Brigadier T S Oberoi, the field Commander of this task Force, and his Chief of Staff Colonel Iqbal Singh had ever imagined that there could be a big surprise in the execution of this straight forward Medical Evacuation Plan.
A SHOCKING SURPRISE AND A COURAGEOUS RESPONSE :
The first attack on the enemy position was made by the men led by Major Savender Singh Negi and Major G B Velankar of my South Column Unit. Later, both Officers had received the Gallantry Awards of Vir Chakra for the courage displayed by them. In the Indo-Pak War of 1971, these two Officers were the first decorated. As this successful attack was concluding, my Unit Commander was informed that an airlift of battle casualties was not possible due to tactical and working difficulties. A helicopter flight to the enemy post that we had captured was not possible on that day. Most of the enemy defenders of the post that we had attacked had escaped into the forest. The enemy could regroup and launch a counterattack to retake the position. Our men had already taken up defensive positions and were ready to fight if the enemy wanted to challenge us. The use of helicopter for medical evacuation was vital to ensure the success of our military expedition. The men reacted to the news with a sense of utter disbelief. We were inside an enemy territory without stretchers, blankets and equipment for medical resuscitation. The nearest Border Security Force ( BSF ) outpost on the Indian border was over forty miles away. This BSF Post had a secure helipad. The challenge we had faced was to carry our battle casualties across a difficult terrain and to keep them alive until they could get to the helipad. None of the wounded were in a condition to walk on their own. All of them needed transportation as lying patients in stretchers. The Unit had not come ready to use any of its men as Stretcher Bearers. Each man had an assigned role in his own Platoon/Company. I had willingly accepted to respond to this challenge and assume the responsibility to safely evacuate my patients and go with them on a foot journey to the BSF Post. The morale of the men got instantly boosted up. Pointing towards the stands of Bamboo, I had suggested to the men that we could make our own improvised stretchers. It was a pleasure to watch these smart and talented men who went into action and the stretchers were assembled and ready for use in a short time. I did not get a chance to offer any guidance about how to prepare an improvised stretcher. They had entirely acted on their own.
THE MEDICAL EVACUATION – A MEMORABLE FOOT JOURNEY :
My South Column Unit Commander Lieutenant Colonel B K Narayan had to make a very difficult decision. He had to spare his fighting men for performing the duty of stretcher bearers. He had assembled a party of about sixty or sixty-five men to lift and carry the stretchers and to defend the party. Stretcher bearing is a difficult task. A Bangla Muslim refugee was given to us as a guide. He had not deputed an Infantry Officer to go with us on this tedious mission. I did not make any such demand. My medical staff, the AMC Nursing Assistants were distributed to different Companies and I had wanted them to stay at their posts as the situation on the ground was still unpredictable. Hence, I was the only Army Medical Corps medical support person in this entire party proceeding on a foot journey to the BSF Post at Bonapansuria in Mizo Hills. After marching for over three hours, the nightfall and darkness obscured our path and we could not move any further. We had decided to camp on that jungle track. The men took turns to stay awake and remained vigilant. I kept a close watch on the condition of my patients, provided comfort and assurance and encouraged them to keep drinking small amounts of water to keep them hydrated and to prevent shock associated with blood loss due to injuries. I had administered the water and medicines( broad spectrum antibiotic pills to prevent wound infection and Injection Tubonic Morphia to relieve pain), checked and had applied dressings and bandages as needed. We were concerned about the Mizo rebel activity in those forests. Fortunately, we spent the night without any untoward incident. We had continued our march early morning before sunrise and finally reached a stream that marks the boundary between Indian Mizo Hills and the Chittagong Hill Tracts. The water level in the stream was low. We waded through knee level water with our stretchers. The BSF Post police personnel at Bonapansuria were delighted to receive us. They had rejoiced because of our recent victory and for capturing the enemy post. The staff at the Bonapansuria BSF Post were among the first group of Indians who knew about our military expedition and its success in the Chittagong Hill Tracts. The helicopter had soon arrived at that BSF Post to further transport my patients to the Field Hospital in Lungleh. All of my patients had survived this prolonged ordeal. They had remained calm and hopeful during the entire trip. I had only used the very basic principles of Medicine and Resuscitation to give support to my patients. I had arrested bleeding, prevented blood loss, provided relief from pain, and kept them well-hydrated. My physical presence provided them with a sense of reassurance that they had needed. I was their doctor, their nurse, and their medical attendant during our march. This was a memorable, one of its kind medical evacuation story in the history of Indian Army Medical Corps. If I had shown a sense of resolve, determination, and confidence, it was because of all these wonderful people acting as my eye witnesses. I was performing in front of their eyes. They had absolute trust in my abilities. My patients had not only survived but also had cheerfully provided a telling testimony to others who had visited them at the Field Hospital in Lungleh. That was the Force/Energy/Power of ‘Krupa’ that had lifted us and carried us through this medical mission to protect, to keep, and to sustain human existence. I spoke about, ‘KRUPA – A FORCE TO PRESERVE HUMAN EXISTENCE’ at my blog post dated August 10, 2009.
THE EXPERIENCE OF ‘MADHURYA'( SWEETNESS) AND A CHAKMA EYE WITNESS :
The hand that bestows ‘KRUPA’ would not be seen. I had described ‘KRUPA’ as a Force/Energy/Power. The recipient of ‘KRUPA’ would only experience ‘MADHURYA’ or a sense of Sweetness. At the conclusion of our medical mission, we were not feeling tired. We were simply filled with JOY. We were ready to walk back immediately and rejoin the Unit in Chittagong Hill Tracts. We started back, briskly walking through the forest without any breaks. Due to security concerns, we did not bunch up as a single group. The men remained vigilant with their loaded weapons and were fully ready to engage any enemy. During that return trip through the forest,to my utter surprise, a young Chakma male appeared before me, apparently from nowhere. The Bangla Muslim Refugee who was walking slightly ahead of me had stopped. The Chakma tribe speak a Bengali dialect. He had conveyed to the Bangla guide that he needed my help. His father was bedridden and was in great pain. I was totally shocked to know that this unknown Chakma living in the middle of a forest had correctly identified me as a doctor of medicine. At that moment, I just looked like any other soldier. My Olive Green uniform was crumpled and dirty. I was in the same clothes for more than seven days both day and night. I had not changed my socks. I had no shower and I had not shaved. This Chakma youth had not bothered to stop other men who were in my party hurriedly walking. He had not only approached me, but also he had a very specific reason for stopping me. For he had correctly known my identity, I had guessed that he had actually observed me while I was at work. He was my silent eye witness. He knew the trip we had made through the forest on the previous day. He had quietly observed while I had nursed and treated my patients. I did not want to refuse his request for help for he had correctly identified me . I was a known stranger. I was not a soldier running through the forest. The Chakma had eyes that could see. He had correctly comprehended my trade and understood that I had the skill to help people who are in pain. When our party was returning, he had decided to make use of that opportunity to seek my help. He did not treat me as a threat to his existence but as someone who could help his existence. I had agreed to go with him to his house. I was shocked when he had pointed his house to me. He had lived in a tree house which was hidden from our view when we walked on the track near the house. He had dropped a ladder for my use. I had asked my Bangla Guide to stay on the ground. My escort party of armed men were not alerted and had remained at about twenty feet distance from that tree. I did not want the Chakma family feel intimidated by our presence in their area. I had climbed up and met a Chakma man, the father of this young man who had stopped me. He was lying on the floor and was in pain. He had an ear infection which was giving him a terrible pain. I had dried up the ear discharge and had showed him the importance of keeping the ear dry by using the cotton swab sticks that I had provided him. I had instilled antibiotic ear drops and showed him the way to instill ear drops after gently drying any discharge. I had a tube full of antibiotic pills. I had also given him pills for his pain and a supply of multivitamin pills. All of these pills come in different colors. I could instruct him in the use of the pills that I had dispensed to him. I had personally administered the pills and he felt better with my brief visit and intervention. I had rejoined my Bangla Guide and the escort party and we made a safe return trip to our Unit location.
THE FORCE, ENERGY, AND POWER OF ‘KRUPA’ :
During this entire foot journey of over eighty miles, I had no sense of tiredness or physical fatigue. I had no sense of resentment or bitterness for making this trip which was not included in our initial Medical Plan for Casualty Evacuation. I did not experience even a trace of fear about my personal safety or wellbeing. The experience of ‘MADHURYA’ was such; I was not irritated when a Chakma man had suddenly stopped me. I gave him no excuses. I had entered the stranger’s house without my personal weapon and without any concern about my personal security. It was not a casual visit. I had provided him the medicines he had needed for his recovery. The young Chakma man had displayed courage in approaching me and stopping me while I was in the company of a large group of armed men. The previous day he had apparently watched us silently as we journeyed through the forest. He had overcome that sense of fear that had forced him to stay mute. He was able to communicate with a stranger who does not belong to his Land or Community. On my part, I had no desire and had no initiative that could have let me climb a tree and enter a tree house. Just like a physically handicapped person would have declined the challenge of climbing a tree, I would not have exercised my physical ability in climbing a tree and taking the risk of entering an unknown dwelling. The Chakma had not used a threat or coerced me in any way. However, I must admit that I was not motivated by a personal feeling of compassion. My actions were rather directed by a higher Force which had dispelled any concerns about personal security. If I had crossed and had jumped over a physical barrier, I should attribute that action to an external Power that had lifted me from the ground. I had simply acted in obedience to a higher Force or Energy and not according to my personal will and choice. I had not personally experienced an urge to show compassion. I was rather propelled by an external Force of compassion to serve an unknown person who was confined to his tree house. I do not seek any personal credit or recognition for rendering medical help to an unknown forest dweller. I did not discuss the findings of my house visit with my Bangla Guide or with the rest of the soldiers who were waiting for me. I did not describe this incident to my Unit Commander and to other officers upon rejoining them. We just got busy with preparations for our next move to carry out the goals of our military expedition to the Chittagong Hill Tracts. I am describing this incident and making an effort to put this incident into Public Record to recognize ‘KRUPA’ as an external Force that could change human behavior and actions. We do not have the ability to award ‘KRUPA’. We rather respond to its Energy and act in obedience to its Power. The Force of ‘KRUPA’ changes the course of our physical life. ‘KRUPA’ empowers human mind and propels our life’s journey in a new direction. In Armed Forces, the Code of Conduct demands that its members should greet and ‘SALUTE’ a Superior Officer. I ‘SALUTE’ that Superior Power of ‘KRUPA’ for I had recognized its ability to control my physical movements and actions.
WHO HAS EVER SEEN THE ‘HAND OF KRUPA’ ???
When we speak about Lord’s Compassion and Mercy and when we seek His Grace to protect our existence, do we ever get a chance to actually see the ‘HAND OF KRUPA’ which might give us the uplifting feeling???
This Chakma man was sick and was suffering with pain even before Indian Army had attacked the enemy post in Chittagong Hill Tracts. He was confined to his treehouse unknown to any of us. He had no chance of getting any help from the external world. The military plans and the routes that we would use were not even disclosed to me. When our Unit entered Chittagong Hill Tracts we had purposefully avoided the use of any known and existing beaten tracks in the forest. We had carefully planned to avoid any direct contact with Chakma during the course of our military expedition. We had planned to directly attack the enemy positions and help the Bangla Muslim refugees to return to their homes which were at a much farther distance in fully inhabited areas. This foot journey for medical evacuation was a total surprise and was not planned. I wonder if the Chakma patient had asked for the medical intervention that had happened. If the helicopter had arrived, I would have never made that journey. Did the Chakma’s prayer had the power to stop the helicopter arriving on that day at that site? The next day, a helicopter flight had landed at that particular enemy post without any problem and an Officer who was posted to our Unit had reported for his duty.
Dr. Rudra Narasimham, B.Sc., M.B.B.S.,
Ex- Number. MS-8466 Rank. Lieutenant/ Captain AMC/SSC
Medical Officer South Column Operation Eagle 1971
Headquarters Establishment No. 22 C/O 56 A.P.O.
Related Blog Posts :
1. About Guns, Victory, and Gallantry Awards – Bangladesh Liberation War of 1971 – October 23, 2007
2. Liberation War of Bangladesh – Fallen Heroes on Both Sides – October 28, 2007
3. Sangram Medal 1971 – A Story that I shared with the Director General of Armed Forces Medical Services – November 22, 2007
4. India and Iran – What is the Connection ? – January 28, 2008
5. The Spirit of a Jew – Revisiting the Birth of Bangladesh – February 10, 2009
6. The Victory over Death – The Psychology of Warfare – July 13, 2009
7. The Phantoms of Chittagong – A Story from Chittagong Hill Tracts – August 17, 2009
8. The Fifth Army – The Untold Story from Chittagong Hill Tracts – August 18, 2009
9. Award of Gallantry Awards – Indo-Pak War of 1971
10. The Art of Battlefield Medicine – September 01, 2009
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